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1 F igurative Thought and Language Up From Slavery, by Booker T. Washington: F igurative Thought and Language 1st International Symposium Aristotle University.

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Presentation on theme: "1 F igurative Thought and Language Up From Slavery, by Booker T. Washington: F igurative Thought and Language 1st International Symposium Aristotle University."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 F igurative Thought and Language Up From Slavery, by Booker T. Washington: F igurative Thought and Language 1st International Symposium Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece April, 2014 Up From Slavery, by Booker T. Washington: Conceptual Integration in Discourse and Narrative Structure Linda Manney American College of Thessaloniki; Pinewood American International School

2 2 Up From Slavery: Rhetoric of Accommodation Ideology of Success “Negroes in this country [i.e. late 19th-century U.S.A.], who themselves or whose forefathers went through the school of slavery, are constantly returning to Africa as missionaries to enlighten those who remained in the fatherland.” (pg. 10) “I used to picture the way that I would begin at the bottom and keep rising until I reached the highest round of success.” (pg. 23) - Booker T. Washington, Up From Slavery, 1901 / 1995

3 3 Organization of Presentation Conceptual integration and discourse metaphor Conceptual Integration Theory (Fauconnier and Turner 2002) Conceptual integration and narrative structure Life story paradigms (Smith and Watson 2010) Success story paradigms (Weiss 1969 / 1988) Blended narratives (Turner 1996) Conclusions / Closing Thoughts Role of Conceptual Integration to create a new reality (Turner 1996)

4 4 Discourse Analytical Metaphor as a Conceptual Blend 1. SCHOOL is PARADISE “I had no schooling whatever while I was a slave though I remember on several occasions I went as far as the schoolhouse door with one of my young mistresses to carry her books. The picture of several dozen boys and girls in a schoolroom engaged in study made a deep impression upon me, and I had the feeling that to get into a school house and study in this way would be about the same as getting into Paradise.” (pg.4)

5 5 Generic Space: A Schema that encompasses both SCHOOL and PARADISE Generic Space: A Schema for both SCHOOL and PARADISE - Organized setting - Subordinates perform activities - A hierarchy of managers supervise - A leader presides SCHOOL is PARADISE “I had no schooling whatever while I was a slave though I remember on several occasions I went as far as the schoolhouse door with one of my young mistresses to carry her books. The picture of several dozen boys and girls in a schoolroom engaged in study made a deep impression upon me, and I had the feeling that to get into a school house and study in this way would be about the same as getting into Paradise.” (pg.4 )

6 6 SCHOOL is PARADISE Correspondences PARADISE (Input 1) a. Heaven b. Experiencing the Divine c. Heaven’s Gate d. Angels in Heaven e. St. Peter at Heaven’s Gate f. God, the Perfect Being SCHOOL (Input 2) a. School b. Schooling, learning c. School house door d. Boys and girls in school e. School Admissions Officer f. School Director

7 7 Blended Space 1: SCHOOL is PARADISE BLENDED SPACE 1: a. SCHOOL is PARADISE b. Schooling is Experiencing the Divine c. School house door is Heaven’s Gate d. Boys and Girls in school are Angels in Heaven e. School Admission’s Officer is St. Peter f. School Director is God “I had no schooling whatever while I was a slave though I remember on several occasions I went as far as the schoolhouse door with one of my young mistresses to carry her books. The picture of several dozen boys and girls in a schoolroom engaged in study made a deep impression upon me, and I had the feeling that to get into a school house and study in this way would be about the same as getting into Paradise.” (pg.4 )

8 8 Discourse Analytical Metaphor as a Conceptual Blend 2. HAMPTON INSTITUTE AS PARADISE / SCHOOL Young Washington’s impressions, upon reaching Hampton Institute: “I felt that I had reached the promised land, and I resolved to let no obstacle prevent me from putting forth the highest effort to fit myself to accomplish the most good to the world.” Young Washington’s first impressions of the school director, General Samuel Armstrong: “... He made the impression upon me of being a perfect man; I was made to feel that there was something about him that was superhuman.” “General Armstrong... was a type of that Christlike body of men and women...”

9 9 HAMPTON INSTITUTE is PARADISE / SCHOOL Correspondences BLENDED SPACE 1 (Input 1): a. SCHOOL is PARADISE b. Schooling is Experiencing the Divine c. Boys and Girls in school are Angels in Heaven d. School Director is God HAMPTON (Input 2) a. Hampton Institute b. Learning a trade or skill c. Students at Hampton d. General Samuel Armstrong

10 10 Blended Space 2: HAMPTON INSTITUTE is PARADISE / SCHOOL HAMPTON INSTITUTE is PARADISE / SCHOOL (Hyperbolic meanings emerge via the Blend) a. Learning a trade or skill is Schooling / Experiencing the Divine b. School house door is Heaven’s Gate c. Boys and Girls in school are Angels in Heaven d. General Samuel Armstrong is School Director / God Young Washington’s impressions, upon reaching Hampton Institute: “I felt that I had reached the Promised Land, and I resolved to let no obstacle prevent me from putting forth the highest effort to fit myself to accomplish the most good to the world.” Young Washington’s impressions of the school director, General Armstrong: “... He made the impression upon me of being a perfect man; I was made to feel that there was something about him that was superhuman.” “General Armstrong... was a type of that Christlike body of men and women...”

11 11 Discourse Analytical Metaphor as a Conceptual Blend 3. INSTITUTION OF SLAVERY is SCHOOL / PARADISE “ The ten million Negroes inhabiting this country, who themselves or whose ancestors went through the school of American slavery, are in a stronger and more hopeful condition, materially, intellectually, morally, and religiously, than is true of an equal number of black people in any other portion of the globe.”

12 12 SLAVERY is SCHOOL / PARADISE Correspondences BLENDED SPACE 1 (Input 1) a. SCHOOL / PARADISE b. Schooling / Experiencing the Divine c. Pupils in school / Angels in Heaven d. School Director / God, the Perfect Being INSTITUTION OF SLAVERY (Input 2) a. Antebellum Southern Plantation, mid-19th century, USA b. Learning a menial task while enslaved c. Enslaved people on a plantation d. Plantation owner, all-powerful “Master”

13 13 Blended Space 3: INSTITUTION OF SLAVERY is PARADISE / SCHOOL SOUTHERN PLANTATION is PARADISE / SCHOOL Controversially Ironic meaning emerges via the Blend a. Learning menial tasks while enslaved is Schooling / Experiencing the Divine b. Enslaved people are Pupils / Angels in Heaven c. Plantation owner is School Director / God, the all-powerful “Master” “The ten million Negroes inhabiting this country, who themselves or whose ancestors went through the school of American slavery, are in a stronger and more hopeful condition, materially, intellectually, morally, and religiously, than is true of an equal number of black people in any other portion of the globe.”

14 14 Narrative Structure in Autobiography as a Conceptual Blend Success Story Paradigms Merging Life Story and Success Story Paradigms  Prototypical Life Story Paradigm  Prototypical Life Story Paradigm (Smith and Watson 2010)  Foregrounds a narrating subject in multiple agentive roles;  Relates a self-oriented chronology which is connected to facts in the external world.  Prototypical 19th century Success Story  Prototypical 19th century Success Story Paradigm (Weiss 1969 / 1988)  Foregrounds a white Anglo-Saxon heroic subject;  Describes hero’s outstanding character which helps to overcome poverty. blended story structure Result is a blended story structure which positions Booker T. Washington as 19th-century African-American Heroic Agent in a white man’s world

15 15 Blended Narrative 1: BRICKMAKING SUCCESS AT TUSKEGEE, pg 89

16 16 Blended Narrative 1: BRICKMAKING SUCCESS AT TUSKEGEE, pg 90

17 17 Life Story Writing and Success Story Paradigms Integration of Life Story Writing and Success Story Paradigms Up From Slavery: A series of Blended Story Structures A series of Blended Story Structures Integrates elements of Life Story and Success Story paradigms Combines familiar models to create a new story frame Selectively omits or foregrounds key elements of life experience

18 18 Conclusions / Closing Thoughts In Up From Slavery, by Booker T. Washington, conceptual blend Cognitive construct of conceptual blend is a major organizational strategy.

19 19 Role of Conceptual Integration in Discourse and Narrative Structure Presents narrator’s perspective of key events Blended Metaphor in Up From Slavery Hyperbolic or Ironic meanings Blended Life Stories in Up From Slavery Alternative representation of black man in a white man’s world Expresses aspects of human imagination Hampton Institution as School / Paradise Black man as Hero in a white man’s world Blend creates a new reality (Turner 1996)

20 20 References Fauconnier, Giles and Mark Turner (2002) The Way We Think: Conceptual Blending and the Mind’s Hidden Complexities. New York: Basic Books. Smith, Sidonie and Julia Watson (2010) Reading Autobiography: A Guide for Interpreting Life Narratives, 2nd edition. University of Minnesota Press. Turner, Mark (1996) The Literary Mind. New York / Oxford. OUP. Washington, Booker T. (1901 / 1995) Up From Slavery. New York / Oxford: OUP. Weiss, Richard (1969 / 1988) The American Myth of Success: From Horatio Alger to Norman Vincent Peale. University of Illinois Press.


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