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SS8H6a Explain the importance of key issues and events that led to the Civil War; include slavery, states’ rights, nullification, Missouri Compromise,

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Presentation on theme: "SS8H6a Explain the importance of key issues and events that led to the Civil War; include slavery, states’ rights, nullification, Missouri Compromise,"— Presentation transcript:

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3 SS8H6a Explain the importance of key issues and events that led to the Civil War; include slavery, states’ rights, nullification, Missouri Compromise, Compromise of 1850 and the Georgia Platform, Kansas-Nebraska Act, Dred Scott case, election of 1860, the debate over secession in Georgia, and the role of Alexander Stephens. Concept: Conflict and Change Individuals and Groups Rule of Law

4 CAUSES OF THE CIVIL WAR PAGE 41 IN GEORGIA JOURNAL SS8H6a ESSENTIAL QUESTION How did the following issues and events cause the Civil War? -slavery- states’ rights -Nullification- Missouri Compromise -Compromise of Kansas/Nebraska Act -Dred Scott case- Election of Debate over secession- Alexander Stephens

5 SlaveryStates’ rightsNullification Missouri Compromise Compromise of 1850 Kansas- Nebraska Act Dred Scott case Election of 1860 Secession How did the following issues and events cause the Civil War?

6 STATES’ RIGHTS This phrase refers to individual states being sovereign (or having the right to govern itself). According to the 10 th amendment of the constitution… “The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.” Basically, states wanted to follow their own laws, and they did not want the federal government (United States) to overrule state laws.

7 STATES’ RIGHTS The main issue over states’ rights involved the institution of slavery. Southern states feared that Congress would pass laws eventually outlawing the practice of slavery, which would hurt the southern agricultural economic way of life involving the growing of cotton and tobacco on large plantations.

8 SLAVERY When the Georgia Trustees first envisioned their colonial experiment in the early 1730s, they sought to avoid the slave-based plantation economy that had developed in other colonies in the American South. The allure of profits from slavery, however, proved to be too powerful for white Georgia settlers to resist. By the era of the American Revolution ( ), African slaves constituted nearly half of Georgia's colonial population. Although the Revolution fostered the growth of an antislavery movement in the northern states, white Georgia landowners fiercely maintained their commitment to slavery even as the war disrupted the plantation economy. In subsequent decades slavery would play an ever-increasing role in Georgia's shifting plantation economy. - New Georgia Encyclopedia

9 SLAVERY By the 1790s entrepreneurs were perfecting new mechanized cotton gins, the most famous of which was invented by Eli Whitney on a Savannah River plantation owned by Catharine Greene in This technological advance presented Georgia planters with a staple crop that could be grown over much of the state. As early as the 1780s white politicians in Georgia were working to acquire and to distribute fertile western lands controlled by the Creek Indians, a process that continued in the nineteenth century with the expulsion of the Cherokees. By the 1830s cotton plantations had spread across most of the state. – New Georgia Encyclopedia

10 SLAVERY Although slavery played a dominant economic and political role in Georgia, most white Georgians did not own slaves. In 1860 less than one-third of Georgia's adult white male population of 132,317 were slaveholders. Slaveholders controlled not only the best land and the vast majority of personal property in the state but also the state political system. In 1850 and 1860 more than two- thirds of all state legislators were slaveholders. More striking, almost a third of the state legislators were planters. Hence, even without the cooperation of nonslaveholding white male voters, Georgia slaveholders could dictate the state's political path. - New Georgia Encyclopedia

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19 MISSOURI COMPROMISE In 1819, the United States was divided equally with 11 free states and 11 slave states. People living in the Missouri Territory applied for statehood as a slave state, but Congress did not approve because there would be an imbalance of power. Think back to the Senate where 2 senators represent each states. If Missouri was allowed to be a slave state then there would be 24 US senators coming from slave states and 22 from non-slave states. Slave states would have an advantage when trying to pass or keep from passing certain laws.

20 MISSOURI COMPROMISE To keep a balance in the US Congress, a compromise was made to allow Maine to be admitted to the Union as a free state while Missouri was added to the United States as a slave state. Also part of the compromise was that slavery would be outlawed north of the 36 th degree line of latitude.

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23 NULLIFICATION CRISIS The United States Congress passed the tariff of 1828 in order to increase the price of foreign goods so that the same goods manufactured in the north would be cheaper in price. This helped northern businesses, but people in the south were having to pay more for a product that was their second choice since their first choice (foreign product) is now more expensive because of the tariff (tax) added to the cost. Southerners felt this unconstitutional and that they should not have to pay the tariff. South Carolina threatened to leave the union if the tariffs were not repealed.

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25 COMPROMISE OF 1850 Just like the Missouri Compromise, the Compromise of 1850 involved slavery. To keep balance in the US government California became a free state and Texas was added as a slave state. But the states still argued over the issue of slavery in the nation’s capital as well as the problem of runaway slaves in the south. Southern states threatened to leave the Union in order to preserve slavery and states’ rights in the South.

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27 GEORGIA PLATFORM Georgians met at the state capital in Milledgeville to discuss the Compromise of Representative Alexander Stephens supported the Compromise of 1850 because he did not want Georgia to secede from the Union. He felt Georgia and the southern states had too much too lose if they seceded and lost a Civil War. Georgia helped prevent war and secession.

28 COMPROMISE OF 1850 As part of the Compromise of 1850, Congress passed t he Fugitive Slave Act. This law said that slaves could not become free once they entered into free states. Instead, slaves were to be returned to the slave states and anyone helping a slave to freedom faced fines and imprisonment. This angered northerners who disagreed with slavery. The other part of the 1850 Compromise was that slave trading became illegal in Washington D.C.

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30 KANSAS – NEBRASKA ACT In 1854, Congress allowed the people living in the territories of Kansas and Nebraska to vote on the issue of slavery. This is known as popular sovereignty. The Republican Party was created because it did not like this act because it repealed the Missouri Compromise which stated that slavery was not allowed north of the 36 th line of latitude. Kansas would become a free state.

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34 DRED SCOT COURT CASE Dred Scott was a slave from the slave state of Missouri who traveled with his master Dr. John Emerson to the free state of Illinois. Dred Scott eventually tried to sue for his freedom since he believed that he could not be a slave in a free state. The Supreme Court did not rule in his favor. Instead, the Supreme Court decided that Dred Scott could not sue in court because slaves were not citizens, therefore, he had no rights. The Court also allowed slaves to be taken to free states b/c they were property of their masters. The ruling was a victory for southern slave owners, while abolitionists in the north disagreed.

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37 ELECTION OF 1860 For decades the arguments about slavery have been growing louder between people who live in the Northern states and people who live in the Southern states. Northerners believe slavery should be abolished for moral reasons. Southerners feel the end of slavery will destroy their region’s rural economy. Many in the South think the election of Northerner Abraham Lincoln to be president of the United States will be a serious blow to their way of life. - Bentley Boyd chestercomix

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40 WHAT DID ABRAHAM LINCOLN DO TO BECOME SUCH A FAMOUS AMERICAN IN UNITED STATES HISTORY?

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46 DEBATE OVER SECESSION Lincoln’s victory in the 1860 presidential election caused southern states to hold conventions on whether or not they should secede from the Union in order to protect the legalization of slavery in their states. South Carolina became the 1 st state to secede from the Union, while Georgia became the 5 th state to secede.

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48 WHAT MESSAGE IS THIS PRIMARY SOURCE POLITICAL CARTOON TYRING TO CONVEY?

49 ROLE OF ALEXANDER STEPHENS Alexander Stephens was a U.S. Representative from Georgia who was PRO-slavery, but he was against Secession. When Georgia held a convention to decide on secession Alexander Stephens argued against it by saying the South should remain loyal to the Union. He believed that if the South seceded then a Civil War would break out and if the South lost then they would lose their states’ rights, especially the right to keep slavery legal.

50 ROLE OF ALEXANDER STEPHENS Despite Alexander Stephens and his words of caution, Georgia decided to secede anyway. Those states in the south that seceded created the Confederate States of America, a separate country. Alexander Stephens was persuaded to become the vice-president of the C.S.A., most likely to appeal to southerners that were just like him – wanted to keep slavery, but really didn’t want to leave the union. This would help keep the southern states united.

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52 SS8H6b State the importance of key events of the Civil War; include Antietam, the Emancipation Proclamation, Gettysburg, Chickamauga, the Union blockade of Georgia’s coast, Sherman’s Atlanta Campaign, Sherman’s March to the Sea, and Andersonville. Concept: Conflict and Change Individuals and Groups Rule of Law

53 THE CIVIL WAR PAGE 42 IN GEORGIA JOURNAL SS8H6b ESSENTIAL QUESTION What role did the following events play in the Civil War? -Antietam- Emancipation Proclamation -Gettysburg- Chickamauga -Union blockade- Sherman’s Atlanta campaign -Sherman’s March- Andersonville

54 Union Blockade Antietam Emancipation Proclamation GettysburgChickamauga Sherman’s Atlanta Campaign Sherman’s March to the Sea Andersonville What role did the following events play in the Civil War?

55 FORT SUMTER, SOUTH CAROLINA

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62 Legendsofamerica.com BATTLE OF ANTIETAM

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64 WHAT ARE THE COSTS OF WAR?

65 “This photograph shows Abraham Lincoln on the Battlefield of Antietam. The battle of Antietam was the bloodiest day in American History. More Americans lost their lives in one day of fighting than in all previous wars combined. To the left of Mr. Lincoln is Allan Pinkerton, later famous for creating the Pinkerton detective agency. To the right is Major General John A. McClernand.” old-pictures.com

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69 WHAT IS THE EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION?

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72 BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG

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78 Confederate soldiers: southwestern edge of the Rosewoods – Gettysburg Pennsylvania

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80 BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG

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89 SS8H6b State the importance of key events of the Civil War; include Antietam, the Emancipation Proclamation, Gettysburg, Chickamauga, the Union blockade of Georgia’s coast, Sherman’s Atlanta Campaign, Sherman’s March to the Sea, and Andersonville. Concept: Conflict and Change Individuals and Groups Rule of Law

90 Union Blockade Antietam Emancipation Proclamation GettysburgChickamauga Sherman’s Atlanta Campaign Sherman’s March to the Sea Andersonville What role did the following events play in the Civil War?

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95 Hmmm… If I could take Atlanta…

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101 ANDERSONVILLE PRISON UNION SOLDIER WHO SURVIVED

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110 SS8H6c Analyze the impact of Reconstruction on Georgia and other southern states, emphasizing Freedmen’s Bureau; sharecropping and tenant farming; Reconstruction plans; 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments to the constitution; Henry McNeal Turner and black legislators; and the Ku Klux Klan. Concept: Conflict and Change Individuals and Groups Rule of Law

111 RECONSTRUCTION PAGE 44 IN GEORGIA JOURNAL SS8H6c ESSENTIAL QUESTION How did the South change during the Reconstruction period? -Freedmen’s Bureau- Reconstruction Plans -Sharecropping / tenant- 13 th Amendment -14 th Amendment - 15 th Amendment -Henry McNeal Turner - Ku Klux Klan

112 Sharecropping Tenant Farming Freedmen’s Bureau Reconstruction Plans 13 th Amendment 14 th Amendment 15 th Amendment Henry McNeal Turner Ku Klux Klan How did the South change during the Reconstruction period?

113 How? University of Georgia Louisville, Georgia Baptists and Methodists

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118 Wikimedia.org georgiaencyclopedia.org flocabulary.com phschool.com emmitsburg.net amazing-planet.net wright.edu John Brown slave narrative own.html

119 ses/eng/willbern/BestSellers/Beloved/gettysburg.JPG&imgrefurl=htt p://cas.buffalo.edu/classes/eng/willbern/BestSellers/Beloved/slavec hrono.htm&usg=__igzwH8jqfzqHjaeDXpXqXvliQ2M=&h=640&w=5 16&sz=148&hl=en&start=87&um=1&tbnid=nEod7wqQ7TVnAM:&tb nh=137&tbnw=110&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dbattle%2Bof%2Bgetty sburg%26ndsp%3D21%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN%26start%3D84 %26um%3D1 timelime


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