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Colonial “rebellions” rebellious attitude How did various colonial “rebellions” encourage the colonies’ rebellious attitude toward England? African slavery.

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Presentation on theme: "Colonial “rebellions” rebellious attitude How did various colonial “rebellions” encourage the colonies’ rebellious attitude toward England? African slavery."— Presentation transcript:

1 colonial “rebellions” rebellious attitude How did various colonial “rebellions” encourage the colonies’ rebellious attitude toward England? African slavery indentured servitude What factors led to the introduction of African slavery replacing indentured servitude as the labor force in the American Colonies?

2 Slavery introduced by the Spanish into the West Indies after Columbus’s discovery of America. Spanish and Portuguese expanded African slavery into Central and South American after enslaved Indians began dying off. In 1619, the first recorded introduction of African slaves into what would become the United States was in the settlement of Jamestown……Only 20 slaves were purchased…. Slaves captured in Africa Slaves aboard ship—Middle Passage

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4 Indentured Servants In return for free passage to Virginia, a laborer worked for four to five years in the fields before being granted freedom. The Crown rewarded planters with 50 acres of land for every inhabitant they brought to the New World. Naturally, as the colony began to expand, it was soon challenged by the Native American confederacy formed and named after Powhatan

5 ))  Headright System  Headright System: Plantation owners were given 50 acres for every indentured servant they sponsored to come to America.  Indentured Contract  Indentured Contract: Served plantation owner for 7 years as a laborer in return for passage to America.  Freedom Dues  Freedom Dues: Once servant completed his contract, he/she was freed….They were given land, tools, seed and animals. However, they did not receive voting rights.

6 African slavery indentured servitude What factors led to the introduction of African slavery replacing indentured servitude as the labor force in the American Colonies? What factors led to the introduction of African slavery slavery replacing indentured servitude servitude as the labor force in the American Colonies?

7 Bacon’s Rebellion ( ) Nathaniel Bacon represents former indentured servants. Governor William Berkeley of Jamestown

8 Involved former indentured servants Not accepted in Jamestown Disenfranchised and unable to receive their land Gov. Berkeley would not defend settlements from Indian attacks

9 Nathaniel Bacon acts as the representative for rebels Gov. Berkeley refused to meet their conditions and erupts into a civil war. Bacon dies, Gov. Berkeley puts down rebellion and several rebels are hung Consequence of Bacon’s Rebellion Consequence of Bacon’s Rebellion Plantation owners gradually replaced indentured servants with African slaves because it was seen as a better investment in the long term than indentured servitude.

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14 (Rebellion) 250 insurrections have been documented; between 1780 and African-Americans were convicted of insurrection in Virginia alone. First revolt in what became the United States took place in 1526 at a Spanish settlement near the mouth of the Pee Dee River in South Carolina. Slave Revolts

15 September 9, 1739September 9, 1739, twenty black Carolinians met near the Stono River, approximately twenty miles southwest of Charleston. They took guns and powder from a store and killed the two storekeepers they found there. "With cries of 'Liberty' and beating of drums"With cries of 'Liberty' and beating of drums," the rebels headed south toward Spanish St. Augustine. Burned houses, and killed white opponents. Largest slave uprising in the 13 colonies prior to the American Revolution. 20 white Carolinians and 40 black Carolinians were killed before the rebellion was suppressed.Slaveowners caught up with the band of 60 to 100 slaves. 20 white Carolinians and 40 black Carolinians were killed before the rebellion was suppressed. Slave Revolts/Stono Stono County Rebellion

16 Slave Revolts would lead plantation owners to develop a series of slave laws/codes which restricted the movement of the slaves. - Slaves were not taught to read or write - Slaves were not taught to read or write - Restricted to the plantation - Restricted to the plantation - Slaves could not congregate after dark - Slaves could not congregate after dark - Slaves could not possess any type of firearm - Slaves could not possess any type of firearm Slave owners wanted to keep their slaves ignorant of the outside world because learning about life beyond the plantation could lead to more slave revolts and a desire to escape. Slave Laws

17 Purpose Unite against a common enemy Unite against a common enemy. Involved Massachusetts Connecticut but not Rhode Island (REBELLIONS) Pequot War, 1644 Indian Wars Pequot War, 1644 King Philip’s War, 1675 Confederation dissolves once wars end. Purpose Unite against a common enemy Unite against a common enemy. Involved Massachusetts Connecticut but not Rhode Island (REBELLIONS) Pequot War, 1644 Indian Wars Pequot War, 1644 King Philip’s War, 1675 Confederation dissolves once wars end. Not Rhode Island

18 Massasoit’s son, Metacom (King Phillip) formed Indian alliance – attacked throughout New England, especially frontier English towns were attacked and burned - unknown numbers of Indians died 1676: War ended, Metacom executed, lasting defeat for Indians.

19 Population of the New England Colonies

20 Background Great Awakening New Denominations Political & social implications Visible Saints)Puritan ministers lost authority (Visible Saints) Halfway Covenant – allows non church attendees some political power)Decay of family (Halfway Covenant – allows non church attendees some political power) Deism (Old Lights)Deism, God existed/created the world, but afterwards left it to run by natural laws. Denied God communicated to man or in any way influenced his life…get to heaven if you are good. (Old Lights) (devotion to God)1740s, Puritanism declined by the 1730s and people were upset about the decline in religious piety. (devotion to God) “New Lights”: Formed“New Lights”: Heaven by salvation by grace through Jesus Christ. Formed: Baptist, Methodists Led to founding of colleges Crossed class barriers; emphasized equality of all Unified Americans as a single people Missionaries for Blacks and Indians (“Rebellious Thinking”)

21 John Peter Zenger, a New York publisher charged with libel against the colonial governorJohn Peter Zenger, a New York publisher charged with libel against the colonial governor Zenger’s lawyer argues that what he wrote was true, so it can’t be libelZenger’s lawyer argues that what he wrote was true, so it can’t be libel English law says it doesn’t matter if it’s true or notEnglish law says it doesn’t matter if it’s true or not Jury acquits Zenger anywayJury acquits Zenger anyway Not total freedom of the press, but newspapers now took greater risks in criticism of political figures.Not total freedom of the press, but newspapers now took greater risks in criticism of political figures. John Peter Zenger, a New York publisher charged with libel against the colonial governorJohn Peter Zenger, a New York publisher charged with libel against the colonial governor Zenger’s lawyer argues that what he wrote was true, so it can’t be libelZenger’s lawyer argues that what he wrote was true, so it can’t be libel English law says it doesn’t matter if it’s true or notEnglish law says it doesn’t matter if it’s true or not Jury acquits Zenger anywayJury acquits Zenger anyway Not total freedom of the press, but newspapers now took greater risks in criticism of political figures.Not total freedom of the press, but newspapers now took greater risks in criticism of political figures. “Rebellious decision”

22 Zenger decision was a landmark case which paved the way for the eventual freedom of the press. Zenger Case, : defended by Alexander Hamilton

23 March of the Paxton Boys Scots-Irish farmers (“the Paxton Boys”) Protesting government’s inadequate protection of frontier setters Kill a number of Indians March to Philadelphia…met in Lancester by Ben Franklin Franklin promises to address their grievances Carolina “Regulation” – 1760’s South Carolina: -colonial legislatures refuse to grant inland settlers equal representation - lack of law enforcement leads to vigilantes - threatened to march on Charleston…leads to court system extension westward North Carolina: -protest corruption of local gov’t (controlled by wealthy eastern planters) - farmers seize county courts - Eastern militia crushes the “regulators” at Battle of Alamance (1771) -bitterness between east and frontier Rebellious Demands… fair representation and protection under the laws!

24 Boundary Disputes and Tenant Wars (“Rebellious Actions”) Colonial charters gave vague definitions to western borders. –Settlement of frontier prompted bitter disputes between colonies over boundaries –1760s: Ethan Allen and the Green Mountain Boys resist New York governance of Vermont Allen led a successful guerrilla resistanceAllen led a successful guerrilla resistance –Harassing Yorker settlements, occupying Yorker courthouses, setting up competing judicial system in the Green Mountains. –(When the Revolutionary War started in 1775, Ethan Allan and a force of his guerillas along with colonial General Benedict Arnold marched up to Lake Champlain and captured the important military posts at Fort Ticonderoga, Crown Point, Fort Ann and the town of St John (Now St Jean, Quebec.) 24

25 Plan was rejected by colonies because it didn’t allow enough independence! And was rejected by England because it allowed the colonies too much independence! Even so, the Albany Plan of Union would serve as a model for a future central government Proposed by Ben Franklin (not adopted) Plan for mutual defense by the 13 colonies against the French –President-General (appointed by king) –Grand Council (elected by colonial assemblies) –Grand Council would have specific powers: make treaties with Native Americans make taxes for colonial army oversee settlement in western lands Albany Plan of Union – 1754 ( A “rebellious” plan)

26 The English colonists who settled America brought with them some “rebellious” concepts: –The need for an ordered social system, or government. –The idea of limited government, that is, that government should not be all-powerful. –The concept of representative government or a government that serves the will of the people. –The need for an ordered social system, or government. –The idea of limited government, that is, that government should not be all-powerful. –The concept of representative government or a government that serves the will of the people. “Rebellious Concepts”


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