Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

APUSH: The Age of Reform,

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "APUSH: The Age of Reform,"— Presentation transcript:

1 APUSH: The Age of Reform, 1820-1840
Mr. Weber Room 217

2 Activator 11/24 Take out your persuasive essays.
What were the most important factors putting pressure on the institution of slavery before the Civil War? Volunteers to share?

3 Agenda Activator, agenda, and objective (10 minutes)
An Age of Reform lecture (30-45 minutes) Voices of Freedom Primary Source Analysis (30 minutes) John Brown and Abraham Lincoln (30 minutes) Thanks-taking reading Exit ticket and homework (10 minutes)

4 Objective AP Topic #10. The Crisis of the Union: Pro- and antislavery arguments and conflicts.

5 Focus Questions 1. What were the major expressions of the antebellum reform impulse? 2. What were the sources and significance of abolitionism? 3. How did abolitionism challenge barriers to racial equality and free speech? 4. What were the sources and significance of the antebellum women’s rights movement?

6 The reform impulse A. Overall patterns Utopian communities
Voluntary associations Wide-ranging targets and objectives Activities and tactics Breadth of appeal Utopian communities Overall patterns Varieties of structures and purposes Common visions Cooperative organization of society Social harmony Narrowing of gap between rich and poor Gender equality

7 Ch. 12, Image 2 A rare photograph of an abolitionist meeting in New York State around The woman at the center wearing a bonnet may be Abby Kelley. Frederick Douglass sits immediately to her right. Give Me Liberty!: An American History, 2nd Edition Copyright © W.W. Norton & Company

8 The reform impulse (cont’d)
Utopian communities Spiritual communities Shakers Outlooks on gender and property Outcome Oneida John Humphrey Noyes

9 Ch. 12, Image 3 This watercolor depicting a Shaker dance was drawn by Benson Lossing, an artist who visited a Shaker community and reported on life there for Harper’s Magazine in 1857. Give Me Liberty!: An American History, 2nd Edition Copyright © W.W. Norton & Company

10 The reform impulse (cont’d)
Utopian communities Worldly communities Brook Farm Transcendentalist origins Influence of Charles Fourier Outlooks on labor and leisure Outcome New Harmony Communitarianism of Robert Owen Forerunner at New Lanark, Scotland Outlooks on labor, education, gender, and community

11 Ch. 12, Image 4 The Crisis, a publication by the communitarian Robert Owen and his son, Robert Dale Owen. The cover depicts Owen’s vision of a planned socialist community. Give Me Liberty!: An American History, 2nd Edition Copyright © W.W. Norton & Company

12 The reform impulse (cont’d)
Mainstream reform movements Visions of liberation From external “servitudes” (e.g. slavery, war) From internal “servitudes” (e.g. drink, illiteracy, crime) Influence of Second Great Awakening “Perfectionism” Appeal in “burnt-over districts” Radicalization of reform causes Badge of middle-class respectability

13 The reform impulse (cont’d)
Opposition to reform Leading sources Workers Catholics Immigrants Points of controversy Temperance crusade Perfectionism Imposition of middle-class Protestant morality

14 The reform impulse (cont’d)
Ambiguities of reform Impulse for liberation, individual freedom Impulse for moral order, social control Program of institution building Jails Poorhouses Asylums Orphanages Common schools Thomas Mann As embodiment of reform agenda Reception and outcome

15 Ch. 12, Image 8 The New York House of Refuge, one of many institutions established in the 1820s and 1830s to address social ills by assisting and reforming criminals and the poor. Young boys and girls convicted of petty theft were assigned to the House of Refuge, where they performed supervised labor and received some educational instruction. Give Me Liberty!: An American History, 2nd Edition Copyright © W.W. Norton & Company

16 Crusade against slavery
American Colonization Society Founding Principles Gradual abolition Removal of freed blacks to Africa Establishment of Liberia Skepticism over Following In North In South Black response Emigration to Liberia Opposition First black national convention Insistence on equal rights, as Americans

17 Crusade against slavery (cont’d)
Take-off of militant abolitionism Distinctive spirit and themes Demand for immediate abolition Explosive denunciations of slavery As a sin As incompatible with American freedom Rejection of colonization Insistence on racial equality, rights for blacks Active role of blacks in movement Mobilization of public opinion Moral suasion

18 Crusade against slavery (cont’d)
Take-off of militant abolitionism Initiatives and methods Founding of American Anti-Slavery Society (AAAS) Printed propaganda Oratory; public meetings Petitions

19 Crusade against slavery (cont’d)
Take-off of militant abolitionism Pioneering figures and publications David Walker; An Appeal to the Coloured Citizens of the World William Lloyd Garrison The Liberator Thoughts on African Colonization Theodore Weld; Slavery As It Is Lydia Maria Child; An Appeal In Favor of That Class of Americans Called Africans Spread and growth Strongholds of support

20 Ch. 12, Image 11 William Lloyd Garrison, editor of The Liberator and probably the nation’s most prominent abolitionist, in a daguerreotype from around 1850. Give Me Liberty!: An American History, 2nd Edition Copyright © W.W. Norton & Company

21 Ch. 12, Image 12 The masthead of William Lloyd Garrison’s The Liberator, with engravings of scenes of slavery and freedom. Give Me Liberty!: An American History, 2nd Edition Copyright © W.W. Norton & Company

22 Crusade against slavery (cont’d)
Take-off of militant abolitionism Visions of American freedom Self-ownership as basis of freedom Priority of personal liberty over rights to property or local self-government Freedom as universal entitlement, regardless of race Right to bodily integrity Identification with revolutionary heritage

23 Crusade against slavery (cont’d)
Black and white abolitionism Prominence of blacks in movement As opponents of colonization As readers and supporters of The Liberator As members and officers of AAAS As organizers and speakers As writers Racial strains within movement Persistence of prejudice among white abolitionists White dominance of leadership positions Growing black quest for independent role

24 Crusade against slavery (cont’d)
Black and white abolitionism Remarkable degree of egalitarianism among white abolitionists Anti-discrimination efforts in North Spirit of interracial solidarity Black abolitionists’ distinctive stands on freedom and Americanness Exceptional hostility to racism Exceptional impatience with celebrations of American liberty; “Freedom celebrations” Exceptional commitment to color-blind citizenship Exceptional insistence on economic dimension to freedom Frederick Douglass’s historic Fourth of July oration

25 Ch. 12, Image 17 The frontispiece of the 1848 edition of David Walker’s Appeal and Henry Highland Garnet’s Address to the Slaves depicts a black figure receiving “liberty” and “justice” from heaven. Give Me Liberty!: An American History, 2nd Edition Copyright © W.W. Norton & Company

26 Crusade against slavery (cont’d)
D. Slavery and civil liberties Assault on abolitionism Mob violence Attack on Garrison in Boston Attack on James G. Birney in Cincinnati Fatal attack on Elijah P. Lovejoy in Alton, Illinois Suppression Removal of literature from mails “Gag rule” on petitions to House of Representatives Resulting spread of antislavery sentiment in North

27 Ch. 12, Image 18 An illustration from Types of Mankind, an 1854 book by the physicians and racial theorists Josiah C. Nott and George R. Gliddon, who argued that blacks formed a separate species, midway between whites and chimpanzees. Abolitionists sought to counter the pseudoscientific defenses of slavery and racism. Give Me Liberty!: An American History, 2nd Edition Copyright © W.W. Norton & Company

28 Crusade against slavery (cont’d)
Split within AAAS Points of conflict Role of women in movement Garrisonian radicalism Relationship of abolitionism to American politics Outcome Formation of rival American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society Founding of Liberty party Weak performance of Liberty party in 1840 election

29 Ch. 12, Image 19 Am I Not a Man and a Brother? The most common abolitionist depiction of a slave, this image not only presents African-Americans as unthreatening individuals seeking white assistance but also calls upon white Americans to recognize blacks as fellow men unjustly held in bondage. Give Me Liberty!: An American History, 2nd Edition Copyright © W.W. Norton & Company

30 Origins of feminism Rise of the public woman
Importance of women at grassroots of abolitionism Forms of involvement in public sphere Petition drives Meetings Parades Oratory Range of reform movements involving women Abolitionism as seedbed for feminist movement New awareness of women’s subordination Path-breaking efforts of Angelina and Sarah Grimké Impassioned antislavery addresses Controversy over women lecturers Sarah Grimké’s Letters on the Equality of the Sexes

31 Ch. 12, Image 22 The May Session of the Woman’s Rights Convention, a cartoon published in Harper’s Weekly, June 11, A female orator addresses the audience of men and women, while hecklers in the balcony disrupt the proceedings. Give Me Liberty!: An American History, 2nd Edition Copyright © W.W. Norton & Company

32 Origins of feminism (cont’d)
Launching of women’s rights movement; Seneca Falls Convention Roots in abolitionism Influence of Grimké sisters Leadership of antislavery veterans Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments Echoes of Declaration of Independence Demand for suffrage Denunciation of wide-ranging inequalities

33 Origins of feminism (cont’d)
Characteristics of feminism International scope Middle-class orientation Themes of feminism Self-realization Transcendentalist sensibility Margaret Fuller’s Woman in the Nineteenth Century Right to participate in market revolution Denial that home is women’s “sphere” Amelia Bloomer’s new style of dress Analogy between marriage and slavery; “slavery of sex” Laws governing wives’ economic status Law of domestic relations

34 Ch. 12, Image 23 Portrait of feminist Margaret Fuller (1810–1850) from an undated daguerreotype. Give Me Liberty!: An American History, 2nd Edition Copyright © W.W. Norton & Company

35 Origins in feminism (cont’d)
Tensions within feminist thought Belief in equality of the sexes Belief in natural differences

36 Review Questions Why did Americans have an impulse to improve American society in the first half of the 19th century? In what ways was the abolitionist movement significant to the idea of American freedom? What were the pros and cons of the colonization movement and why were many black people opposed to it? Why is this a period of institution building? How did the abolitionist movement and the women’s movement influence each other?

37 Voices of Freedom What consequences foes Grimke believe follow from the idea of rights being founded in the individual’s “moral being?” How does Douglass turn the ideals proclaimed by white Americans into weapons against slavery? What do these documents suggest about the language and arguments employed by abolitionists?

38 Exit Ticket and Homework
What is the most interesting aspect of the reform movements we have studied? What are you finding most difficult in terms of your academic success in this class? Homework: Finish reading Ch. 12 for tomorrow’s test.

Download ppt "APUSH: The Age of Reform,"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google