Presentation on theme: "APUSH: The Age of Reform,"— Presentation transcript:
1APUSH: The Age of Reform, 1820-1840 Mr. WeberRoom 217
2Activator 11/24 Take out your persuasive essays. What were the most important factors putting pressure on the institution of slavery before the Civil War?Volunteers to share?
3Agenda Activator, agenda, and objective (10 minutes) An Age of Reform lecture (30-45 minutes)Voices of Freedom Primary Source Analysis (30 minutes)John Brown and Abraham Lincoln (30 minutes)Thanks-taking readingExit ticket and homework (10 minutes)
4ObjectiveAP Topic #10. The Crisis of the Union: Pro- and antislavery arguments and conﬂicts.
5Focus Questions1. What were the major expressions of the antebellum reform impulse?2. What were the sources and significance of abolitionism?3. How did abolitionism challenge barriers to racial equality and free speech?4. What were the sources and significance of the antebellum women’s rights movement?
6The reform impulse A. Overall patterns Utopian communities Voluntary associationsWide-ranging targets and objectivesActivities and tacticsBreadth of appealUtopian communitiesOverall patternsVarieties of structures and purposesCommon visionsCooperative organization of societySocial harmonyNarrowing of gap between rich and poorGender equality
10The reform impulse (cont’d) Utopian communitiesWorldly communitiesBrook FarmTranscendentalist originsInfluence of Charles FourierOutlooks on labor and leisureOutcomeNew HarmonyCommunitarianism of Robert OwenForerunner at New Lanark, ScotlandOutlooks on labor, education, gender, and community
12The reform impulse (cont’d) Mainstream reform movementsVisions of liberationFrom external “servitudes” (e.g. slavery, war)From internal “servitudes” (e.g. drink, illiteracy, crime)Influence of Second Great Awakening“Perfectionism”Appeal in “burnt-over districts”Radicalization of reform causesBadge of middle-class respectability
13The reform impulse (cont’d) Opposition to reformLeading sourcesWorkersCatholicsImmigrantsPoints of controversyTemperance crusadePerfectionismImposition of middle-class Protestant morality
14The reform impulse (cont’d) Ambiguities of reformImpulse for liberation, individual freedomImpulse for moral order, social controlProgram of institution buildingJailsPoorhousesAsylumsOrphanagesCommon schoolsThomas MannAs embodiment of reform agendaReception and outcome
16Crusade against slavery American Colonization SocietyFoundingPrinciplesGradual abolitionRemoval of freed blacks to AfricaEstablishment of LiberiaSkepticism overFollowingIn NorthIn SouthBlack responseEmigration to LiberiaOppositionFirst black national conventionInsistence on equal rights, as Americans
17Crusade against slavery (cont’d) Take-off of militant abolitionismDistinctive spirit and themesDemand for immediate abolitionExplosive denunciations of slaveryAs a sinAs incompatible with American freedomRejection of colonizationInsistence on racial equality, rights for blacksActive role of blacks in movementMobilization of public opinionMoral suasion
18Crusade against slavery (cont’d) Take-off of militant abolitionismInitiatives and methodsFounding of American Anti-Slavery Society (AAAS)Printed propagandaOratory; public meetingsPetitions
19Crusade against slavery (cont’d) Take-off of militant abolitionismPioneering figures and publicationsDavid Walker; An Appeal to the Coloured Citizens of the WorldWilliam Lloyd GarrisonThe LiberatorThoughts on African ColonizationTheodore Weld; Slavery As It IsLydia Maria Child; An Appeal In Favor of That Class of Americans Called AfricansSpread and growthStrongholds of support
22Crusade against slavery (cont’d) Take-off of militant abolitionismVisions of American freedomSelf-ownership as basis of freedomPriority of personal liberty over rights to property or local self-governmentFreedom as universal entitlement, regardless of raceRight to bodily integrityIdentification with revolutionary heritage
23Crusade against slavery (cont’d) Black and white abolitionismProminence of blacks in movementAs opponents of colonizationAs readers and supporters of The LiberatorAs members and officers of AAASAs organizers and speakersAs writersRacial strains within movementPersistence of prejudice among white abolitionistsWhite dominance of leadership positionsGrowing black quest for independent role
24Crusade against slavery (cont’d) Black and white abolitionismRemarkable degree of egalitarianism among white abolitionistsAnti-discrimination efforts in NorthSpirit of interracial solidarityBlack abolitionists’ distinctive stands on freedom and AmericannessExceptional hostility to racismExceptional impatience with celebrations of American liberty; “Freedom celebrations”Exceptional commitment to color-blind citizenshipExceptional insistence on economic dimension to freedomFrederick Douglass’s historic Fourth of July oration
26Crusade against slavery (cont’d) D. Slavery and civil libertiesAssault on abolitionismMob violenceAttack on Garrison in BostonAttack on James G. Birney in CincinnatiFatal attack on Elijah P. Lovejoy in Alton, IllinoisSuppressionRemoval of literature from mails“Gag rule” on petitions to House of RepresentativesResulting spread of antislavery sentiment in North
28Crusade against slavery (cont’d) Split within AAASPoints of conflictRole of women in movementGarrisonian radicalismRelationship of abolitionism to American politicsOutcomeFormation of rival American and Foreign Anti-Slavery SocietyFounding of Liberty partyWeak performance of Liberty party in 1840 election
30Origins of feminism Rise of the public woman Importance of women at grassroots of abolitionismForms of involvement in public spherePetition drivesMeetingsParadesOratoryRange of reform movements involving womenAbolitionism as seedbed for feminist movementNew awareness of women’s subordinationPath-breaking efforts of Angelina and Sarah GrimkéImpassioned antislavery addressesControversy over women lecturersSarah Grimké’s Letters on the Equality of the Sexes
32Origins of feminism (cont’d) Launching of women’s rights movement; Seneca Falls ConventionRoots in abolitionismInfluence of Grimké sistersLeadership of antislavery veterans Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia MottSeneca Falls Declaration of SentimentsEchoes of Declaration of IndependenceDemand for suffrageDenunciation of wide-ranging inequalities
33Origins of feminism (cont’d) Characteristics of feminismInternational scopeMiddle-class orientationThemes of feminismSelf-realizationTranscendentalist sensibilityMargaret Fuller’s Woman in the Nineteenth CenturyRight to participate in market revolutionDenial that home is women’s “sphere”Amelia Bloomer’s new style of dressAnalogy between marriage and slavery; “slavery of sex”Laws governing wives’ economic statusLaw of domestic relations
35Origins in feminism (cont’d) Tensions within feminist thoughtBelief in equality of the sexesBelief in natural differences
36Review QuestionsWhy did Americans have an impulse to improve American society in the first half of the 19th century?In what ways was the abolitionist movement significant to the idea of American freedom?What were the pros and cons of the colonization movement and why were many black people opposed to it?Why is this a period of institution building?How did the abolitionist movement and the women’s movement influence each other?
37Voices of FreedomWhat consequences foes Grimke believe follow from the idea of rights being founded in the individual’s “moral being?”How does Douglass turn the ideals proclaimed by white Americans into weapons against slavery?What do these documents suggest about the language and arguments employed by abolitionists?
38Exit Ticket and Homework What is the most interesting aspect of the reform movements we have studied?What are you finding most difficult in terms of your academic success in this class?Homework:Finish reading Ch. 12 for tomorrow’s test.