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Mr. Weber Room 217.  Take out your persuasive essays.  What were the most important factors putting pressure on the institution of slavery before the.

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Presentation on theme: "Mr. Weber Room 217.  Take out your persuasive essays.  What were the most important factors putting pressure on the institution of slavery before the."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mr. Weber Room 217

2  Take out your persuasive essays.  What were the most important factors putting pressure on the institution of slavery before the Civil War?  Volunteers to share?

3  Activator, agenda, and objective (10 minutes)  An Age of Reform lecture (30-45 minutes)  Voices of Freedom Primary Source Analysis (30 minutes)  John Brown and Abraham Lincoln (30 minutes)  Thanks-taking reading  Exit ticket and homework (10 minutes)

4  AP Topic #10. The Crisis of the Union: Pro- and antislavery arguments and conflicts.

5  1. What were the major expressions of the antebellum reform impulse?  2. What were the sources and significance of abolitionism?  3. How did abolitionism challenge barriers to racial equality and free speech?  4. What were the sources and significance of the antebellum women’s rights movement?

6 A. Overall patterns  Voluntary associations  Wide-ranging targets and objectives  Activities and tactics  Breadth of appeal B. Utopian communities  Overall patterns  Varieties of structures and purposes  Common visions  Cooperative organization of society  Social harmony  Narrowing of gap between rich and poor  Gender equality


8 B. Utopian communities 2. Spiritual communities  Shakers  Outlooks on gender and property  Outcome  Oneida  John Humphrey Noyes  Outlooks on gender and property  Outcome


10 B. Utopian communities 3. Worldly communities  Brook Farm  Transcendentalist origins  Influence of Charles Fourier  Outlooks on labor and leisure  Outcome  New Harmony  Communitarianism of Robert Owen  Forerunner at New Lanark, Scotland  Outlooks on labor, education, gender, and community  Outcome


12 C. Mainstream reform movements  Visions of liberation  From external “servitudes” (e.g. slavery, war)  From internal “servitudes” (e.g. drink, illiteracy, crime)  Influence of Second Great Awakening  “Perfectionism”  Appeal in “burnt-over districts”  Radicalization of reform causes  Badge of middle-class respectability

13 D. Opposition to reform  Leading sources  Workers  Catholics  Immigrants  Points of controversy  Temperance crusade  Perfectionism  Imposition of middle-class Protestant morality

14 E. Ambiguities of reform  Impulse for liberation, individual freedom  Impulse for moral order, social control F. Program of institution building  Jails  Poorhouses  Asylums  Orphanages  Common schools  Thomas Mann  As embodiment of reform agenda  Reception and outcome


16  American Colonization Society  Founding  Principles  Gradual abolition  Removal of freed blacks to Africa  Establishment of Liberia  Skepticism over  Following  In North  In South  Black response  Emigration to Liberia  Opposition  First black national convention  Insistence on equal rights, as Americans

17 B. Take-off of militant abolitionism  Distinctive spirit and themes  Demand for immediate abolition  Explosive denunciations of slavery  As a sin  As incompatible with American freedom  Rejection of colonization  Insistence on racial equality, rights for blacks  Active role of blacks in movement  Mobilization of public opinion  Moral suasion

18 B. Take-off of militant abolitionism 2. Initiatives and methods  Founding of American Anti-Slavery Society (AAAS)  Printed propaganda  Oratory; public meetings  Petitions

19 B. Take-off of militant abolitionism 3. Pioneering figures and publications  David Walker; An Appeal to the Coloured Citizens of the World  William Lloyd Garrison  The Liberator  Thoughts on African Colonization  Theodore Weld; Slavery As It Is  Lydia Maria Child; An Appeal In Favor of That Class of Americans Called Africans 4. Spread and growth 5. Strongholds of support



22 B. Take-off of militant abolitionism 6. Visions of American freedom  Self-ownership as basis of freedom  Priority of personal liberty over rights to property or local self-government  Freedom as universal entitlement, regardless of race  Right to bodily integrity 7. Identification with revolutionary heritage

23 C. Black and white abolitionism  Prominence of blacks in movement  As opponents of colonization  As readers and supporters of The Liberator  As members and officers of AAAS  As organizers and speakers  As writers  Racial strains within movement  Persistence of prejudice among white abolitionists  White dominance of leadership positions  Growing black quest for independent role

24 C. Black and white abolitionism 3. Remarkable degree of egalitarianism among white abolitionists  Anti-discrimination efforts in North  Spirit of interracial solidarity 4. Black abolitionists’ distinctive stands on freedom and Americanness  Exceptional hostility to racism  Exceptional impatience with celebrations of American liberty; “Freedom celebrations”  Exceptional commitment to color-blind citizenship  Exceptional insistence on economic dimension to freedom 5. Frederick Douglass’s historic Fourth of July oration


26 D.Slavery and civil liberties  Assault on abolitionism  Mob violence  Attack on Garrison in Boston  Attack on James G. Birney in Cincinnati  Fatal attack on Elijah P. Lovejoy in Alton, Illinois  Suppression  Removal of literature from mails  “Gag rule” on petitions to House of Representatives  Resulting spread of antislavery sentiment in North


28 E. Split within AAAS  Points of conflict  Role of women in movement  Garrisonian radicalism  Relationship of abolitionism to American politics  Outcome  Formation of rival American and Foreign Anti- Slavery Society  Founding of Liberty party  Weak performance of Liberty party in 1840 election


30  Rise of the public woman  Importance of women at grassroots of abolitionism  Forms of involvement in public sphere  Petition drives  Meetings  Parades  Oratory  Range of reform movements involving women  Abolitionism as seedbed for feminist movement  New awareness of women’s subordination  Path-breaking efforts of Angelina and Sarah Grimké  Impassioned antislavery addresses  Controversy over women lecturers  Sarah Grimké’s Letters on the Equality of the Sexes


32 C. Launching of women’s rights movement; Seneca Falls Convention  Roots in abolitionism  Influence of Grimké sisters  Leadership of antislavery veterans Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott  Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments  Echoes of Declaration of Independence  Demand for suffrage  Denunciation of wide-ranging inequalities

33 D. Characteristics of feminism  International scope  Middle-class orientation E. Themes of feminism  Self-realization  Transcendentalist sensibility  Margaret Fuller’s Woman in the Nineteenth Century  Right to participate in market revolution  Denial that home is women’s “sphere”  Amelia Bloomer’s new style of dress  Analogy between marriage and slavery; “slavery of sex”  Laws governing wives’ economic status  Law of domestic relations


35 F. Tensions within feminist thought  Belief in equality of the sexes  Belief in natural differences

36  Why did Americans have an impulse to improve American society in the first half of the 19 th century?  In what ways was the abolitionist movement significant to the idea of American freedom?  What were the pros and cons of the colonization movement and why were many black people opposed to it?  Why is this a period of institution building?  How did the abolitionist movement and the women’s movement influence each other?

37  What consequences foes Grimke believe follow from the idea of rights being founded in the individual’s “moral being?”  How does Douglass turn the ideals proclaimed by white Americans into weapons against slavery?  What do these documents suggest about the language and arguments employed by abolitionists?

38  Exit ticket:  What is the most interesting aspect of the reform movements we have studied?  What are you finding most difficult in terms of your academic success in this class?  Homework:  Finish reading Ch. 12 for tomorrow’s test.

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