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Measures to Combat Child Slavery and trafficking Reshma Rajagopalan Chair of HRC 2 Overseas Family School.

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Presentation on theme: "Measures to Combat Child Slavery and trafficking Reshma Rajagopalan Chair of HRC 2 Overseas Family School."— Presentation transcript:

1 Measures to Combat Child Slavery and trafficking Reshma Rajagopalan Chair of HRC 2 Overseas Family School

2 Topic Summary  Slavery was the first human rights issue to arouse wide international concern (from the 1700s) yet it still continues today. Slave-like practices remain a grave and persistent problem today  The global market for child trafficking is over $12 billion a year  215 million children work in child labor  In sub-Saharan Africa, 40 per cent of all children work, in Asia and Latin America approximately 20 percent  Asia has the largest number of child laborers, accounting for 61 per cent of the world's total child slavery

3 Terms Defined  Child (as defined by the UN) – a human being below the age of 18 years unless under the law applicable to the child, majority is attained earlier  Child Slavery – work or service, including forced or bonded labor, which is forced from a child under the threat of any penalty and for which the said child has not voluntarily offered itself  Child Trafficking – the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring, or receiving of children for the purpose of exploitation

4 Timeline  1839 – Anti Slavery International is created  1919 – The International Labor Organization (ILO) is founded  1926 – The Slavery Convention defines slavery  1930 – ILO Convention 29 concerning Forced or Compulsory Labor broadens the previous definition of slavery  1974 – Economic and Social Council establishes the Working Group on Contemporary Forms of Slavery, which monitors the application of slavery conventions and submits proposals for action on national and international levels

5 Timeline  1989 – Convention of the Rights of the Child is established as a legally binding instrument including the civil, cultural, economic, political and social rights of children  1992 – International Program on the Elimination of Child Labor (IPEC) is created by the ILO  1999 – ILO Convention 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor Convention is created to take further measures against forms of child labor including trafficking, slavery, bonded or forced labor and illicit activities

6 Timeline  2000 – Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children defines child trafficking and acknowledges it as a violation of children’s rights. The protocol has been ratified by 135 member nations  2007 – Human Rights Council Resolution 6/14 establishes the Mandate on Contemporary Forms of Slavery, its Causes and Consequences, which succeeds the Working Group on Contemporary Forms of Slavery  2007 – United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) establishes the Global Initiative to Fight Human Trafficking (UN.GIFT)

7 Organizations/Bodies Most Connected  ILO – a U.N. agency made up of 183 member states, with government, employer, and worker representatives, which oversees international labor standards [International Labor Organization]  IPEC – created by the ILO in 1992, the IPEC works towards eradicating child labor and is funded by member nation donors [International Programme for the Elimination of Child Labor]  Anti-Slavery International – a non governmental organization formed in the United Kingdom which is the oldest international human rights organization in the world

8 What has been done by the UN?  Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948)  Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, the Slave Trade and Institutions Similar to Slavery (1956)  ILO Convention 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor Convention (1999)  Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (2000)  Optional protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography (2000)

9 Relation to UN Policies Article 4 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states that ‘No one shall be held in slavery or servitude: slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms’ Yet, slave trade, especially in children, continues.

10 10

11 Current Situation

12 The UN estimates approximately 8.4 million in the worst forms of child labor, with a further 1.2 million children involved in trafficking. This results in a total of 9.6 million children who are in instances similar to enslavement. Although the presence of child slavery has been decreasing in recent years, apart from in Sub Saharan continent of Africa where it is increasing, it continues to harm the physical and mental development of children and adolescents, while interfering with their education. The ILO estimates that only 5% of child laborers are paid. Current actions to combat child slavery are limited, despite no state recognizing slavery as a legal practice and with many states signing relevant treaties. Measures taken to combat child trafficking in the developing world are also not only rare but quite limited.

13 Current Situation The Trafficking in Persons Report identifies countries according to how much countries are doing to stop human trafficking

14 Useful Links       en/index.htm

15 Bibliography  “ C182 Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999.” International Labor Organization. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Dec  “Child Labor.” UNICEF. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Dec  “International Standards.” UNOHCHR. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Dec  “Millenium Development Goals.” UN.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Dec  “Slavery and Forced Labor.” Human Rights Education Associates. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Dec


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