Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

The American Civil War. The North Industrialized Industrialized Large cities were established Large cities were established By 1860, one quarter of all.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "The American Civil War. The North Industrialized Industrialized Large cities were established Large cities were established By 1860, one quarter of all."— Presentation transcript:

1 The American Civil War

2 The North Industrialized Industrialized Large cities were established Large cities were established By 1860, one quarter of all Northerners lived in urban areas By 1860, one quarter of all Northerners lived in urban areas Between 1800 and 1860, the percentage of laborers working in agricultural pursuits dropped drastically from 70% to only 40% Between 1800 and 1860, the percentage of laborers working in agricultural pursuits dropped drastically from 70% to only 40% Slavery had died out, replaced in the cities and factories by immigrant labor from Europe. seven out of every eight immigrants were settling in the North rather than the South Slavery had died out, replaced in the cities and factories by immigrant labor from Europe. seven out of every eight immigrants were settling in the North rather than the South Transportation was easier in the North, which boasted more than two-thirds of the railroad tracks in the country and the economy was on an upswing Transportation was easier in the North, which boasted more than two-thirds of the railroad tracks in the country and the economy was on an upswing

3 The South The fertile soil and warm climate of the South made it ideal for large-scale farms and crops like tobacco and cotton – so why industrialize? The fertile soil and warm climate of the South made it ideal for large-scale farms and crops like tobacco and cotton – so why industrialize? Eighty percent of the labor force worked on the farm Eighty percent of the labor force worked on the farm By 1860 slavery was inextricably tied to the region's economy and culture By 1860 slavery was inextricably tied to the region's economy and culture there were almost as many blacks in the South as there were whites (4 million blacks and 5.5 million whites). there were almost as many blacks in the South as there were whites (4 million blacks and 5.5 million whites). There were no large cities aside from New Orleans - the ones that did exist were located on rivers and coasts as shipping ports to send agricultural produce to European or Northern destinations There were no large cities aside from New Orleans - the ones that did exist were located on rivers and coasts as shipping ports to send agricultural produce to European or Northern destinations Only 1/10 th of Southerners lived in urban areas Only 1/10 th of Southerners lived in urban areas transportation between cities was difficult, except by water - only 35% of the nation's train tracks were located in the South transportation between cities was difficult, except by water - only 35% of the nation's train tracks were located in the South

4 The Birth of Slavery in America When the North American continent was first colonized by Europeans the land was vast, the work was harsh, and there was a severe shortage of labor. When the North American continent was first colonized by Europeans the land was vast, the work was harsh, and there was a severe shortage of labor. White bondservants, paying their passage across the ocean from Europe through indentured labor worked plantations but more labour was needed White bondservants, paying their passage across the ocean from Europe through indentured labor worked plantations but more labour was needed Early in the seventeenth century, a Dutch ship loaded with African slaves introduced slavery to the United States Early in the seventeenth century, a Dutch ship loaded with African slaves introduced slavery to the United States Slaves were most economical on large farms where labor-intensive cash crops, such as tobacco, could be grown. Slaves were most economical on large farms where labor-intensive cash crops, such as tobacco, could be grown.

5 Slavery Continued By the end of the American Revolution, slavery had proven unprofitable in the North and was dying out. By the end of the American Revolution, slavery had proven unprofitable in the North and was dying out. In the South the institution was becoming less useful to farmers as tobacco prices fluctuated and began to drop. In the South the institution was becoming less useful to farmers as tobacco prices fluctuated and began to drop. In 1793 Northerner Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin; this device made it possible for textile mills to use the type of cotton most easily grown in the South. In 1793 Northerner Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin; this device made it possible for textile mills to use the type of cotton most easily grown in the South. Cotton replaced tobacco as the South’s main cash crop and slavery became profitable again Cotton replaced tobacco as the South’s main cash crop and slavery became profitable again

6 Opposition to Slavery As the North moved away from Slavery more and more people in the North opposed the idea of slaves – abolitionists As the North moved away from Slavery more and more people in the North opposed the idea of slaves – abolitionists Nat Turner leads a rebellion of slaves against white landowners in Virginia on August 21 st, 1831 Nat Turner leads a rebellion of slaves against white landowners in Virginia on August 21 st, 1831 Harriet Tubman establishes the Underground Railroad to help slaves escape the South Harriet Tubman establishes the Underground Railroad to help slaves escape the South Uncle Tom’s Cabin is written in 1852 by Harriet Beecher Stowe refuting the Southern myth that blacks were happy as slaves Uncle Tom’s Cabin is written in 1852 by Harriet Beecher Stowe refuting the Southern myth that blacks were happy as slaves Dred Scott sued for his freedom but the Supreme Court that slaves were subhuman property with no rights of citizenship; they had no legal means of protesting the way they were treated Dred Scott sued for his freedom but the Supreme Court that slaves were subhuman property with no rights of citizenship; they had no legal means of protesting the way they were treated

7 The Raid on Harper’s Ferry On October 16, 1859, the radical abolitionist John Brown led a small group of followers in a raid on the armoury at Harper’s Ferry. On October 16, 1859, the radical abolitionist John Brown led a small group of followers in a raid on the armoury at Harper’s Ferry. Brown hoped to use the captured weapons to initiate a slave uprising throughout the South. Brown hoped to use the captured weapons to initiate a slave uprising throughout the South. He and his men were pinned down by local citizens and militia, and forced to take refuge. He and his men were pinned down by local citizens and militia, and forced to take refuge. On October 18, U.S. Marines were sent via train to Harpers Ferry under the command of Colonel Robert E. Lee On October 18, U.S. Marines were sent via train to Harpers Ferry under the command of Colonel Robert E. Lee Brown was captured and was tried for treason by the State of Virginia Brown was captured and was tried for treason by the State of Virginia He was convicted and hanged in nearby Charles Town. He was convicted and hanged in nearby Charles Town. The failed raid was a major catalyst in accelerating the slide to Civil War. The failed raid was a major catalyst in accelerating the slide to Civil War.

8 The Compromise of 1850 After the Mexican-American War, the issue of slavery in the new territories led to the Compromise of After the Mexican-American War, the issue of slavery in the new territories led to the Compromise of While the Compromise of 1850 averted an immediate political crisis, it did not permanently resolve the issue of the power of slaveholders in national politics. While the Compromise of 1850 averted an immediate political crisis, it did not permanently resolve the issue of the power of slaveholders in national politics. Many Northerners, especially leaders of the new Republican Party, considered slavery a great national evil. Many Northerners, especially leaders of the new Republican Party, considered slavery a great national evil.

9 The Compromise of 1850

10 Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854 organized 2 new federal territories – Kansas and Nebraska What was controversial was the provision that stipulated that each territory would separately decide whether to allow slavery within its borders. This provision repealed the Missouri Compromise of 1820, which had prohibited slavery in any new states to be created north of latitude 36°30' since Kansas and Nebraska would be north of that line and could now choose to allow slavery. prohibiting slavery in states/territories north of 36º 30’ latitude people decide (popular sovereignty)

11 The Election of 1860 As the election of 1860 approached, the Democrats split over the issue of slavery in the territories As the election of 1860 approached, the Democrats split over the issue of slavery in the territories The party split on the issue and the result say three candidates run for the Presidency The party split on the issue and the result say three candidates run for the Presidency This division opened the door for the Republican Party and Abraham Lincoln This division opened the door for the Republican Party and Abraham Lincoln The Republicans believed that slavery should be left undisturbed where it was already in place but should not be allowed in the new territories The Republicans believed that slavery should be left undisturbed where it was already in place but should not be allowed in the new territories

12 Secession from the Union The immediate result of the election was the secession of seven southern states to form their own country (the Confederate States of America) The immediate result of the election was the secession of seven southern states to form their own country (the Confederate States of America) These States included: South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana and Texas These States included: South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana and Texas They based their right to secede on the idea that the free states had denied the Southern States equal rights in the union They based their right to secede on the idea that the free states had denied the Southern States equal rights in the union They drafted their own constitution and named their new alliance the Confederate States of America They drafted their own constitution and named their new alliance the Confederate States of America

13 Fort Sumter and the Start of the War As the Southern States Seceded they seized United States arsenal, mints and fortresses within their borders As the Southern States Seceded they seized United States arsenal, mints and fortresses within their borders Fort Sumter was still under federal control Fort Sumter was still under federal control In April of 1861, the fort was running short on supplies so Lincoln sent orders out to restock it In April of 1861, the fort was running short on supplies so Lincoln sent orders out to restock it Jefferson Davis, president of the Confederacy sent the order to take the fort before it could be resupplied Jefferson Davis, president of the Confederacy sent the order to take the fort before it could be resupplied While there was no life lost in the attack, news of the incident stirred nationalism in the North and Lincoln had no trouble filling his military’s ranks with able bodied men While there was no life lost in the attack, news of the incident stirred nationalism in the North and Lincoln had no trouble filling his military’s ranks with able bodied men

14 More States Secede Faced with the prospect of fighting their neighbours four more states seceded from the union Faced with the prospect of fighting their neighbours four more states seceded from the union These states included: Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina and Tennessee These states included: Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina and Tennessee

15 Map of Secession

16 Preparing for War The North had a material advantage in many aspects regarding a potential war The North had a material advantage in many aspects regarding a potential war

17 The North Larger Population Larger Population Larger railroad connections Larger railroad connections More farm industry More farm industry Industrialization ($) – more than 80% of manufacturing plants Industrialization ($) – more than 80% of manufacturing plants The Leadership of Abraham Lincoln The Leadership of Abraham Lincoln Forts in the South Forts in the South Have to attack the South in the South Have to attack the South in the South Military leaders are less experienced Military leaders are less experienced Cannot expect help from Europe Cannot expect help from Europe AdvantagesDisadvantages

18 The South Defending instead of attacking – just had to hold out against attacks Defending instead of attacking – just had to hold out against attacks Better military leaders – Robert E. Lee Better military leaders – Robert E. Lee Ports that can be used for support from Europe Ports that can be used for support from Europe Smaller Population Smaller Population Fewer railroad connections Fewer railroad connections Industrialization ($) – more than 80% of manufacturing plants Industrialization ($) – more than 80% of manufacturing plants AdvantagesDisadvantages


Download ppt "The American Civil War. The North Industrialized Industrialized Large cities were established Large cities were established By 1860, one quarter of all."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google