Republic – Roman farmers, shepherds, and laborers
Republic – foreign conquest brought foreign slaves and changed the labor market
Empire – slaves outnumbered free citizens (Handout, #1 & 2) Horace says that a man of modest means should have at least ten slaves. Tacitus mentions a magistrate with 400 slaves at his city house.
All manual labor, much professional labor performed by slaves.
Supply War captives – sold by Quaestor to wholesale dealers and auctioned in Rome Rome one of largest slave markets in the world Prices – ca. $100 for male worker ca. $28,000 for educated grammarian Top prices went for beautiful children or for the unusual. (Handout, #3)
Status Public Slaves – working under Quaestors and Aediles Private Slaves – Familia Urbana Familia Rustica Factories were organized for production by skilled slaves – e.g., bed makers, book copiers. Peculium – traditionally a sum for slave’s use to bankroll personal projects (Handout, #4)
Dominica Potestas – master’s power, generally termed, also manus Escaped slaves branded or collared: ‘F’ (Fugitivus) “Fugi. Tene me. Cum revocaveris me, d. m. Zonino, accipies solidum” Punishments – flogging, beating, furcifer, sent to farms/mines, crucifixion (Handout, #5 & 6) Common curse: “I ad crucem!”
Manumission – legal freeing of slave 1 st Generation – ‘Freedmen’ 2 nd Generation – ‘Free’ – eligible for office and to rise in social status Freedmen often resented by native plebians and lampooned In literature as noveau riche.
Ultimately, under the empire slavery Laws were ameliorated – Handout #6 Household slaves tend hair of the mistress.