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Chapter 3, Origins of Slavery and Minority Status Origins of Slavery Noel and Blauner Hypotheses Creation of American Slavery Creation of Minority Status.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3, Origins of Slavery and Minority Status Origins of Slavery Noel and Blauner Hypotheses Creation of American Slavery Creation of Minority Status."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 3, Origins of Slavery and Minority Status Origins of Slavery Noel and Blauner Hypotheses Creation of American Slavery Creation of Minority Status

2 The Atlantic Slave Trade System and Colonial Slavery The English were late-comers into African slave trade. The first were the Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch and then the English (1672 the Duke of York’s Royal African Co ended in 1698) slavery also lagged in English colonies. The foundations of “South Atlantic Plantation System’ was laid by the Portuguese in Brazil (which was also the last place on the globe to end slavery)

3 African Slavery Very brutal slavery in the Tagaza salt mines and royal farms Trans-Sarahan slave trade; East African slave exports to Muslim world, to India and China Sources of Slaves: warfare, debt slavery and penal slavery

4 Rise of Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade System Mediterranean sugar plantation: the original model: a labor- intensive system Migrates to Atlantic Islands (Madeira, Azores, Sao Thome) then to Brazil and Caribbean Islands; Africans used co- existently with Indian and White labor Surging Caribbean and Latin American demand; tobacco, sugar and coffee plantations; mining How did a handful of European slave merchants involve Africa in the trans-Atlantic slave trade? The victimizer- victim model; the mutual partnership model

5 Colonial servitude v slavery Three times the number of African come to the Americas than Europeans 5% to North America, 90% to South America and the Caribbeans 1690- 1760 However, in north American there are twice as many Europeans than Africans Resulting conclusion—large mortality rate/low birth rate--Cheaper to buy new slaves than to raise slave families--20 million + die, beyoond those who do not survive the middle passate--50 % survival rate once in the colonies Rhode Island is the slave trade center of the colony. “Stock Raising” and “Ranches” for the sale and trade of slaves

6 Two Polars of African slavery in Colonial North America Slave owning—slaves have greater accessibility to freedom; more/greater legal protections in the courts and owning property; more interracial mingling; greater personal living space; economic niches Slave Society—more repressive and openly racially prejudiced; no legal protections; race commingling tabooed and outlawed; minimal personal space. Slaves represent 20% + of population, slavery is central underpinnings of economy.

7 Distribution, Ownership and Applications White owners: minority of Southern whites Owned slaves (385,000 out of 1,500,00) 25% of Southern households owned 1 or more slaves A smaller number (planters) owned 20 or more slaves, 46,274 families Only 2292 families owned 100 or more slaves Most slaves lived and worked on plantations and farms. In 1860, 4 million slaves in America: 2 million worked on plantations (50%), 160,000 lived on farms (40%) This is a minority system with a dominant place in American society—so why did a majority of people support a system in the minority? DeTocqueville, Democracy in America, “In the Southern, there are no families so poor as not to have slaves.”

8 Regional Concentration 312,000 million slaves (over half) lived in the Deep South. South Carolina had 57% of the Deep South slaves, 8 slaves to 1 white in the low country where Delaware there was only 1.5 % slaves MD 1790103,000 slaves8,000 free MD 186087,000 slave84,000 free DE 17909,000 slave4,000 free DE 18601,800 slave20,000 free

9 Slave Treatment The benign-treatment school: Ulrich B. Phillips, American Negro Slavery, 1925 The harsh treatment school: Kenneth Stampp, The Peculiar Institution, 1956 Return to the benign treatment school: Eugene D Genovese, Roll, Jordan, Roll: The World the Slaves Made, 1974

10 Southern Rationale for Slavery Slavery as a positive good Intellectual blockade against anti- slavery literature and agitation Psychological Intimidation Scriptural Justification

11 Contact and Colonization

12 Ethnocentrism and Miscommunication Englishmen’s attitude of cultural superiority led to the greatest problems between the two peoples. The English thought that the Indians were lazy because they hunted. To the English hunting was a sport, not a means of survival. They looked upon the Indians’ “misuse” of the land as an abomination. Indians in Virginia

13 John Smith, after an attack on his village by Indians “will be good for the Plantation, because now we have just cause to destroy them by all meanes possible.”

14 Smallpox epidemic in Mass 1633/34 “without this remarkable and terrible stroke of God upon the natives, [we] would with much more difficulty have found room, and at far greater charge have obtained and purchased land.”

15 William Bradford, Puritan minister, on the victory and the massacre of the 2 nd and final Pequot village “it was a fearful sight to see them thus frying in the fire and the streams of blood quenching the same, and the horrible was the stink and scent thereof; but the victory seemed a sweet sacrifice, and they gave the praise thereof to God, who had wrought so wonderfully for them, thus to enclose their enemies in their hands and given them so speedy a victory over so proud and insulting an enemy.”

16 Andrew Jackson regarding Westward Expansion “ What good man would prefer a county covered with forests and ranged by a few thousand savages to our extensive republic, studded with cities, towns and prosperous farms, embellished with all the improvements which art can devise or industry execute, occupied by more than 12,000,000 happy people, and filled with all the blessings of liberty, civilization and religion?”

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