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SLAVERY CIVIL WAR AND RECONSTRUCTION. SLAVERY Servants in America -Indentured servants: free after working off their passage -Indians-Africans -central.

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Presentation on theme: "SLAVERY CIVIL WAR AND RECONSTRUCTION. SLAVERY Servants in America -Indentured servants: free after working off their passage -Indians-Africans -central."— Presentation transcript:


2 SLAVERY Servants in America -Indentured servants: free after working off their passage -Indians-Africans -central and western Africa -captured by enemy tribes and white traders white traders -put in iron

3 Middle Passage: trip across the Atlantic 33% Die StarvationDiseaseSuicide

4 Slave Auction: -slaves shown off -sold to the highest bidder -families broken -most will be sold at least once in their life once in their lifePlantations -Master: owner -Overseer: white person that breaks them breaks them

5 Slave Codes -Could not meet together -Could not leave the plantation -Could not own weapons -Could not testify against whites -COULD NOT BE EDUCATED Work-Domestic -men: butler, stage driver -women: cook, clean tend children tend children

6 -Field work -Carpenter: most expensive -Driver: slave that whips other slaves Organization -task: one job for the day hired out to make money(carpenter) hired out to make money(carpenter) -gang: forcing slaves to work from dawn to dusk dawn to dusk

7 Discipline:-Whippings -Taught to be inferior -Church: Story of Ham Rebellion: -refusal to follow orders -work done slowly or sloppy -run away -Nat Turner: God told him to free the slaves free the slaves hanged hanged

8 Cotton Gin: Eli Whitney increased the demand for slaves increased the demand for slaves Anti-slavery movement: ABOLITION -American Colonization Society -Militant Abolitionists -David Walker: slave should violently strike violently strike for freedom for freedom

9 - William Lloyd Garrison: immediate abolition Liberator Liberator contradicts the Bible and contradicts the Bible and Constitution Constitution -Religious groups: Charles Finney Quakers Quakers -Frederick Douglass: self educated former slave former slave North Star North Star

10 ` - Underground Railroad: Harriet Tubman slaves hid in “stations” slaves hid in “stations” traveled at night traveled at night hunted with dogs hunted with dogs Fugitive Slave Law Fugitive Slave Law“Moses”

11 Tension Builds Sectionalism: division of America into North and South Dealing with Slavery: -Northwest Ordinance: No slavery -north of the Ohio -west of the Mississippi

12 Missouri Compromise: Clay -Missouri: slave -Maine: free -No slavery north of the 36’30 Texas: wants to enter as a slave state Wilmot Proviso: no slavery in Wilmot Proviso: no slavery in land from land from Mexico Mexico Doesn’t pass: South dominates Doesn’t pass: South dominates Congress Congress

13 Compromise of 1850: “Clay’s Compromise” -California: free -Utah and New Mexico: popular sovereignty (choice) -no slavery in DC -Fugitive Slave Law: -6 months and a $1,000 for helping runaways -Runaways could not testify -Results: southerners recapture slaves -free blacks move to Canada -free blacks move to Canada Solomon Northup Solomon Northup

14 Uncle Tom’s Cabin: Harriet Beecher Stowe showed slaves as human showed slaves as human result: abolition picks up result: abolition picks up Kansas Nebraska Act: popular sovereignty Missouri Compromise repealed Stephen Douglas

15 Result of Kansas Nebraska Act: BLEEDING KANSAS KANSAS -free soilers and proslavery vote illegal -two capitals: -Lecompton: slave -Topeka: free -violence: -Beecher’s Bibles -Lawrence -Pattawatomie Creek: John Brown

16 Preston Brooks attacks Charles Sumner

17 Political Parties: -Democrat: split -Know Nothings: anti-immigration -Republican: -keep slavery out of new territories -farmers can’t compete with slave owners -Black Republicans: emancipation(free slaves) Dred Scott: -sues master for his freedom -Chief Justice Roger Taney rules -slave can’t sue -property can be taken anywhere

18 MISSOURI COMPROMISE IS RULED UNCONSTITUTIONAL!!!! Lincoln Douglas Debates: Illinois Senate -Douglas: -popular sovereignty would vote slavery out -Lincoln is a radical -Lincoln: -slavery should be illegal -Douglas looks like he support slavery -INTRODUCED LINCOLN’S VIEWS TO THE COUNTRY

19 Harper’s Ferry -John Brown attacked armory - “God told me to do it!!!” -Trial: insane but acted with dignity -HANGED for TREASON against a STATE - SOUTH THOUGHT THE NORTH WAS OUT TO GET THEM!!!

20 ELECTION OF 1860: -South threatens to leave in Lincoln is elected -Lincoln loses the popular vote but wins electoral college college - SOUTH CAROLINA SECEDES!!!!!!!

21 Reasons for secession: -slavery -states rights -southern regionalism FORT SUMTER, SC -Confederates fire on the fort - CIVIL WAR BEGINS!!!!!! -OTHER SOUTHERN STATES SECEDES Stars and Bars The original Confederate Flag


23 America At War (1861-1865) Confederate States of America President: Jefferson Davis government experience graduate of West Point Mexican War veteran Vice President: Alexander Stephens Strong state governments

24 Johnny Reb Advantages: Advantages: -Small and compact -Outdoor life -Independence -home ground -better leaders Robert E. Lee

25 Border states: slave states staying in the Union Maryland, Delaware, Kentucky, Missouri Maryland, Delaware, Kentucky, Missouri United States of America Union President: Abraham Lincoln member of the House of Representatives never served in the military purpose: PRESERVE THEUNION!!!!!!

26 Billy Yank: Advantages-population -2/3 of states -90% of industry -75% of money -established military -70% of railroads

27 Battle Plans: -Confederacy: Outlast the North -Union: Anaconda Plan -Blockade -Mississippi River -Richmond

28 Mobilization: “Rich man’s war but a poor man’s fight” -Confederacy:-volunteers -conscription: draft -substitutes -one man on each plantation exempt -Union-volunteers-conscription -bounties: money paid to enlist -New York Draft Riot: -Lincoln burned in effigy effigy

29 Paying for the war: -Confederacy: -no taxes -war bonds -printed Confederate money -Union: -income tax -war bonds -banks invest 1/3 of all money in bonds in bonds

30 Fighting:-Weapons -cone shaped bullets -artillery -Enfield rifle -Revolver -Lever action

31 Medicine -hospitals: tents, captured buildings, warehouses -poor sanitation -contaminated water water -no gloves -no sterilization -no antiseptic: high infection rate -few doctors -amputations: removing a limb -painkillers: ran out quickly -morphine-whiskey-chloroform

32 Prisons: -Confederate: Andersonville, GA

33 Women:-Confederate: -worked the farms -suffered-Union: -Aid societies -Dorothea Dix: nurses -Clara Barton: Red Cross -Sojourner Truth: spoke against Confederate supporters (Copperheads) supporters (Copperheads)

34 ` Blacks in the war: -contraband: illegal to keep -1862 blacks recruited -cooks-drivers -grave diggers -Emancipation Proclamation -slaves freed in areas of rebellion, NOT THE BORDER STATES NOT THE BORDER STATES -54 TH Massachusetts -first black regiment -Robert Shaw (white) -attacked Fort Wagner

35 Appomattox Courthouse: -Lee surrenders to Grant

36 Effects:-Confederacy -Destruction of property -Starvation -No industry -Pro-Union sentiment: West Virginia -Unwillingness of states -Davis seen as a villain -Union-Copperheads -Lincoln suspends habeas corpus -Economy boomed

37 AFTER THE WAR -Jefferson Davis -imprisoned -imprisoned -Robert E. Lee -home was taken -home was taken -Arlington National Cemetery -Arlington National Cemetery -became head of Washington -became head of Washington and Lee and Lee -U.S. Grant -became President -became President -throat cancer -throat cancer

38 RECONSTRUCTION South -destruction: factories, railroads, plantations, cities cities -banks closed -slaves freed North -800,000 need jobs -Recession -Manufacturers expand and create jobs

39 Freedmen: -13 th Amendment abolished slavery -Problems:-Discrimination-Education -No money or land -Solution: -Freedmen’s Bureau -sought work -$ 5 million for education for education -clothing and medical care care

40 Presidential Reconstruction: -Lincoln -10% Plan -10% of the people who voted in 1860 had to take an oath for the Union and had to take an oath for the Union and the Constitution the Constitution-Opposition -Radical Republicans -Wade Davis Bill: -majority to take oath -no repaying debts -plantation land given to slaves - “40 acres and mule” Thaddeus Stevens Thaddeus Stevens

41 PRESIDENT LINCOLN IS ASSASSINATED!!! April 15, 1865 John Wilkes Booth Ford’s Theater Lincoln’s Funeral

42 John Booth shot in a burning barn Lewis Payne stabbing Frederick ConspiratorsSeward Conspirators Hanged

43 Andrew Johnson: new President -southerner but did not secede -recognized Lincoln’s plan -vetoed Radical laws -Radicals said he was too soft Radical Reconstruction -2/3 vote could override Johnson’s veto -South separated into military districts -Debts cancelled -No Confederate in office -states must ratify -13 th : no slavery -14 th : citizenship Hiram Revels -15 th : blacks can vote 1st black Senator

44 -Tenure of Office Act -President must get Senate permission to dismiss officials Response:-South -Black Codes: same old slave codes -Johnson fires officials -impeachment charges filed -one vote short Grant becomes President

45 Southern problems -no money -credit caused debt -land sold to pay debts -tenant farming -former slaves work for masters -politics -Carpetbaggers: northerners moving south moving south -Scalawags: southerner who supported the Union supported the Union -inexperienced leadership -corruption

46 New South -Republicans change -radicals die -Grant charged with corruption -North loses interest -SOUTH REGAINS CONTROL!!!! -accepted radical changes -intimidation -tenants forced to vote Democrat -Poll tax: tax to vote -Literacy test -KKK

47 1876 Election -Hayes: Republican -Tilden Democrat -Tilden wins: ELECTION FRAUD - HAYES TILDEN COMPROMISE!!!! -Hayes becomes President and promises -give money for southern railroads -removes military - ENDS RECONSTRUCTION!!!! Redeemers: Democrats who wanted the South to rise again were elected as governors

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