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The Slavery Issue before the Civil War “ It will be as the man who swallows arsenic. Mexico will poison us.”-Ralph Waldo Emerson.

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Presentation on theme: "The Slavery Issue before the Civil War “ It will be as the man who swallows arsenic. Mexico will poison us.”-Ralph Waldo Emerson."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Slavery Issue before the Civil War “ It will be as the man who swallows arsenic. Mexico will poison us.”-Ralph Waldo Emerson

2 The Wilmot Proviso Named for Congressmen David Wilmot of Pennsylvania Named for Congressmen David Wilmot of Pennsylvania Racist Racist Wilmot more concerned about slavery taking away jobs from poor white farmers than seeking an end to slavery Wilmot more concerned about slavery taking away jobs from poor white farmers than seeking an end to slavery Wilmot Proviso Wilmot Proviso Called for slavery to be banned in all territories acquired from Mexico Called for slavery to be banned in all territories acquired from Mexico Supported by the North Supported by the North Opposed by the South Opposed by the South Good example of both slavery and sectionalism dividing the country Good example of both slavery and sectionalism dividing the country Passes the House but fails in the Senate Passes the House but fails in the Senate

3 “As if by magic brought to a head the great question that is about to divide the American people” “As if by magic brought to a head the great question that is about to divide the American people”

4 Free Soil Party In 1848, Martin Van Buren runs for President under the Free Soil Party In 1848, Martin Van Buren runs for President under the Free Soil Party It was a third party started by those who opposed expansion of slavery It was a third party started by those who opposed expansion of slavery Van Buren loses to Zachary Taylor- war hero and Southerner Van Buren loses to Zachary Taylor- war hero and Southerner Taylor was the safer choice Taylor was the safer choice Anti slavery issue was now not just an issue for abolitionists Anti slavery issue was now not just an issue for abolitionists

5 Compromise of 1850 California admitted as a free state California admitted as a free state Slave trade, not slavery itself, would be abolished in Washington D.C. Slave trade, not slavery itself, would be abolished in Washington D.C. Fugitive Slave Act-allow Southerners to reclaim runaway slaves Fugitive Slave Act-allow Southerners to reclaim runaway slaves Status of slavery in the remaining territories acquired from Mexico would be decided by local white inhabitants Status of slavery in the remaining territories acquired from Mexico would be decided by local white inhabitants

6 Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854-Illinois Senator Stephen Douglas wanted to build a railroad through the territories of Kansas and Nebraska 1854-Illinois Senator Stephen Douglas wanted to build a railroad through the territories of Kansas and Nebraska Need formal governments in these territories for railroad project to become a reality Need formal governments in these territories for railroad project to become a reality Once again, intense debate between those want slavery in the territories and those who do not Once again, intense debate between those want slavery in the territories and those who do not

7 Douglas’ solution is “popular sovereignty” Douglas’ solution is “popular sovereignty” Let the people of a territory decides whether they want slavery or notLet the people of a territory decides whether they want slavery or not For Douglas, PS is a perfect example of people voicing their opinionFor Douglas, PS is a perfect example of people voicing their opinion Douglas-”Little Giant”- Kansas Nebraska Act passesDouglas-”Little Giant”- Kansas Nebraska Act passes KNA overrules the Missouri CompromiseKNA overrules the Missouri Compromise

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9 Why was Popular Sovereignty Problematic? PS was a big political miscalculation by Douglas PS was a big political miscalculation by Douglas Overturns Missouri Compromise Overturns Missouri Compromise Southern Congressmen concerned about the sectional balance Southern Congressmen concerned about the sectional balance Northern Congressmen convinced that slavery would be extended into the territories Northern Congressmen convinced that slavery would be extended into the territories Lincoln Lincoln Very concerned about the extension of slaveryVery concerned about the extension of slavery Why have the federal government deal with the issue of slavery if slavery will only be decided by PS?Why have the federal government deal with the issue of slavery if slavery will only be decided by PS?

10 Kansas-Nebraska Map eh/interactives/sectionalism/lesson3/ eh/interactives/sectionalism/lesson3/ eh/interactives/sectionalism/lesson3/ eh/interactives/sectionalism/lesson3/

11 “Bleeding Kansas” 1854 and 1855-elections held in Kansas 1854 and 1855-elections held in Kansas Hundreds of proslavery Missourians crossed the border to cast fraudulent ballots Hundreds of proslavery Missourians crossed the border to cast fraudulent ballots Violence breaks out between proslavery mobs and their opponents Violence breaks out between proslavery mobs and their opponents 200 people killed 200 people killed “Bleeding Kansas” discredits policy of popular sovereignty “Bleeding Kansas” discredits policy of popular sovereignty

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13 Beating of Senator Sumner Charles Sumner-Massachusetts Senator Charles Sumner-Massachusetts Senator “The Crime against Kansas” “The Crime against Kansas” Speech included personal attacks against South Carolina Senator Andrew Butler Speech included personal attacks against South Carolina Senator Andrew Butler Butler’s nephew, Congressman Preston Brooks, walked into the Senate chamber and beat Sumner over the head with a cane Butler’s nephew, Congressman Preston Brooks, walked into the Senate chamber and beat Sumner over the head with a cane House censured Brooks House censured Brooks Northern Congressman outraged by event Northern Congressman outraged by event Several Southern Congressman bought Brooks new canes Several Southern Congressman bought Brooks new canes

14 The Dred Scott Case During the 1830’s, Dred Scott, a slave, went with his owner Dr. John Emerson of Missouri (slave state) to Illinois (free state) During the 1830’s, Dred Scott, a slave, went with his owner Dr. John Emerson of Missouri (slave state) to Illinois (free state) When he returned to Missouri, Scott sued for his freedom When he returned to Missouri, Scott sued for his freedom He argued that his time on free soil made him a free man He argued that his time on free soil made him a free man Chief Justice Roger Taney announced the Court’s decision in March 1857, two days before President-elect James Buchanan’s inauguration Chief Justice Roger Taney announced the Court’s decision in March 1857, two days before President-elect James Buchanan’s inauguration

15 Dred Scott Timeline Born in the 1790s Born in the 1790s Married Harriet Robinson in 1836 Married Harriet Robinson in Have their first child, a daughter 1840-Have their first child, a daughter Ownership transferred to Dr. Emerson (U.S. Army doctor) Ownership transferred to Dr. Emerson (U.S. Army doctor) 1842-Return to Missouri 1842-Return to Missouri 1843-Dr. Emerson dies. Wife takes control of estate 1843-Dr. Emerson dies. Wife takes control of estate Dred Scott denied freedom Dred Scott denied freedom 1846-Sues for freedom 1846-Sues for freedom

16 The Court had three questions to answer: The Court had three questions to answer: Could a black person be a citizen and therefore sue in federal court?Could a black person be a citizen and therefore sue in federal court? Did residence in a free state make Scott free?Did residence in a free state make Scott free? Did Congress possess the power to prohibit slavery in a territory?Did Congress possess the power to prohibit slavery in a territory?

17 Impact of Chief Justice Taney’s Ruling Taney’s ruling was a bad attempt by the Supreme Court to decide the slavery issue once and for all Taney’s ruling was a bad attempt by the Supreme Court to decide the slavery issue once and for all Because Scott was still a slave, Illinois’ law banning slavery, didn’t apply when Scott returned to Missouri Because Scott was still a slave, Illinois’ law banning slavery, didn’t apply when Scott returned to Missouri ***Because PS overturned the Missouri Compromise, Congress had no authority to ban slavery in a territory*** ***Because PS overturned the Missouri Compromise, Congress had no authority to ban slavery in a territory*** Therefore, Congress had no authority to restrict southerners from bringing slaves into a western territory Therefore, Congress had no authority to restrict southerners from bringing slaves into a western territory Decision also undermines PS Decision also undermines PS President Buchanan- Slavery existed in all territories “By virtue of the Constitution.” President Buchanan- Slavery existed in all territories “By virtue of the Constitution.”

18 Lincoln-Douglas Debates Lincoln had retired from elected office Lincoln had retired from elected office The philosophy of popular sovereignty,the overturning of the Missouri Compromise, and the possible extension of slavery draws Lincoln back into seeking elected office The philosophy of popular sovereignty,the overturning of the Missouri Compromise, and the possible extension of slavery draws Lincoln back into seeking elected office Runs for a US Senate seat from Illinois in 1856 and 1858 Runs for a US Senate seat from Illinois in 1856 and 1858 Lecompton, Kansas Lecompton, Kansas When he accepted the Republican nomination, he said, “A house divided against itself cannot stand.” When he accepted the Republican nomination, he said, “A house divided against itself cannot stand.” House Divided Speech House Divided Speech

19 Lincoln and Douglas have seven debates across Illinois Lincoln and Douglas have seven debates across Illinois Lincoln’s goals Lincoln’s goals Get Douglas to explain how popular sovereignty can work particularly after the Dred Scott case!Get Douglas to explain how popular sovereignty can work particularly after the Dred Scott case! Slavery is wrongSlavery is wrong Blacks are entitled to freedom and liberties written in the Declaration of Independence.Blacks are entitled to freedom and liberties written in the Declaration of Independence.

20 Three reasons why Lincoln believed slavery was wrong Three reasons why Lincoln believed slavery was wrong Slavery embarrasses work-1) Lincoln was a work-a-holic 2) Slaves were doing other people’s workSlavery embarrasses work-1) Lincoln was a work-a-holic 2) Slaves were doing other people’s work Slavery makes American hypocritesSlavery makes American hypocrites Slavery is a violation of natural law- Lincoln knew that slaves knew they were being wrongedSlavery is a violation of natural law- Lincoln knew that slaves knew they were being wronged

21 Outcome of Election State legislatures still choose U.S. Senators State legislatures still choose U.S. Senators Northern Illinois-voted Republican Northern Illinois-voted Republican Southern Illinois-voted Democratic Southern Illinois-voted Democratic In 1858, Republicans received more votes in the election for Illinois State Legislature In 1858, Republicans received more votes in the election for Illinois State Legislature However, seats still apportioned by Census of 1850 which does not take into account growth of Republican party in northern Illinois However, seats still apportioned by Census of 1850 which does not take into account growth of Republican party in northern Illinois Democrats win seats in State Legislature by a small margin Democrats win seats in State Legislature by a small margin Douglas is re-elected Douglas is re-elected Lincoln, however, emerges as a Presidential candidate in the election of 1860 Lincoln, however, emerges as a Presidential candidate in the election of 1860

22 John Brown at Harpers Ferry Abolitionist Abolitionist 1830s and 1840s-Funded antislavery publications 1830s and 1840s-Funded antislavery publications October 16, 1859-JB along with 21 men (7 black) seized Harpers Ferry in Virginia October 16, 1859-JB along with 21 men (7 black) seized Harpers Ferry in Virginia Raid was put down by Colonel Robert E. Lee Raid was put down by Colonel Robert E. Lee Brown put on trial Brown put on trial

23 Brown ordered by Virginia’s governor to be executed Brown ordered by Virginia’s governor to be executed Brown was considered a hero in the North among both blacks and whites Brown was considered a hero in the North among both blacks and whites His raid, trial, and execution further demonstrated the differences between North and South on the slavery issue His raid, trial, and execution further demonstrated the differences between North and South on the slavery issue QnpCI QnpCI QnpCI QnpCI

24 Who am I? Would you vote for me? I was elected five times to the House of Representatives I was elected five times to the House of Representatives Then, after a stint as Minister to Russia, served for a decade in the Senate. Then, after a stint as Minister to Russia, served for a decade in the Senate. I was Polk's Secretary of State and Pierce's Minister to Great Britain. I was Polk's Secretary of State and Pierce's Minister to Great Britain.

25 Election of 1860 The Democratic Party splits over the issue of slavery The Democratic Party splits over the issue of slavery Southern Nationalists (“Fire-eaters”) in seven Deep South states demanded the party protect slavery in all territories not yet part of the UnionSouthern Nationalists (“Fire-eaters”) in seven Deep South states demanded the party protect slavery in all territories not yet part of the Union Stephen Douglas was not an acceptable candidate for Southern party membersStephen Douglas was not an acceptable candidate for Southern party members Six weeks later, Douglas is nominatedSix weeks later, Douglas is nominated Southern democrats nominate John C. Breckinridge from KentuckySouthern democrats nominate John C. Breckinridge from Kentucky

26 Republicans nominate Abraham Lincoln Republicans nominate Abraham Lincoln Lincoln is a dark horse candidate.Lincoln is a dark horse candidate. 4 people battle for nomination- Salmon Chase, William Seward, Edwin Stanton, and Lincoln4 people battle for nomination- Salmon Chase, William Seward, Edwin Stanton, and Lincoln Devoted to preserving the UnionDevoted to preserving the Union Appealed to abolitionistsAppealed to abolitionists Appealed to immigrants because Lincoln never supported the “Know Nothings”Appealed to immigrants because Lincoln never supported the “Know Nothings”

27 CandidateElectoral VotePopular Vote Lincoln180 (59%)1,866,452 (40%) Breckinridge72 (24%)847,953 (18%) Douglas12 (4%)1,371,157 (29%) John Bell- Constitutional Unionist Party 39 (13%)590,831 (13%)

28 Secession First state to secede is South Carolina on December 20, 1860 First state to secede is South Carolina on December 20, 1860 President Buchanan’s view of secession President Buchanan’s view of secession It is a threat to the UnionIt is a threat to the Union It is a deliberate, malicious attack on the UnionIt is a deliberate, malicious attack on the Union The Union is perpetualThe Union is perpetual No reversion clauseNo reversion clause We don’t create governments to eventually disband themWe don’t create governments to eventually disband them

29 Buchanan is convinced he has no constitutional authority to do anything about it Buchanan is convinced he has no constitutional authority to do anything about it President Lincoln’s view on secession President Lincoln’s view on secession Will not use forceWill not use force Answers can be found in D.O.I. and ConstitutionAnswers can be found in D.O.I. and Constitution **Union was made for higher purposes****Union was made for higher purposes** South is going against what the Revolutionary War was fought forSouth is going against what the Revolutionary War was fought for Lincoln-1 st paragraphs of D.O.I. are there for future generationsLincoln-1 st paragraphs of D.O.I. are there for future generations

30 Secession is an attack on liberty and freedomSecession is an attack on liberty and freedom Secession is anarchySecession is anarchy


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