2Missouri Compromise 1819: Missouri applied for statehood. At the time there were 11 free states and 11 slave states in the US SenateMissouri would upset the balance in the SenateCrisis occur for several monthsMissouri CompromiseBrainchild of Henry ClayMissouri apply as a slave stateMaine apply as a free stateCongress drew a line at 36’ 30” N and stated that slavery was permitted below that line from the lands of the Louisiana Purchase and slavery was banned north of that line in the Louisiana Purchase
3Wilmot Proviso Wilmot Proviso Missouri Compromise applied only to lands of the Louisiana PurchaseMexican War added new landsSlavery issue arises to these new landsDavid WilmotPennsylvania CongressmanCalled for a law to ban slavery in any territories won from MexicoPassed in the House in 1846 but failed in the SenateViews on SlaverySoutherners: Slavery should be allowed anywhere and all runaway slaves should be returnedAbolitionists: wanted slavery abolished throughout the entire countryModerates had two views: 1. extend the Missouri Compromise Line, 2. idea of Popular Sovereignty
4Popular Sovereignty Brainchild of Lewis Cass a Democrat Definition: the right of people to create their own governmentHow it effects the territories:Voters in a new territory would decide for themselves whether or not to allow slavery
5Free Soil Party Arise 1848 Zachary Taylor Whig 163 Lewis Cass Democratic 127Martin Van Buren Free Soil 0Campaign issues:How to deal with all of the new territoryThat is why the Free Soil party arises:No slavery in the new territoriesCass supported the voice of the people in territories known as Popular SovereigntyTaylor a slave owner did not speak on the issues but Southerners figured he favored slaverySlavery now became a political issue
7California 1850 Clay vs. Calhoun debates California request entry into the Union as a Free StateThis would upset the balance of free and slave states in the SenateSome southerners even suggested to secede from the UnionClay vs. Calhoun debatesCalhoun:Slavery be allowed into the territoriesFugitive slave lawIf both demands are not met that the states should part in peace.Clay:Called for a compromiseWebster:Spoke after the two men and warned that the nation could not separate in peace, but a civil war would occur insteadHe viewed slavery as evil but the breaking of the union was worse then slavery.
8Compromise of 1850 Compromise of 1850 Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 Headed by Henry Clay and Stephen DouglasFive Parts1. California is allowed to enter the Union as a free state2. Mexican Cession territory would be divided into New Mexico and Utah territoriesVoters would decide on the issue of slavery according to popular sovereignty3. It ended the slave trade in Washington, D.C.4. It included a strict fugitive slave law5. It settled a border dispute between Texas and New MexicoFugitive Slave Act of 1850Required all citizens to help catch runaway slavesThose who did not follow the law could be finedReaction to CompromiseFSA enraged the abolitionistsBy enforcing it, abolitionist became unwilling supporters of slaveryTension remained high because neither side got what they wanted
9Uncle Tom’s Cabin Uncle Tom’s Cabin Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe Northerners embraced the bookSaw slavery as a moral evil nowCongress could no longer avoid itSoutherners claimed it did not give a true picture of slavery
10Kansas-Nebraska Act Nebraska Territory Was divided into two territoriesNebraska and KansasWith the settlers deciding the issue of slavery by popular-sovereigntyThis was settled in the Kansas-Nebraska ActStephen Douglas was creator of this actPresident Franklin Pierce supported the bill and helped it pass through CongressAct goes against the Missouri Compromise and angers many northerners
11Kansas Two Governments “Bleeding Kansas” New arrivals in Kansas Proslavery and Anti-slavery settlers rush into KansasBorder Ruffians: proslavery settlers from Missouri who roughed up anti-slavery settlersTwo Governments1855:Border Ruffians and Proslavery settlers elected a proslavery legislature illegallyAnti-slavery settlers refused to accept that government and elected their own government“Bleeding Kansas”1856:Proslavery settlers attacked an anti-slavery settlement in Lawrence, KansasJohn Brown, an abolitionist, decided to strike backPottawatomie CreekBrown and six other men dragged out 5 proslavery settlers and murdered themThis caused both sides to engage in guerrilla warfare, that resulted in 200 dead
12Charles Sumner Charles Sumner Massachusetts Senator Leading abolitionist senatorDenounced the proslavery legislature in KansasCriticized and singled out South Carolina, Senator Andrew ButlerCongressman Preston BrooksButler’s nephewMarched into the Senator chamber and beat Sumner until he laid unconscious on the Senate floor.Sumner did not recover from injuries for 3 yearsMassachusetts left Sumner’s seat vacant in defiance of the south
13Dred Scott Case Dred Scott Dred Scott v. Sanford A slave Lived in Missouri and then his master moved him to Illinois then to Wisconsin, where slavery was illegalScott’s master dies while in WisconsinScott filed a lawsuit declaring he had lived in a free territory and became a free manDred Scott v. SanfordRoger Taney, Chief JusticeDecision1st. Dred Scott could not file a lawsuit because he was not a citizen2nd Slaves were considered property3rd Congress did not have power to outlaw slavery in the territories4th Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional
14Election of 1852 Election of 1852 Franklin Pierce Democrat 254Winfield Scott Whig 42John Hale Free Soil 0The Whig party was in turmoil which lead to the Democrats easily winning the White HouseWhigs were divided over the issue of slavery
16Republican Party emerges Made up from Free-Soilers, northern Democrats and antislavery WhigsMain goal:Keep slavery out of the territoriesNew party grew in members quicklyBy 1856: they were a national party and ran a candidate for president
17Election of 1856 Election of 1856 James Buchanan Democrat John C. Fremont RepublicanMillard Fillmore American (Know-Nothing)Buchanan was from Pennsylvania who was a northerner with southern principles.Fillmore and American party was fearful that a Republican victory would split the UnionThey voiced a goal of unityWithout a single southern vote, Fremont received 1/3 of the popular vote
21Harpers Ferry Harpers Ferry, Virginia Site of an arsenalJohn Brown plan to raid the arsenal and arm slaves for an insurrectionBrown easily took control of the arsenalNo slave uprising occur, so no help for Brown and his gangUS Army was sent in to crush the raidLead by Robert E. LeeKilled ten raiders and captured BrownBrown’s trialCourt found him guilty of murder and treasonSentenced to deathBrown became a martyr for the abolitionist’s cause
22ELECTION of 1860 Abraham Lincoln: The Emergence of theRepublican Party
23Constitutional Union Party The Candidates of 1860Stephen A. Douglasof IllinoisDemocratic PartyJohn C. Breckinridgeof KentuckyDemocratic PartyJohn Bellof TennesseeConstitutional Union PartyAbraham Lincolnof IllinoisRepublican Party
24Abraham Lincoln Life: 1809-1865 Occupation: Lawyer Political Parties: Whig, RepublicanPolitical Career:Postmaster of Salem, IllinoisIllinois State Representative:United States Representative:Other:Lost US Senate race to Stephen A. Douglas in 1858A Captain in the Black Hawk War
25Republican PlatformThe Republican Party absorbed anti-slavery Whigs, Democrats, Free-Soilers and most American (Know-Nothings) .It became more moderate in its stance on the exclusion of slavery and denounced John Brown's raid.They were firm on no extension of slavery into the new territories.The platform endorsed a protective tariff, the Homestead Act, and internal improvements.
26Stephen A. Douglas Life: 1813-1861 Occupation: Teacher and Lawyer Political Party:Democratic PartyPolitical Career:State Attorney: 1835Illinois State Representative:United State Representative:United State Senator:
27John C. Breckinridge Life: 1821-1875 Occupation: Lawyer Military Career:Mexican War: , MajorPolitical Party: DemocratPolitical Career:Kentucky State Representative: 1849United States Representative:Vice President for James BuchananUnited States Senator 1861
28Democratic PartyThe Democratic Party split completely along sectional lines.Northern Democrats nominated Stephen A. Douglas on a popular sovereignty platform and against obstruction of the Fugitive Slave Law by the states.Southern Democrats nominated John C. Breckenridge on a slave code ticket. The platform favored the extension of slavery into the territories and the annexation of slave-populated Cuba.
29John Bell Life: 1797-1869 Occupation: Lawyer Political Parties: Whig, American (Know-Nothing), Constitutional PartyPolitical Career:Tennessee State Senator:United States RepresentativeUnited States SenatorOther:Secretary of War 1841
30Constitutional Union Party The Constitutional Union Party was the middle-of-the-road political group.The party consisted mainly of former Whigs and American (Know-Nothings).Their platform was the Union, the Constitution, and the Enforcement of the Laws.
34Last attempt at Peace Crittenden Compromise Extend Missouri Compromise Line to the Pacific“Unamendable” amendment that would guarantee forever the right to hold slaves in states south of the compromise lineReceived little support and failed
35Result of the Election of 1860 Southern states start to secede from the UnionFirst being South Carolina on December 20,1860By late February of 1861:Alabama (AL), Florida (FL), Georgia (GA), Louisiana (LA), Mississippi (MS) and Texas (TX) had also seceded from the Union.They created the Confederate States of AmericaJefferson Davis became its first and only President
36Fort Sumter Thus began the Civil War April 11, 1861 First shot of the Civil War is firedConfederates (South) fired onto the Union fortMajor Anderson of the Union Army (North) refused to give up the fortWhen the union ran out of ammunition they surrenderThus began the Civil War