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Slavery Divides the Nation

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1 Slavery Divides the Nation
Chapter 16

2 Missouri Compromise 1819: Missouri applied for statehood.
At the time there were 11 free states and 11 slave states in the US Senate Missouri would upset the balance in the Senate Crisis occur for several months Missouri Compromise Brainchild of Henry Clay Missouri apply as a slave state Maine apply as a free state Congress drew a line at 36’ 30” N and stated that slavery was permitted below that line from the lands of the Louisiana Purchase and slavery was banned north of that line in the Louisiana Purchase

3 Wilmot Proviso Wilmot Proviso
Missouri Compromise applied only to lands of the Louisiana Purchase Mexican War added new lands Slavery issue arises to these new lands David Wilmot Pennsylvania Congressman Called for a law to ban slavery in any territories won from Mexico Passed in the House in 1846 but failed in the Senate Views on Slavery Southerners: Slavery should be allowed anywhere and all runaway slaves should be returned Abolitionists: wanted slavery abolished throughout the entire country Moderates had two views: 1. extend the Missouri Compromise Line, 2. idea of Popular Sovereignty

4 Popular Sovereignty Brainchild of Lewis Cass a Democrat
Definition: the right of people to create their own government How it effects the territories: Voters in a new territory would decide for themselves whether or not to allow slavery

5 Free Soil Party Arise 1848 Zachary Taylor Whig 163
Lewis Cass Democratic 127 Martin Van Buren Free Soil 0 Campaign issues: How to deal with all of the new territory That is why the Free Soil party arises: No slavery in the new territories Cass supported the voice of the people in territories known as Popular Sovereignty Taylor a slave owner did not speak on the issues but Southerners figured he favored slavery Slavery now became a political issue


7 California 1850 Clay vs. Calhoun debates
California request entry into the Union as a Free State This would upset the balance of free and slave states in the Senate Some southerners even suggested to secede from the Union Clay vs. Calhoun debates Calhoun: Slavery be allowed into the territories Fugitive slave law If both demands are not met that the states should part in peace. Clay: Called for a compromise Webster: Spoke after the two men and warned that the nation could not separate in peace, but a civil war would occur instead He viewed slavery as evil but the breaking of the union was worse then slavery.

8 Compromise of 1850 Compromise of 1850 Fugitive Slave Act of 1850
Headed by Henry Clay and Stephen Douglas Five Parts 1. California is allowed to enter the Union as a free state 2. Mexican Cession territory would be divided into New Mexico and Utah territories Voters would decide on the issue of slavery according to popular sovereignty 3. It ended the slave trade in Washington, D.C. 4. It included a strict fugitive slave law 5. It settled a border dispute between Texas and New Mexico Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 Required all citizens to help catch runaway slaves Those who did not follow the law could be fined Reaction to Compromise FSA enraged the abolitionists By enforcing it, abolitionist became unwilling supporters of slavery Tension remained high because neither side got what they wanted

9 Uncle Tom’s Cabin Uncle Tom’s Cabin Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe
Northerners embraced the book Saw slavery as a moral evil now Congress could no longer avoid it Southerners claimed it did not give a true picture of slavery

10 Kansas-Nebraska Act Nebraska Territory
Was divided into two territories Nebraska and Kansas With the settlers deciding the issue of slavery by popular-sovereignty This was settled in the Kansas-Nebraska Act Stephen Douglas was creator of this act President Franklin Pierce supported the bill and helped it pass through Congress Act goes against the Missouri Compromise and angers many northerners

11 Kansas Two Governments “Bleeding Kansas” New arrivals in Kansas
Proslavery and Anti-slavery settlers rush into Kansas Border Ruffians: proslavery settlers from Missouri who roughed up anti-slavery settlers Two Governments 1855: Border Ruffians and Proslavery settlers elected a proslavery legislature illegally Anti-slavery settlers refused to accept that government and elected their own government “Bleeding Kansas” 1856: Proslavery settlers attacked an anti-slavery settlement in Lawrence, Kansas John Brown, an abolitionist, decided to strike back Pottawatomie Creek Brown and six other men dragged out 5 proslavery settlers and murdered them This caused both sides to engage in guerrilla warfare, that resulted in 200 dead

12 Charles Sumner Charles Sumner Massachusetts Senator
Leading abolitionist senator Denounced the proslavery legislature in Kansas Criticized and singled out South Carolina, Senator Andrew Butler Congressman Preston Brooks Butler’s nephew Marched into the Senator chamber and beat Sumner until he laid unconscious on the Senate floor. Sumner did not recover from injuries for 3 years Massachusetts left Sumner’s seat vacant in defiance of the south

13 Dred Scott Case Dred Scott Dred Scott v. Sanford A slave
Lived in Missouri and then his master moved him to Illinois then to Wisconsin, where slavery was illegal Scott’s master dies while in Wisconsin Scott filed a lawsuit declaring he had lived in a free territory and became a free man Dred Scott v. Sanford Roger Taney, Chief Justice Decision 1st. Dred Scott could not file a lawsuit because he was not a citizen 2nd Slaves were considered property 3rd Congress did not have power to outlaw slavery in the territories 4th Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional

14 Election of 1852 Election of 1852
Franklin Pierce Democrat 254 Winfield Scott Whig 42 John Hale Free Soil 0 The Whig party was in turmoil which lead to the Democrats easily winning the White House Whigs were divided over the issue of slavery


16 Republican Party emerges
Made up from Free-Soilers, northern Democrats and antislavery Whigs Main goal: Keep slavery out of the territories New party grew in members quickly By 1856: they were a national party and ran a candidate for president

17 Election of 1856 Election of 1856 James Buchanan Democrat
John C. Fremont Republican Millard Fillmore American (Know-Nothing) Buchanan was from Pennsylvania who was a northerner with southern principles. Fillmore and American party was fearful that a Republican victory would split the Union They voiced a goal of unity Without a single southern vote, Fremont received 1/3 of the popular vote




21 Harpers Ferry Harpers Ferry, Virginia
Site of an arsenal John Brown plan to raid the arsenal and arm slaves for an insurrection Brown easily took control of the arsenal No slave uprising occur, so no help for Brown and his gang US Army was sent in to crush the raid Lead by Robert E. Lee Killed ten raiders and captured Brown Brown’s trial Court found him guilty of murder and treason Sentenced to death Brown became a martyr for the abolitionist’s cause

22 ELECTION of 1860 Abraham Lincoln:
The Emergence of the Republican Party

23 Constitutional Union Party
The Candidates of 1860 Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois Democratic Party John C. Breckinridge of Kentucky Democratic Party John Bell of Tennessee Constitutional Union Party Abraham Lincoln of Illinois Republican Party

24 Abraham Lincoln Life: 1809-1865 Occupation: Lawyer Political Parties:
Whig, Republican Political Career: Postmaster of Salem, Illinois Illinois State Representative: United States Representative: Other: Lost US Senate race to Stephen A. Douglas in 1858 A Captain in the Black Hawk War

25 Republican Platform The Republican Party absorbed anti-slavery Whigs, Democrats, Free-Soilers and most American (Know-Nothings) . It became more moderate in its stance on the exclusion of slavery and denounced John Brown's raid. They were firm on no extension of slavery into the new territories. The platform endorsed a protective tariff, the Homestead Act, and internal improvements.

26 Stephen A. Douglas Life: 1813-1861 Occupation: Teacher and Lawyer
Political Party: Democratic Party Political Career: State Attorney: 1835 Illinois State Representative: United State Representative: United State Senator:

27 John C. Breckinridge Life: 1821-1875 Occupation: Lawyer
Military Career: Mexican War: , Major Political Party: Democrat Political Career: Kentucky State Representative: 1849 United States Representative: Vice President for James Buchanan United States Senator 1861

28 Democratic Party The Democratic Party split completely along sectional lines. Northern Democrats nominated Stephen A. Douglas on a popular sovereignty platform and against obstruction of the Fugitive Slave Law by the states. Southern Democrats nominated John C. Breckenridge on a slave code ticket. The platform favored the extension of slavery into the territories and the annexation of slave-populated Cuba.

29 John Bell Life: 1797-1869 Occupation: Lawyer Political Parties:
Whig, American (Know-Nothing), Constitutional Party Political Career: Tennessee State Senator: United States Representative United States Senator Other: Secretary of War 1841

30 Constitutional Union Party
The Constitutional Union Party was the middle-of-the-road political group. The party consisted mainly of former Whigs and American (Know-Nothings). Their platform was the Union, the Constitution, and the Enforcement of the Laws.



33 Electoral College Breakdown

34 Last attempt at Peace Crittenden Compromise
Extend Missouri Compromise Line to the Pacific “Unamendable” amendment that would guarantee forever the right to hold slaves in states south of the compromise line Received little support and failed

35 Result of the Election of 1860
Southern states start to secede from the Union First being South Carolina on December 20,1860 By late February of 1861: Alabama (AL), Florida (FL), Georgia (GA), Louisiana (LA), Mississippi (MS) and Texas (TX) had also seceded from the Union. They created the Confederate States of America Jefferson Davis became its first and only President

36 Fort Sumter Thus began the Civil War April 11, 1861
First shot of the Civil War is fired Confederates (South) fired onto the Union fort Major Anderson of the Union Army (North) refused to give up the fort When the union ran out of ammunition they surrender Thus began the Civil War

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