Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 7 African Americans: From Slavery to Segregation Introduction A. African Americans are the second largest minority population in the U.S.A. today."— Presentation transcript:
CHAPTER 7 African Americans: From Slavery to Segregation Introduction A. African Americans are the second largest minority population in the U.S.A. today. B. Came to the U.S.A. involuntarily, unlike all the 3 streams of immigrants. Period of Slavery A.During the period 1650-1700, the tobacco plantations in Virginia needed steady supply of labor, and slavery was the solution.
The Impact of Slavery On Its Victims A. In the Book Time on the Cross (1974), Fogel and Engerman observed that slavery was an economic system in which slave owners rewarded productive work. B. In a 2 nd book, Without Consent or Contract (1989) Fogel argued that slavery did have a devastating effect on the lives of the slaves because of the denial of cultural self- identification; economic and political opportunities.
Immigrant or Colonized Minority? A. Despite similarities with the immigrant and colonized models, they cannot be completely applied to the African American experience. Emancipation and Reconstruction A. The Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863 ordered the slaves to be freed; and authorized the U.S. Arm Forces to enlist freedmen.
B. After the assassination of President Lincoln in 1865, President Andrew Johnson adopted a Reconstruction plan similar to Lincoln’s. By the end of 1865, the 13 th Amendment, which abolished the legal institution of slavery had been ratified. C. After the Reconstruction, Blacks were elected to public offices for the first time.
D. Congress approved the 14 th Amendment, which forbade states to deny any person “the equal protection of the laws.” E. Congress approved the 15 th Amendment (voting rights), which prohibited states from denying any person the right to vote on grounds of race, or color.
White Hostility A. White hostility followed the approval of the 13 th Amendment because it ended the Southern way of life. B. Ku Klux Klan (K.K.K.) was formed in 1866 to continue the hostility against free blacks. Members were White Protestant Males.
The Restoration of White Supremacy A. The “Black Codes” are new southern laws that severely restricted the rights of free black. These codes were introduced because of the approval-- 13 th Amendment. B. “Sharecropping” was a system of agricultural production in the South that worked to the greatest disadvantage of Black tenants who were often cheated of wages and their share of crop— economic slavery. C. Jim Crow laws segregated Blacks in every type of public facility from schools to cemeteries.
Voting Restrictions A. “Literacy tests” or to be property holders: blacks did not vote because they could not pass the tests or be property owners. B. “Grandfather Clause,” i.e., people could qualify to vote only if their ancestors had been eligible to vote in 1860—excluded blacks. C. These restrictions were meant to circumvent laws, e.g., the 15 th Amendment—voting rights. Dred Scott vs. Sandford 1857--case Union (Free states) v. Confederate (slave states)— Civil War 1850 Missouri Compromise
Separate but Equal A. The famous Supreme Court case Plessy v. Ferguson is best known as the “separate but equal” case. In 1896, a Louisiana law required separate rail car facilities for Whites and Blacks. Migration and Urbanization A. During the decade 1910-1920 with outbreak of WW I, the employment conditions for Blacks changed because they found jobs in the Northern cities, e.g., in iron and steel mills, auto construction, and other industries causing rapid increases in migration and urbanization.
The Civil Rights Movement: Separate and Subordinate A. The “Atlanta Comprise” was a speech by Booker T. Washington about the status of Blacks. B. Booker T. Washington’s views on race relations were central to the Tuskegee point of view, which stressed appeasement of the Whites and the importance of self-help. Burden is on Blacks
The Niagara Movement A. In 1905, a small group of Black “radicals” under the leadership of W.E.B. Du Bois formed the Niagara Movement. B. The purpose of the Movement was to express opposition to Booker T. Washington’s program. Their “Declaration of Principles” stated that Black people should fight for their civil rights. Burden is on Whites C. According to W.E.B. Du Bois, the problem of the 20 th century is the problem of color line, i.e., people will be judged on the basis of their skin color.
D. In 1909, Niagara group members joined with some White liberals to form the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). The leaders of the NAACP opposed the “ever-growing oppression and the disenfranchisement” of Black people. President of NAACP is Kweisi Mfume. Note: Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Du Bois agreed that Blacks should be economically independent from Whites but they disagreed on the strategies, i.e., Washington wanted appeasement of Whites and segregation. By contrast, Du Bois wanted Blacks to fight for their civil rights and demand full rights as American citizens.
Continued Racial Violence A. Lynching of Blacks by Whites in the South continued—KKK violence increased. B. The mob attacks by Whites on Black property in 1919 led to so much blood shed that James Weldon Johnson (1968:304), head of the NAACP, called it “the Red Summer.” C. “Black Renaissance” (rebirth) grew out of the racial violence. Purpose to celebrate Black pride and nationalism—separatism. Black pride idea was further strengthened by writers and artists like Langston Hughes and Claude McKay in Harlem, New York.
Separatism A. Marcus Garvey organized the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) with a major long-range goal to enable Black Americans to leave U.S. and settle an independent nation in Africa, e.g., Liberia and Sierra Leone. B. Both the NAACP and the socialist leader A. Philip Randolph agreed that Garvey’s “Back to Africa” movement must be stopped.
Black Muslims A. Elijah Poole, now Elijah Muhammad, leader of the Black Muslims. B. Purpose to further religion, race pride, and self- help. C. Members want a separate nation within the U.S.A. D. Louis Farrakhan, leader in the 1990’s to present— Nation of Islam. E. “Million Man March” was organized by Louis Farrakhan in Washington D.C. to address the status of Black men--1995
Strategy, Tactics, and Conflict A. In June 1941, President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued an executive order prohibiting racial discrimination in defense industries. The order established a Fair Employment Practices Committee (FEPC) to investigate possible violations of the order. Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) A. CORE was formed to further nonviolent direct action. CORE’S first strategy was patient negotiation. If this failed, the next step was to arouse public opinions against discriminatory actions, e.g., boycotts, strikes, etc.
The Decline of Colonialism A. In response to a proposed march on Washington led by A. Philip Randolph, President Truman acted in 1948 to end all segregation in the armed forces of the U.S.A. Victories in the Courts A. Desegregation in the military and victories in other related public education cases laid the groundwork for one of the most important court cases in the history of the U.S.A.
The Brown V. Topeka Board of Education (1954) Supreme Court case called into question the “separate but equal doctrine” approved in the Plessy decision in 1896—de jure segregation (legalized segregation) That segregation has no place in the field of public education. Today =de facto segregation (socioeconomic status) B. Thurgood Marshall, former Supreme Court Judge, was the defense lawyer in this case. C. In the Brown ruling in May 1954 (Brown I), the Supreme Court recognized the difficulties in desegregating public schools.
D. Another decision in 1955 (Brown II) on the question of how the transition from segregation to desegregation was to be achieved. Differences in states etc. are the issues. E. The Little Rock School Board worked on a school desegregation plan in 1954, after Brown I decision, and moved ahead to desegregate. State officials of Arkansas attempted to “nullify” the Brown decisions, thus preventing Black students from entering the school. The students were finally admitted when President Eisenhower sent Federal troops to Little Rock Central High School.
F. Despite, the court’s decision to remedy segregation. Many Blacks doubted the law’s power to end discrimination.