Presentation on theme: "I. Slavery. A. The Un-United States After the Revolutionary War, the country was divided by a single issue: Slavery Post-war attitude toward slavery –North:"— Presentation transcript:
A. The Un-United States After the Revolutionary War, the country was divided by a single issue: Slavery Post-war attitude toward slavery –North: wanted free states (no longer needed slaves) –South: Needed slaves (economy) –North: Loved the group, but hated the individual –South: Hated the group, but loved the individual Sectionalism develops within the country Most slaves are brought from Africa and sold to the south by northerners –Most common port was NYC
B. Slavery and the Constitution Does the Constitution recognize slavery? Does the Constitution protect slavery? 3/5 Compromise –Settled a census dispute on how slaves were counted –Each slave would count as 3/5 of a person –Why was this such a big deal? Commerce Compromise (international slave trade) –Congress would re-evaluate the IST in 20 years –IST outlawed in 1808 Fugitive Slave Law –State government’s responsibility to return escaped slaves to their owners –Why was this not effective?
C. Plantations of the Upper & Lower South Upper South: –Soil Exhaustion (cotton, tobacco, food) –Needed fewer slaves –Older slaves were freed –Laws were passed to protect the slaves and restrict emancipation Lower South: –Sugar and Rice were mainly grown. Some cotton. –Conditions were worse in the lower south (heat/work) –Being “sold south” was very bad for a slave. Could be used as punishment or threat
E.Two event that solidified slavery Invention of the Cotton Gin - 1793 Eli Whitney (CT) Before the Gin, only Long-staple cotton grown –Needed wet areas on the coast (GA & SC) After the Gin, short staple cotton (lint) was grown Deseeding –Before gin: 1 lb in 10 hours –After gin: 1000 lbs in 10 hours Outlawing of the International slave trade Escalates the value of slaves Value of slaves –1810: $900 –1860: $1500 Breeding instead of buying
F. Evils of Slavery Treated humans as animals –Slave auctions No respect for family units –Children & Marriages No political rights No legal rights Cruelty by masters and overseers Adults treated as children Intolerable working conditions Intolerable living conditions Morally wrong – (Lincoln and Republican Party)
G.Defenses for Slavery Better off in America than the jungles of Africa –Receive better care Christianization Civilized Slaves don’t want to leave –Especially house workers Biblical approval of slavery –Philemon Slaves were biologically and mentally inferior
H. Slave Codes Illegal for slaves to learn to read and write Illegal to attend church without a white person present Must have a written pass to leave home Restrictions on manumissions –Manumissions: granting a slave freedom for serving in the military Enforced by Slave patrols
I.Nat Turner Learned to read and write & became very intelligent (was a slave preacher) Believed he was a prophet for God against slavery Had several visions that led to his revolt After an eclipse & atmospheric disturbance, Turner rose up to fight August 21, 1831: Turner & 6 men raided his master’s house and killed the family Turner’s force grew to 40 slaves –In all 55 white people were killed
200 slaves were killed because of Turner’s revolt –Most had nothing to do with the revolt Turner was captured on October 30 He was tried & convicted on November 5 November 11: Turner was hanged and skinned then put on public display
J.The Underground RR Led slaves to freedom from the south Primarily the work of the Quakers –Levi Coffin was the unofficial President –Thomas Garrett Ran through 14 states 3,000 conductors rescued over 100,000 slaves They followed the north star What type of terrain would they use Waterways were hard for dogs to track
Railroad Vocabulary Freight Lines Stations Conductors Brakemen Slaves Routes Safe house Guides Safe house owners
K.Harriet Tubman Nicknamed “Moses” Freed over 300 slaves including her parents $40,000 offered for her capture She carried a pistol to keep slaves moving –“You’ll be free, or you’ll die During the war, she served as a nurse & spy
L.Two Different Worlds: South Purely agricultural Cotton gin & southern expansion made slavery profitable 5 ½ Million southerners –Only 26% owned slaves –46,000 owned 20 or more –Less than 3000 owned 100 or more –12 owned 500 or more (10 in the same district in MS) Slave owners were the political and social power in the south Owning slaves was the road to status and success –Southern American Dream
Two different worlds: North Immigration and technology make slavery obsolete Immigrants become cheap labor By 1820: only 3,000 slaves in the north Textile mills ran on southern cotton 140,000 factories employed 1 ½ million workers Produced $2 billion worth of goods Slavery goes from a political to a moral issue
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