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The Age of Exploration oNpfM4.

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1 The Age of Exploration oNpfM4

2 Section 1 Question of focus: In what ways did the European nations prosper through exploration in the 15 th century?

3 Motives and Means For almost a thousand years, Europeans had mostly remained in one area of the world. At end of 15 th century they set out on a remarkable series of overseas journeys. What caused them to undertake such dangerous voyages to the ends of the earth? 1.Had wanted to go to Asia since the days of Marco Polo. 2.Economic motive was large, like spices from the Middle East. 3.Also wanted to expand because of religious zeal.

4 Spiritual and secular affairs were connected. “God, Glory, and Gold” were the chief motives for European expansion, but what made the voyages possible? 1. Had reached a level of technology that enabled them to make regular voyages beyond Europe. a. Cartographers-more accurate maps and sea charts were made. b.Astrolabe-sailors used this to measure latitude at sea, didn’t work well on rough seas. c.Caravel-Portuguese ship that combined the square sails of Europe with Arab lateen or triangular sails. Also had the sternpost rudder and numerous masts of Chinese ships. Could sail better in the wind. d.European ships had more armaments like the cannon. e.Magnetic compass-determines direction (iron in ships could give a false readings) f.Mercator projection-shows longitude and latitude.

5 What's on the menu The following food would be in one of these ships for a three month trip. This would be expected to feed 190 men. 1) 8,000 pounds of salted beef, 2,800 pork, 600 salt cod, few beef tongues 2) 15,000 brown biscuits, 5,000 white Biscuits, 30 bushels of oatmeal, 40 bushels dried peas, 1 ½ bushels mustard seed 3) 1 barrel salt, 1 barrel flower 4) 11 wood castes of butter and 1 large caste of vinegar 5) 10,500 gallons of beer, 3,500 gallons of water, 2 large caste of cider


7 combined square and lateen sails in the same vessel: gave driving power when running with the wind, adequate performance against the wind and maneuverability through tacking

8 Marine Knowledge 2.European monarchs had increased their power and their resources and could focus beyond their borders

9 knowledge of the sky and clouds - changes in winds and weather, storms approaching or clear, still weather (when to wet down sails to catch even the faintest stirring of the wind) knowledge of tides, surf and shore conditions water depth measured in lengths of six feet called a fathom - how deep the water is determines how close to shore a ship could run (relevant since a hole in the bottom of a ship caused by a rock or reef is a bit of a problem; also, getting stuck in the mud or left high and dry on the ebb tide is embarrassing)

10 knowledge of birds - which are shore birds and which are sea-going (knowing the difference tells you, generally, whether you are near or far from land) knowledge of plants – land or sea plant (food for fish), this is such and such a plant, this type of fish eats it knowledge of fish - certain fish school near land, others in the deep blue sea - fish are an important supplement to the food supplies carried on board on a long sea voyage

11 Skills of the Sailor Skills of the Sailor

12 good balance high up on a slick, wet, rounded wooden beam that moves and sways with the constantly rolling deck of the ship

13 setting and trimming sails, maintaining and repairing sails

14 fight pirates, enemies, unfriendly natives, sea nymphs, sirens and monsters

15 willingness to take risks, get along with others, endure terrible food and unknown diseases, travel a long way from home for years at a time

16 Imagine yourself in the middle of the deep blue sea on a wooden ship only two classrooms long and half a classroom wide, a crew the size of this class, with enough food and water for three weeks; what sort of questions would you need to be able to answer? 1]where are we? 2]what's our course? 3]how fast are we going? 4]which direction are we going? 5]how do we get from where we are to where we are going? 6]what are the dangers? the unknowns? 7]how do we get back on course after a storm? 8]what do we do if we don't reach land at the end of our food and water supply?

17 log book - obviously a rather key item - Columbus kept his but turned in a summarized, and apparently highly revised version from that kept by his two co-captains, to the King and Queen of Spain (his employers)

18 compass - featuring a magnetized needle which would indicate the magnetic north pole once you know where you are, can plot a course and follow it by setting sails and steering along an imaginary magnetic line across the open sea to get where you need to go

19 A Race for Riches 1.Portuguese Explorers Took the lead in exploration. Prince Henry lead. He began to probe Africa, a new source of gold. Became known as “Gold Coast”. Lead down the coast of Africa and eventually Vasco de Gamma went around and onto India. Took control of spice trade. Took control of Melaka, a spice trade port on the Malay Peninsula. Then took control of Moluccas strait. The Portuguese had neither the power, nor desire to colonize the Asian regions.

20 A Race for Riches 2.Spanish Explorers The Spanish sailed westward across the Atlantic Ocean to find the route to Asia. Christopher Columbus believed he could reach Asia by sailing west. Persuaded Queen Isabella to finance his mission where he explored Cuba and the island of Hispaniola. Called this area the Indies. Ferdinand Magellan took over exploration searching for El Paso. a. October 1520-went down coast of South America and passed through a water way (Later called the Strait of Magellan) into the Pacific Ocean. b. Went onto the Philippines, but was killed by Natives, still considered as first person to circumnavigate the globe.

21 A Race for Riches 3.New Lands to Explore Both countries feared that the other might claim some of its lands. Treaty of Tordesillas solved problem with a line of demarcation separating lands, north to south through the Atlantic Ocean, easternmost part of South America. East of line Portugal, west of line Spain. Other countries became involved in exploring like John Cabot of England, explored New England coastline. Amerigo Vesspucci and his letters describing the land he saw. Led to the use of the name America. All this became known as the new world.

22 The Spanish Empire Conquistadors ( Spanish conquerors) established overseas empire. 1.Aztec Civilization Destroyed (Mexico) Hernan Cortez landed at Veracruz and marched to Tenochtitlan. The Aztec leader, Montezuma, allowed them into the city because they thought them to be gods. Eventually tensions arose and a conflict broke out. The Spanish eventually defeated the Aztec and took their lands.

23 The Spanish Empire 2.Conquest of the Inca Francisco Pizarro arrived in Peru. The Inca Empire experienced an epidemic of smallpox. Pizarro captured Atahuallpa (Inca Leader). He later executed him and took their land.

24 Why Were the Spanish Victorious? 1)The Spanish had superior military technology, such as muskets, cannons, and armor. 2)They used horses, which frightened some Indians, who had never seen such animals. 3)The Spanish were able to take advantage of division and discontent among the Indians. 4)In fact, Indians provided the Spanish with much of their fighting power.

25 5)Survival skills that Europeans learned from 6)Hunting and trapping of forest animals Native Americans: A result that occurred from encounters between the Spanish and Native Americans 7)Native American population declined

26 The Spanish Empire 3. The Columbian Exchange Much territory in Mexico, Central and South America now belonged to the Spanish. Indians were declared to be subjects of Spain. Forced labor, starvation and diseases took their toll on the Indians. Catholic priests converted and baptized many Indians. Spanish established colonies, plantations and ranches to export products (sugar, cotton, vanilla, livestock, potatoes, cocoa, corn, tomatoes, and tobacco) to Europe. In turn the Spanish were bringing items to the Americas that they did not have. (horses, cattle, and wheat) The result was the Columbian exchange.

27 European Rivals In the 17 th century the English landed on the Northwestern coast of India and established trade. The Dutch set up the East India Company took control of Indian ocean trade. The Dutch set up the West India Company to compete with the Spanish and Portuguese in the Americas. French set up the colonies in Canada along the St. Lawrence River. Samuel de Champlain founded Quebec. By end of the 17 th century England had established control over most of the eastern seaboard of North America.

28 Section 1 Review Spanish conquerors of the Americas conquistadors Spanish conqueror of Mexico Hernan Cortes Wealth, trade, religious zeal and political ambition drove the _______ expansion European The right to use Native Americans as slaves encomienda

29 Section 1 Review Plants and animals exchanged between the Old and New Worlds Columbia Exchange The Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494 gave Spain control of almost all of what? The Americas Spanish conqueror of the Inca Empire Francisco Pizarro The Aztec rulers of Mexico fought against the forces of which Spanish warrior?

30 Section 1 Review Hernan Cortes South America, West Africa, and India maintained trade interest with what country? Portugal Massachusetts, New York, and northwestern India established colonies or trade relations with what country? England

31 Section 2 How did European expansion and the slave trade affect the people of Africa? TFEGIY

32 Trade, Colonies and Mercantilism In less than 300 years the European age of exploration changed the world. Sometimes led to destruction of local civilization. Did produce a new age of commercial capitalism. Europeans established many trading posts, and colonies. Colonies played a key role in mercantilism. Mercantilism is a set of principles that dominated economic thought in the 17 th century. Prosperity of a nation depended on large supply of bullion (Gold and Silver). Nations tried to have a favorable balance of trade. Governments granted subsidies to new industries and tried to improve transportation. Placed high tariffs on foreign goods. Colonies were a source of raw materials and a market for finished goods.

33 The Ideals of Mercantilism Building a network of overseas colonies; Forbidding colonies to trade with other nations; Monopolizing markets with staple ports; Banning the export of gold and silver, even for payments; Forbidding trade to be carried in foreign ships; Export subsidies; Promoting manufacturing with research or direct subsidies; Limiting wages; Maximizing the use of domestic resources; Restricting domestic consumption with non-tariff barrier to trade.

34 THE ALANTIC SLAVE TRADE 1. The Slave Trade Primary market for enslaved Africans was Southwest Asia. Eventually plantations were established in the Americas requiring workers, so enslaved Africans were shipped to the Americas.

35 THE ALANTIC SLAVE TRADE 2.Growth of the Slave Trade 1518 Spanish ship carried the first enslaved Africans directly to the Americas. Became part of the triangular trade that connected Europe, Africa, and the Americas together. As many as 10 million slaves were brought to the Americas. Many died along the way. Journey became known as the middle passage.

36 The Middle Passage

37 Slave Ship Plan

38 “Coffin” Position: Onboard a Slave Ship

39 Slave Ship Interior

40 Onboard the Slave Ship

41 Revolt Aboard a Slave Ship

42 African Captives Thrown Overboard Sharks followed the slave ships across the Atlantic!

43 THE ALANTIC SLAVE TRADE 3.Sources of Enslaved Africans Before Europeans arrived in Africa most enslaved persons were prisoners of war. Europeans began taking free blacks as slaves and in some cases countries were depopulated because losing young men.

44 Effects of the Slave Trade Varied from area to area. The desire of slave traders to provide a constant supply of enslaved persons led to increased warfare. Had devastating effect on places like Benin. (They kind of lost faith and they gave up, changing their culture). The use of slaves remained an accepted belief in European society.

45 Section 2 Review Paying for Europeans for labor upset trade, growing sugarcane was labor intensive, native American population was small due to diseases brought from Europe. These were all reasons why slaves were needed in the __. The Caribbean 17 th century economic theory Mercantilism

46 Section 2 Review Increased warfare, depopulation of some areas, deterioration of art and culture. All of these were impacts of the__. Slave trade on African society Slaves from Africa were obtained by Europeans from African slave what? merchants.

47 Section 2 Review The pattern of trade connecting Europe, Africa, and the American continents. Triangular trade Slave owners in the sixteenth century discouraged slaves from having offspring because? Believed that buying a new slave was less expensive then raising a child. Large agricultural estates plantations

48 Section 2 Review Crop introduced to Europe from Southwest Asia Sugarcane King Alfonso of Congo wrote a letter in 1526 to the king of Portugal describing ? The corruption of the slave trade and how it was depopulating his country. The journey of slaves from Africa to America Middle Passage

49 Section 3 How did Spain and Portugal profit form their colonies in the Americas? Ldos

50 Colonial Empires in Latin America Portugal came to dominate Brazil. Spain controlled the rest of the area. 1.Social Classes Classes were based on privilege. At the top were the Peninsulares-born in Europe, held all important positions. Creoles-descendants of European born in Latin America, controlled land and business. Mestizos-multiracial-European and Native Americans. Native Americans-were lowest class used for labor until blacks arrived. Mulattos - offspring of Africans and Europeans. Zambos-offspring of Africans and Natives.

51 Colonial Empires in Latin America 2.Economic Foundations Profit from colonies was key. One source was gold and silver. Farming became a more long lasting and rewarding source of profit. Created a system of large landowners and dependent peasants that remained a lasting feature. Trade provided another avenue for profit.

52 Colonial Empires in Latin America 3.State and Church Communication between Americas and Europe was difficult. Monarchs could not keep a close eye on empires. Portugal, in Brazil, created a governor-general to help control the area for the monarch. The Spanish appointed viceroys. Both countries were determined to Christianize the people in their areas. The Catholic church provided an outlet other then marriage for women they could enter convents and become nuns.

53 Section 3 Review Peninsular, mulattoes, and mestizos were all Colonaial American what? Social classes Descendants of Europeans born in Latin America Creoles Spanish and Portuguese kings appointed__ to help them rule their empires in the New World. Viceroys Offspring of Europeans and Native Americans mestizos

54 Section 3 Review They aided European powers by bringing Native Americans together in villages where they were taught trades and encouraged to grow crops. Catholic missionaries Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz wrote poetry and prose and urged woman to do what? Be educated Spanish and Portuguese officials born in Europe Peninsulares Dominated by Portugal in the 1500’s Brazil

55 Section 3 Review Allowed authorities to draft native workers Mita They were well-organized and profitable in the New World Jesuit missions

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