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The Age of Exploration Chapter 13

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1 The Age of Exploration Chapter 13
Can play crash course if wanted (12:09 min)

2 Exploration and Expansion
Section 1 Question of focus: In what ways did the European nations prosper through exploration in the 15th century? Answer to the question of focus: acquired territories, wealth and power. They did this by expanding trade and grew rich by acquiring new lands. The drive to expand abroad had been drive by God, Glory and Gold. In this section we are going to focus on these forces.

3 Motives and Means For almost a thousand years, Europeans had mostly remained in one area of the world. At end of 15th century they set out on a remarkable series of overseas journeys. What caused them to undertake such dangerous voyages to the ends of the earth? 1. Had wanted to go to Asia since the days of Marco Polo. 2. Economic motive was large, like spices from the Middle East. 3. Also wanted to expand because of religious zeal. Europeans had been content with remaining in one area of the world, but between 1500’s-1800’s the they began to expand to the rest of the world. Europeans had long been attracted Asia. In the late 1200’s (13th century) Marco Polo with his father and uncle visited the court of the Mongol Ruler Kublai Khan. Marco had written ( in The Travels) of what he saw in the magnificent court wetting the appetite of Europeans. Many including Marco Polo became mesmerized by what they read. Ottoman Turks in the 1300’s over took the region of travel to the east and Europe began to look to the sea. Economies of Europe also looked to expand ands the spices of the east seemed a key way of doing so. These spices had key properties in preserving food and its flavor. During the crusades Europeans had been introduced to nutmeg, ginger, cinnamon, and pepper. These all added flavor to the bland foods of Europe. Problem was that using over land routes they were to expensive by the time they were bought off of Arab Middle men and distributed by the merchant families of Italy like the medici. The most economic means of gaining these would be through cutting the middle man and finding a direct route of shipment through sea. They also had hopes of finding precious metals like gold and the belief of Hernan Corte’s that the native people needed to be brought to the light and their souls saved. After the crusades Europeans decided it was no longer to fight with the Muslims but to now convert the rest of the non- Christian world.

4 Spiritual and secular affairs were connected
Spiritual and secular affairs were connected. “God, Glory, and Gold” were the chief motives for European expansion, but what made the voyages possible? 1. Had reached a level of technology that enabled them to make regular voyages beyond Europe. a. Cartographers-more accurate maps and sea charts were made. b. Astrolabe-sailors used this to measure latitude at sea, didn’t work well on rough seas. c. Caravel-Portuguese ship that combined the square sails of Europe with Arab lateen or triangular sails. Also had the sternpost rudder and numerous masts of Chinese ships. Could sail better in the wind. d. European ships had more armaments like the cannon. e. Magnetic compass-determines direction (iron in ships could give a false readings) f. Mercator projection-shows longitude and latitude. When we compare it to travel to outer space what is the main thing we have advanced in to make space travel possible? Technology European monarchies had increased there power and resources and as a result their funds to finance expeditions and new technologies. Cartographers where employed to make maps of new charted lands. The astrolabe- perfected by the Muslims sailors used to determine their location at sea. It was a brass circle with rings that carefully adjusted rings that marked off degrees. Using sea rings to mark the stars a captain could calculate latitude, how far north or south a ship was. Later the sextant would replace the Astrolabe by measuring the distance of the stars from the Horizon. Before the 1200’s European ships could not sail against the wind. In the 1400’s the caravel was designed. Caravel was 65 feet long, large cargo, and a shallow draft ( the keel did not go very deep- reference Chesapeake bay)This vessel had triangular sails adopted by the Arabs allowed ships to sail against the wind. The compass was invented by the Chinese and was away to always locate north.

5 What's on the menu The following food would be in one of these ships for a three month trip. This would be expected to feed 190 men. 8,000 pounds of salted beef, 2,800 pork, 600 salt cod, few beef tongues 15,000 brown biscuits, 5,000 white Biscuits, 30 bushels of oatmeal, 40 bushels dried peas, 1 ½ bushels mustard seed 1 barrel salt, 1 barrel flower 11 wood castes of butter and 1 large caste of vinegar 10,500 gallons of beer, 3,500 gallons of water, 2 large caste of cider The picture is of cow tongue which is explained on the slide.

6 The following food would be in one of these ships for a three month trip. This would be expected to feed 190 men. 8,000 pounds of salted beef, 2,800 pork, 600 salt cod, few beef tongues 15,000 brown biscuits, 5,000 white Biscuits

7 combined square and lateen sails in the same
vessel: gave driving power when running with the wind, adequate performance against the wind and maneuverability through tacking Not in fill in When theses two types of sail were combine you got the best of both worlds. The power of the triangle sail and the power of the square sail.

8 2. European monarchs had increased their
2. European monarchs had increased their power and their resources and could focus beyond their borders Marine Knowledge

9 knowledge of the sky and clouds - changes in winds and weather, storms approaching or clear, still weather (when to wet down sails to catch even the faintest stirring of the wind) knowledge of tides, surf and shore conditions water depth measured in lengths of six feet called a fathom - how deep the water is determines how close to shore a ship could run (relevant since a hole in the bottom of a ship caused by a rock or reef is a bit of a problem; also, getting stuck in the mud or left high and dry on the ebb tide is embarrassing)

10 knowledge of birds - which are shore birds and which are sea-going (knowing the difference tells you, generally, whether you are near or far from land) knowledge of plants – land or sea plant (food for fish), this is such and such a plant, this type of fish eats it knowledge of fish - certain fish school near land, others in the deep blue sea - fish are an important supplement to the food supplies carried on board on a long sea voyage

11 Skills of the Sailor

12 good balance high up on a slick, wet, rounded wooden beam that moves and sways with the constantly rolling deck of the ship

13 setting and trimming sails, maintaining and repairing sails

14 fight pirates, enemies, unfriendly natives, sea nymphs, sirens and monsters

15 willingness to take risks, get along with others, endure terrible food and unknown diseases, travel a long way from home for years at a time

16 Imagine yourself in the middle of the deep blue sea on a wooden ship only two classrooms long and half a classroom wide, a crew the size of this class, with enough food and water for three weeks; what sort of questions would you need to be able to answer? 1] where are we? 2] what's our course? 3] how fast are we going? 4] which direction are we going? 5] how do we get from where we are to where we are going? 6] what are the dangers? the unknowns? 7] how do we get back on course after a storm? 8] what do we do if we don't reach land at the end of our food and water supply?

17 log book - obviously a rather key item - Columbus kept his but turned in a summarized, and apparently highly revised version from that kept by his two co-captains, to the King and Queen of Spain (his employers)

18 compass - featuring a magnetized needle which would indicate the magnetic north pole
once you know where you are, can plot a course and follow it by setting sails and steering along an imaginary magnetic line across the open sea to get where you need to go

19 A Race for Riches 1. Portuguese Explorers
Took the lead in exploration. Prince Henry lead. He began to probe Africa, a new source of gold. Became known as “Gold Coast”. Lead down the coast of Africa and eventually Vasco de Gamma went around and onto India. Took control of spice trade. Took control of Melaka, a spice trade port on the Malay Peninsula. Then took control of Moluccas strait. The Portuguese had neither the power, nor desire to colonize the Asian regions. Clip on the map to show the power of Portugal during this age (8:39 min). The whole thing to remember about the age of exploration is that it was a race of who could find the goods the fastest. Portuguese were the first to the race. They had very strong government support ( which meant funding) 1520 the under the sponsorship of Prince Henry the navigator they traveled south along the west coast of Africa discovering gold deposits and establishing trade posts ( gold ,Ivory and eventually captives as slaves). This resulted in the name the Gold Coast. The protégées still wanted to reach Asia for the various spices. Bartolomeu Dias was the first to make it around the tip of Africa by mistake his crew had been blown around Cape Good Hope by accident. He then explored the east coast but because of exhausted crew went home. Next to take up the Mission was Vasco de Gamma. In 1498 he reached Calicut in southwestern India. Once there he filled his ship with spices and gems 60 times that the expense of the voyage which would mean great profit for Portugal. ( click on picture to show video 3:25min) Guns and seamanship made the Portuguese successful Clip on the map to show the power of Portugal during this age.

20 A Race for Riches 2. Spanish Explorers
The Spanish sailed westward across the Atlantic Ocean to find the route to Asia. Christopher Columbus believed he could reach Asia by sailing west. Persuaded Queen Isabella to finance his mission where he explored Cuba and the island of Hispaniola. Called this area the Indies. Ferdinand Magellan took over exploration searching for El Paso. a. October 1520-went down coast of South America and passed through a water way (Later called the Strait of Magellan) into the Pacific Ocean. b. Went onto the Philippines, but was killed by Natives, still considered as first person to circumnavigate the globe. The Spanish are next to the race. While the Portuguese sailed to the east to find a route to Asia the Spanish sail west to find an Asian route. Remember that no one at this time has no idea just how big the world is, that is round, or that there are still undiscovered continents. Christopher Columbus believed that the fastest routes to Asia was to sail west. Queen Isabella's of Spain funded the trip and in 1492 Columbus sailed the ocean blue landing in what he thought was India but actually Cuba and the Island of Hispaniola. After three voyages he had reached as far a central America. Ferdinand Magellan took up the quest next funded by the king of Spain. He found the strait of Magellan which cuts through the very southern tip of south America. He landed in the Philippines where he was killed. But he is known as the first to circle the world.

21 A Race for Riches 3. New Lands to Explore Both countries feared that the other might claim some of its lands. Treaty of Tordesillas solved problem with a line of demarcation separating lands, north to south through the Atlantic Ocean, easternmost part of South America. East of line Portugal, west of line Spain. Other countries became involved in exploring like John Cabot of England, explored New England coastline. Amerigo Vesspucci and his letters describing the land he saw. Led to the use of the name America. All this became known as the new world. After the discovers of Portugal and Spain other European countries started to join the race. Portugal and Spain feared this and were close to war themselves so pope Alexander VI suggested the Treaty of Tordesillas which established a division of the discovered and undiscovered territories. Territories east of the line belonged to Portugal and to the west Spain. This gave Portugal control over he route to Africa and Spain the Americas. England joins the race next with John Cabot who travels to the New England coast line. Amerigo Vesspucci traveled with a Portuguese sea captain in 1500’s and wrote home about what he saw and as a result the new lands became called the Americas. Click on globe to show video clip (2:52 min).

22 The Spanish Empire Conquistadors ( Spanish conquerors) established overseas empire. 1. Aztec Civilization Destroyed (Mexico) Hernan Cortez landed at Veracruz and marched to Tenochtitlan. The Aztec leader, Montezuma, allowed them into the city because they thought them to be gods. Eventually tensions arose and a conflict broke out. The Spanish eventually defeated the Aztec and took their lands. It is important to remember that many of these new worlds already had established civilizations within them. Remember we had talked about Muslim expansion into Africa and the trade of Porcelain which was used for toilets before the discover of Africa by the Portuguese. Two civilizations we will talk about are the Mia and the Aztecs. The Conquistadors were the conquers of the Americas. Skilled in firearms and organization which brought them success. Aztecs dominated the Americas. Some even say they ruled as far north as Michigan and that the Mississippian culture of Cahokia was a branch of this civilization. They assume this because of the mounds. Hernan Cortez landed on Veracruz on the Gulf of Mexico. With 550 men and 16 horses. He made alliances along the way with city-states who had not been over taken by Aztec rule like the Tlaxcala. Cortez reached Tenochtitlan the Aztec capital. Montezuma saw them as god because of their armor and horses. Eventually tensions rose and the Spanish were driven out. But smallpox ravaged the Aztec and thanks to an alliance with the Tlaxcala came 50,000 warriors and the Aztec were defeated. As a result the Spanish established their control over the next thirty years. Show the videos by clicking on the photos. first click on the picture of Montezuma and show the meeting between the two cultures ( 3.21 min). Second click on picture of Cortez and talk about the battle and the difference between the two fighting forces (3:59 min).

23 The Spanish Empire 2. Conquest of the Inca
Francisco Pizarro arrived in Peru. The Inca Empire experienced an epidemic of smallpox. Pizarro captured Atahuallpa (Inca Leader). He later executed him and took their land. Francisco landed in on the pacific coast o South America in 1530 with 180 men. Like Cortez he brought steel weapons, gun powder and horses. He also brought smallpox which again native people had no immunity to. The original emperor died of the disease leaving his two sons to rule which caused a civil war. Atahuallpa was the victor and eventually capture by Pizarro and was executed. Pizzaro then with the Inca’s who became his allies took the capital and established the Colony of Lima. Click on hand to show video of smallpox and what it did to the Incas and how the disease actually works (4:38min).

24 Why Were the Spanish Victorious?
1)The Spanish had superior military technology, such as muskets, cannons, and armor. 2)They used horses, which frightened some Indians, who had never seen such animals. 3)The Spanish were able to take advantage of division and discontent among the Indians. 4)In fact, Indians provided the Spanish with much of their fighting power.

25 5)Survival skills that Europeans learned from
Native Americans: 6)Hunting and trapping of forest animals A result that occurred from encounters between the Spanish and Native Americans 7)Native American population declined

26 The Spanish Empire 3. The Columbian Exchange
Much territory in Mexico, Central and South America now belonged to the Spanish. Indians were declared to be subjects of Spain. Forced labor, starvation and diseases took their toll on the Indians. Catholic priests converted and baptized many Indians. Spanish established colonies, plantations and ranches to export products (sugar, cotton, vanilla, livestock, potatoes, cocoa, corn, tomatoes, and tobacco) to Europe. In turn the Spanish were bringing items to the Americas that they did not have. (horses, cattle, and wheat) The result was the Columbian exchange. By Mexico, central and South America had been brought under Spanish control. Brazil was controlled by the Portuguese because it fell on their side of the Tordesillas. The Spanish had also set up administration in in the new lands to look over their colonies. Queen Isabella of Spain established the Ecomeinda, which was the right for Spanish colonist to use the Indians ( derived from the word Indios, meant for the inhabitants of the Indies) as their laborers. They were used to work the sugar plantations and the gold/silver mines. The original thought was for the Spanish to protect the Indians but that did not happen. Instead many died from starvation and disease. In Hispaniola before Columbus there were 250,000 native people in 1492 and by 1538 there were only 500. the cultures had an affect on each other for example the intermarriage of the cultures and the trading of different foods. The introduction of the potato allowed farming on smaller plots of land. This allowed for another population boost in Europe at the time. This type of interaction between the south America and Europe became known as the Columbian Exchange. (About the picture) Some 10 million years ago, up to a dozen species of horses roamed the Great Plains of North America. These relatives of the modern horse came in many shapes and sizes. Some lived in the forest, while others preferred open grassland. Here, two large Dinohippus horses can be seen grazing on grass, much like horses today. But unlike modern horses, a three-toed Hypohippus tiptoes through the forest, nibbling on leaves. A small, three-toed Nannippus, shown here eating shrubs, ate both grass and leaves.

27 European Rivals In the 17th century the English landed on the Northwestern coast of India and established trade. The Dutch set up the East India Company took control of Indian ocean trade. The Dutch set up the West India Company to compete with the Spanish and Portuguese in the Americas. French set up the colonies in Canada along the St. Lawrence River. Samuel de Champlain founded Quebec. By end of the 17th century England had established control over most of the eastern seaboard of North America. Because of the wealth the Spanish and Portuguese were gaining from these exchanges other European countries began competing for these areas as well. For instance in 1595, the English landed on the Northwester coast of India and established trade there East India Trading Company was established by the Dutch who wanted to compete with the Portuguese and the English in India. The Dutch also formed the West Indian Trading Company in the Americas but the expenditures were way less than that of the profits. The Dutch had also established control in north America which was lost (New York). This was eventually lost to the English.

28 Section 1 Review Spanish conquerors of the Americas conquistadors
Spanish conqueror of Mexico Hernan Cortes Wealth, trade, religious zeal and political ambition drove the _______ expansion European The right to use Native Americans as slaves encomienda

29 Section 1 Review Plants and animals exchanged between the Old and New Worlds Columbia Exchange The Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494 gave Spain control of almost all of what? The Americas Spanish conqueror of the Inca Empire Francisco Pizarro The Aztec rulers of Mexico fought against the forces of which Spanish warrior?

30 Section 1 Review Hernan Cortes
South America, West Africa, and India maintained trade interest with what country? Portugal Massachusetts, New York, and northwestern India established colonies or trade relations with what country? England

Section 2 How did European expansion and the slave trade affect the people of Africa? Crash course Atlantic Slave Trade (11:08 min) Answer to focus question: It brutally victimized Africans.

32 Trade, Colonies and Mercantilism
In less than 300 years the European age of exploration changed the world. Sometimes led to destruction of local civilization. Did produce a new age of commercial capitalism. Europeans established many trading posts, and colonies. Colonies played a key role in mercantilism. Mercantilism is a set of principles that dominated economic thought in the 17th century. Prosperity of a nation depended on large supply of bullion (Gold and Silver). Nations tried to have a favorable balance of trade . Governments granted subsidies to new industries and tried to improve transportation. Placed high tariffs on foreign goods. Colonies were a source of raw materials and a market for finished goods. The Age of exploration had changed many things as we have seen. It introduce new diseases to new and old parts of the world, destroyed native peoples, and led to the boom in population in the old world. It also led to a new type of economy – Commercial Capitalism (capitalism is where business is owned by a private individual for goal of profit). This was the first step in creating a world economy. Before this there had been trade but not as great as we have today. Today we trade with countries around the world. Take a minute to look at the tags, on your shoes and purses to see where that is made. That is world economy. To establish the trade empires of this time colonies were created to help supply bullion to the mother countries they represented. The policies that controlled this was known as mercantilism and the goal was to keep a favorable balance in trade. For instance, a country wanted to have more being exported than is being imported in order to make a profit. The colonies supplied the goods and raw materials the mother countries would export to other countries as a means of bullion income. The way they kept unwanted goods out of the colonies was through putting a high tariff on good being imported so less people would buy them. They also stimulated the economy of the colonies by paying new industries to improve the transportation or bring their new business there.

33 The Ideals of Mercantilism
Building a network of overseas colonies; Forbidding colonies to trade with other nations; Monopolizing markets with staple ports; Banning the export of gold and silver, even for payments; Forbidding trade to be carried in foreign ships; Export subsidies; Promoting manufacturing with research or direct subsidies; Limiting wages; Maximizing the use of domestic resources; Restricting domestic consumption with non-tariff barrier to trade. List of policies implemented under mercantilism.

1. The Slave Trade Primary market for enslaved Africans was Southwest Asia. Eventually plantations were established in the Americas requiring workers, so enslaved Africans were shipped to the Americas. Slavery was not started during the Atlantic Slave trade. It has been around throughout recorded history- for example the Greeks and the Romans. What makes this time period so notable for the slave trade is how the demand for slave increased with the discovery of the Americas. The primary reason for this was the sugar cane plantations which needed a large labor force. It is important to remember that labor had to be imported because of the fact that European Illness had killed off a large number of the native peoples in the Americas. Picture in the bowl is unrefined sugar cane

2. Growth of the Slave Trade 1518 Spanish ship carried the first enslaved Africans directly to the Americas. Became part of the triangular trade that connected Europe, Africa, and the Americas together. As many as 10 million slaves were brought to the Americas. Many died along the way. Journey became known as the middle passage. 1518 first slaves are brought to the Americas from Africa. This helped create the triangular trade route, which was goods from Europe( guns and cloth) brought to Africa for enslaved people who went to the Americans and then the raw goods of the Americas were brought back to Europe to be manufactured in to something. 10 millions slaves it is estimated were brought to the Americas between 1500’s – 1800’s. This journey became known as the middle passage. The middle part of the Triangular trade route. Many of the slaves who made the journey died on board or when they arrived in the new land because of disease.

36 The Middle Passage

37 Slave Ship Plan

38 “Coffin” Position: Onboard a Slave Ship

39 Slave Ship Interior

40 Onboard the Slave Ship

41 Revolt Aboard a Slave Ship
Amistad is a key example when a revolt happened and there were more than one. This was nearing the end of the slave trade when a group of Mende Africans were kidnapped to be sold in the Americas. What happen is that they are told by a cook they are to be eaten and out of fear they break loose which leads to an overtake of the ship. They eventually end up in America under trial for murder and the question of who they belong to. eventually they make they are dubbed their own persons and brought back to Africa.

42 African Captives Thrown Overboard
Sharks followed the slave ships across the Atlantic!

3. Sources of Enslaved Africans Before Europeans arrived in Africa most enslaved persons were prisoners of war. Europeans began taking free blacks as slaves and in some cases countries were depopulated because losing young men. Prisoner of war originally filled the slave ships. Most of the prisoners came from warring communities along the coast. Once the demand grew European slave traders had to move inland to find more slaves and actually Kidnap them. The number of people being taken grew so much that local leaders ( like King Afonso) actually wrote letters to monarchs asking them to stop taking the people of Africa because their land were becoming depopulated. Cape Coast Castle is where slaves were held in Ghana waiting to be shipped on the middle passage. Click on picture for clip to play (3:50 min)

44 Effects of the Slave Trade
Varied from area to area. The desire of slave traders to provide a constant supply of enslaved persons led to increased warfare. Had devastating effect on places like Benin. (They kind of lost faith and they gave up, changing their culture). The use of slaves remained an accepted belief in European society. The effects of the slave trade varied from area to area. Many places suffered from depopulation and the loss of many of there young strong men and women. It also increased warfare as the demand and pay for slaves increased. Coastal villages invaded inland ones with guns traded from the Europeans.

45 Section 2 Review Paying for Europeans for labor upset trade, growing sugarcane was labor intensive, native American population was small due to diseases brought from Europe. These were all reasons why slaves were needed in the __ . The Caribbean 17th century economic theory Mercantilism

46 Section 2 Review Increased warfare, depopulation of some areas, deterioration of art and culture. All of these were impacts of the__. Slave trade on African society Slaves from Africa were obtained by Europeans from African slave what? merchants.

47 Section 2 Review The pattern of trade connecting Europe, Africa, and the American continents. Triangular trade Slave owners in the sixteenth century discouraged slaves from having offspring because? Believed that buying a new slave was less expensive then raising a child. Large agricultural estates plantations

48 Section 2 Review Crop introduced to Europe from Southwest Asia
Sugarcane King Alfonso of Congo wrote a letter in 1526 to the king of Portugal describing ? The corruption of the slave trade and how it was depopulating his country . The journey of slaves from Africa to America Middle Passage

49 Colonial Latin America
Section 3 How did Spain and Portugal profit form their colonies in the Americas? Crash Course on Spanish Dominance (10:46 min) Answer to focus question? They Grew rich by exporting natural resources at the expense of the indigenous people.

50 Colonial Empires in Latin America Portugal came to dominate Brazil
Colonial Empires in Latin America Portugal came to dominate Brazil. Spain controlled the rest of the area. 1. Social Classes Classes were based on privilege. At the top were the Peninsulares-born in Europe, held all important positions. Creoles-descendants of European born in Latin America, controlled land and business. Mestizos-multiracial-European and Native Americans. Native Americans-were lowest class used for labor until blacks arrived. Mulattos - offspring of Africans and Europeans. Zambos-offspring of Africans and Natives. Portugal dominated Brazil during this time and Spain came to dominate parts of north, south and central America. During this time a new culture developed which we call Latin America. Spanish Latin America was divided into social classes which we know as the peninsulares, Creoles, Mestizos, Native Americans, mulattos and zambos. Everyone was considered inferior to the Peninsulares and creoles.

51 Colonial Empires in Latin America
2. Economic Foundations Profit from colonies was key. One source was gold and silver. Farming became a more long lasting and rewarding source of profit. Created a system of large landowners and dependent peasants that remained a lasting feature. Trade provided another avenue for profit. Both Spain and Portugal sought profit from their colonies. They did this at first through means of the abundant gold supplies in the areas but then found longer lasting wealth in the land. They created large estates and had native people or marginal farmers work the land. This system of estates has continue to remain in Latin America. To maintain the labor the Latin Americans followed the encomienda system established by Queen Isabella of Spain. In this system it was expected that the native people work for the landowners and in return they protected them and taught them the Catholic faith. This of course did not usually happen, another system that was use was the mita system which allowed authorities to draft native labor for the silver mines. These types of systems were common to the feudal system in mid evil Europe dealing with fiefs and serfs.

52 Colonial Empires in Latin America
3. State and Church Communication between Americas and Europe was difficult. Monarchs could not keep a close eye on empires. Portugal, in Brazil, created a governor-general to help control the area for the monarch. The Spanish appointed viceroys. Both countries were determined to Christianize the people in their areas. The Catholic church provided an outlet other then marriage for women they could enter convents and become nuns. These colonial empires of Portugal and Spain lasted three hundred years and because of difficult communication the monarchy could not keep a close eye on them so their own governments established themselves. The Portuguese and Spanish monarchs came up with the governor-general or viceroy to help him keep control. Below him were districts which he had loose control over. Both also had the goal of Christianizing the local people which gave the church great control in the colonies. The Jesuits, Dominicans and Franciscans build missions with schools, churches and hospitals for the local natives. It also offered a release for women who did not want to marry but instead wanted to have adventure. One women was a nun known as Juana Ines de la cruz who spoke out for women intellect. By the age of 16 she had taught herself how to read Greek and Latin and sciences. She wanted to go to a university but women were not allowed so she became a nun and travel to Latin America.

53 Section 3 Review Peninsular, mulattoes, and mestizos were all Colonaial American what? Social classes Descendants of Europeans born in Latin America Creoles Spanish and Portuguese kings appointed__ to help them rule their empires in the New World. Viceroys Offspring of Europeans and Native Americans mestizos

54 Section 3 Review They aided European powers by bringing Native Americans together in villages where they were taught trades and encouraged to grow crops. Catholic missionaries Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz wrote poetry and prose and urged woman to do what? Be educated Spanish and Portuguese officials born in Europe Peninsulares Dominated by Portugal in the 1500’s Brazil

55 Section 3 Review Allowed authorities to draft native workers Mita
They were well-organized and profitable in the New World Jesuit missions

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