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Industrialization and. 1800-1870. The Congress of Vienna A Story that Matters  P. 580 Questions to Ponder:  Why would leaders of the Old Order choose.

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Presentation on theme: "Industrialization and. 1800-1870. The Congress of Vienna A Story that Matters  P. 580 Questions to Ponder:  Why would leaders of the Old Order choose."— Presentation transcript:

1 Industrialization and

2 The Congress of Vienna A Story that Matters  P. 580 Questions to Ponder:  Why would leaders of the Old Order choose to celebrate the defeat of Napoleon with such a display of wealth and pageantry?  Why might this have been a sign of the need for change in Europe?  Why do some historians believe the Industrial Revolution was as much a cause for the fall of the Old Order as were the revolutions of the early 19 th century?

3 The Industrial Revolution “Voices from the Past” p. 581  Why could employer’s get away with this type of treatment of their employees? Europe undergoing a shift from a farming economy to a _______________ economy  Began in _________ in 1780s and spread to other Western Nations decades later

4 Why did it get its start in Britain? Contributing Factors 1. Changes in _______________ practices More could be fed at lower prices with less labor 2. Increase in population (more food)= more labor 3. Britain was wealthy ($ to invest into machinery) ________: money; ____________: new business owner 4. Plentiful Natural Resources (rivers, _______, iron) 5. Large supply of ____________________ Colonial empire gave them a place to sell their goods

5 Industries _____________  Aided greatly by the invention of the ____ ___________ (spun and weaved cotton) Powered by coal so it didn’t have to be near a river Coal and __________  Coal needed to power steam engines  Seemed to be an unlimited supply  Iron used to build new machines (especially transportation) ________________  Connected cities for transportation (of goods & people)

6 Industrialization The ___________  Created a new labor SYSTEM Owners: I bought the machines, I want them running! Workers forced to work in _________ to keep machines producing at a steady rate

7 Social Impact in Europe Growth of Population and Cities  1750: 140 million people in Europe  1850: ________ million Why? Decline in _________ rates, war, disease; Increase in _____ Also led to tough living conditions for city inhabitants Emergence of two new social classes  Industrial __________ Class People who built the factories, bought machines, and figured out where the best markets were  Industrial __________ Class Faced horrible working conditions _________ hours a day, __ days/week, 30 min for lunch/dinner No security of employment and no minimum wage Led to the creation of child labor laws in Britain __________________ of 1833: set 9 as the minimum age (9-13 could only work 9 hours a day, could work 12)

8 What’s a Guy to Do? With women/children’s hours cut back and making less than half of what men made, men were now expected to earn most of the family income  Led to women taking over daily care of the ___________ while doing low paying jobs Conditions led to early forms of ______________  System in which society, usually in the form of the government, owns and controls some ________________ (factories and utilities) Largely the idea of intellectuals who believed in the equality of all people and who wanted to replace ______________ with ________________

9 The Way It Was… Read Young People in…The Industrial Revolution  P. 586  Answer #1-3

10 With ________________ defeated, Europe moved to restore the great powers (Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia)  The Congress of Vienna met to arrange a final _________ settlement Reinstall old ____________ (or next in line) to their positions ***Must keep any one country from dominating Europe Balancing political and military forces to guarantee the independence of the great powers

11 The Congress of Vienna Writing Assignment Imagine that you are a member of European royalty OR a servant working at the king’s palace at the Congress of Vienna.  Write a diary entry about their perceptions of the celebrations and meetings following the Napoleonic Era. How would you feel about the festivities? What would you think the king was trying to accomplish with all of the celebrating? How would you feel about the end of the Napoleonic Era? What would they hope the outcome of the Congress would be? Why? How would your social position or the country you were from influence your feelings? ~1 page (typed for Extra Credit)

12 Conservatism Based on tradition and social stability  Favored _____________ to authority; Hated revolutions  _________________: great powers had the right to send armies into countries where there were revolutions in order to restore legitimate monarchs to the their thrones

13 The New Forces of Change ____________: People should be as free as possible from government restraint  Civil liberties must be protected!  Favored a government ruled by a ______________ Did not believe in democracy, however Thought the right to vote should only be open to men of property _______________  Arose out of people’s awareness of being part of a community with common institutions, traditions, language, and customs Gained popularity during the French Revolution Very much a threat to the existing political order! Why? Freedom could only be possible in people who ruled themselves

14 The Revolutions of 1848 Jigsaw Groups of 4!  Read p Take notes in the margins

15 The Revolutions of 1848 More space for notes…

16 Class Reading Eyewitness to History  Revolutionary Excitement P. 595  Discuss questions Especially #2

17 The Breakdown of the Principle of Intervention Crimean War  Result of a long-standing struggle between ______ and the ____________ Empire Ottomans weakening and Russia very interested their territory (access to the ___________________) Other European nations think this would give Russia too much power and are against it Russian invades anyways; Britain and France declare war on Russia along with the Ottomans Russia loses/must seek peace (withdraws from European affairs for the next 20 years)

18 German Unification Looked to ________ for leadership  Prussia was a strong and prosperous state with an authoritarian king Known for its ______________ (reliance on military strength)  Otto von ____________: Prussian prime minister Collected taxes to strengthen the army Governed without the approval of parliament Very active foreign policy (led to war) Prussia organized the Northern German states into a North German Confederation Southern German states signed a military alliance with Prussia for protection against France

19 German Unification Franco-Prussian War  Bismarck uses misunderstandings to get France to declare war on Prussia in 1870 Prussia dominates; France surrenders in 1871 France pays ~$1 billion; and gave up territories Leaving them very bitter and ____________________ Before the war ended, Southern German states had agreed to enter the North German Confederation  William I of Prussia was proclaimed _____________ (emperor) of the 2 nd German Empire

20 Nationalism in… England  1815: Parliament dominated by __________________ landowning classes 1832: Parliament passed a bill that increased the number of male voters Increase mainly came from the Industrial ___________ Class  By giving the I.M.C. an interest in ruling Britain, Britain avoided revolution Continuing economic growth was another reason for Britain’s stability  Working classes even starting to share in some of this prosperity

21 Nationalism in… France  Four years after his election as president in 1848, Louis- Napoleon returned to the people to ask for the restoration of the empire How do you think they voted? _______% in favor!!!!  Assumed the title of Napoleon III, Emperor of France (completely controlling everything)  Starts out very _______________ 1860s: opposition to some of his policies arose In response, he began to liberalize his regime  Gave legislature more power  Short lived success though: France would fall to _________ in 1870 and the Second Empire Fell

22 Nationalism in… The United States  Bitter battle between the Federalists and the Republicans over the division of power ______________: favored a strong central government ______________: wanted the federal government to be subordinate to the state governments  Mid 19 th century: ______________ becoming a threat to American unity South’s economy based on slave labor _________________ (a movement to end slavery) growing more popular especially up North 1860: _________________ votes to secede from the U.S. 6 more states join them in 1861 and the Confederate States of America is born American Civil War: 600,000 dead North wins and unity of the U.S. is preserved

23 The Emergence of Canada Canada went from a French colony to a ____________ colony after the 7 years war  Most wanted freedom from British rule Not united (Upper Canada was mostly ____________, Lower Canada was mostly ______________) After two short rebellions against the government broke out in Upper and Lower Canada in 1837 and 1838, the British moved toward change. Britain formally joins Upper and Lower Canada but did not allow them to be self-governed Fearful of American involvement, the British finally give in  ___________________________: established a Canadian nation with its own constitution


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