2 Missouri Compromise 1820Establishes 36° 30 Latitude Line as a dividing line for Free / Slave States.Maine –enters as a Free State.Missouri – Slave State
3 Compromise of 1850 New Mexico and Utah will become territories. California is admitted as a free state.New Mexico and Utah will become territories.A fugitive slave law will be enforced and runaway slaves who make it to free states must be returned to their owners.Slaves may no longer be bought and sold in Washington D.C. but slavery will still be legal.
4 Kansas-Nebraska ActIf California can be free – Kansas & Nebraska can be Slave??On January 4, 1854, Stephen A. Douglas, wanting to ensure a northern transcontinental railroad route that would benefit his Illinois constituents,
5 introduced a bill to organize the territory of Nebraska in order to bring the area under civil control.
6 But southern senators objected; the region lay north of latitude 36°30 and so under the terms of the Missouri Compromise of 1820 would become a free state.
7 Kansas – Nebraska Act1854 – Act passed that allows Kansas and Nebraska to decide Slave or Free by Popular Sovereignty. Nullifies the Missouri Compromise of 1820.
8 Uncle Tom’s CabinBook – published by Harriet Beecher Stowe in Changes the way many look at slavery in the North and around the World. Many slave owners believed Stowe was evil for publishing such a book. Leads to more people advocating for the rights of slaves.
9 The Dred Scott Decision Dred Scott was a slave. His master took him from the slave state of Missouri to the free state of Illinois. Scott lived as a slave for four years in a free state.
10 Then his master took him back to Missouri Then his master took him back to Missouri. Abolitionists thought it was a good case to test slavery.
11 Abolitionists paid for a lawyer so Scott could sue his master for freedom. The case went to the Supreme Court. On March 6, 1857 the court decided Scott had no right to freedom because he was property, not a person, and could be moved anywhere.It also said it was unconstitutional for Congress to limit slavery anywhere.
12 John Brown’s raid on Harpers Ferry John Brown and some of his sons lead a raid on the government arsenal at Harpers’ FerryThey believe that an “army of slaves” will rise up and join them in a revolutionAfter his capture, a jury finds Brown guilty of murder, treason, and inciting a slave insurrection after a week of trial and forty-five minutes of deliberation. He was sentenced to hang.
13 Stephen Douglas: The Little Giant He was 5’ tall, born in Vermont, then moved to Illinois, he was a rich political leader, lawyer, businessman, who made a fortune in land speculation and railroads.
14 “Honest Abe” the rail-splitter Abraham Lincolnan attorney from Springfield,Illinois, ran againstDouglas for theSenate seat in thatstate
15 Lincoln-Douglas Debates They held a series of 7 debates where the candidates threw insults in the heat and cold and rain of frontier Illinois.The issue between them was slavery.Douglas portrayed Lincoln as a fanatical abolitionist, a black Republican who wanted to put slaves on equal footing with whites.
16 The Candidates 1. Abraham Lincoln (Republican) 2 The Candidates 1. Abraham Lincoln (Republican) 2. Stephen Douglas (Democrat – North) 3. John Breckenridge (Democrat – South) 4. John Bell (Constitutional Union
19 Fort Sumter: April 12, 1861Lincoln decides to supply Ft. Sumter, but wants the South to fire the first shot.
20 Battle of Fort Sumter April 12 – 13, 1861 In March, Brigadier General P.G.T. Beauregard of the South Carolina Militia took command of Confederate forces in Charleston. He made repeated demands that the Union force surrender and took steps to ensure that no supplies from the city were available to the defenders, whose food was running out.
21 On April 6, 1861, Lincoln notified South Carolina Governor Francis W On April 6, 1861, Lincoln notified South Carolina Governor Francis W. Pickens that "an attempt will be made to supply Fort Sumter with provisions only, and that if such attempt be not resisted, no effort to throw in men, arms, or ammunition will be made without further notice, [except] in case of an attack on the fort."In response, the Confederate cabinet decided to open fire on Fort Sumter in an attempt to force its surrender before the relief fleet arrived.
22 Secession!: SC Dec. 20, 1860On news of Lincoln's election, South Carolina (site of nullification fight in 1830s) secedes
23 Secede: To break away from South Carolina was the first state to secede from the UnionTheir reasoning was the election of a President “whose opinions and purposes are hostile to slavery”Six other states follow in secession and they formed the. . .
24 Confederate States of America The Confederacy writes a constitution and elects Mississippi senator Jefferson Davis as their president
26 THE NORTH vs. THE SOUTH ADVANTAGES ADVANTAGES Commitment Keeping slavery meant everything to the South they were fighting for survivalStrong military traditionRobert E. Lee“With all my devotion to the Union, and the feeling of loyalty and duty of an American citizen, I have not been able to make up my mind to raise my hand against my relatives, my children, my home. I have therefore resigned my commission in the army and save in defense of my native state…. I hope I may never be called upon to draw my sword”LocationADVANTAGESPopulation22 million vs. 9 millionMore ResourcesNations coal and iron came from Union mines.Factories + Immigrants= more ammunition, arms, uniforms, medical supplies, and railroad carsNavyNaval blockade prevented merchant vessels from entering or leaving the south RUINED ECONOMYEstablished GovernmentThe leadership of Abraham Lincoln
27 Leaders and Flags Known as the Union Leaders: President – Abraham LincolnLeading Generals – George McClellanUlysses S. GrantKnown as the Confederacy or the Confederate States of America.President – Jefferson DavisLeading General – Robert E. Lee
28 LincolnLincoln avoided the slavery issue to not lose BORDER STATES- Missouri, Kentucky, Delaware, and MarylandHe is quoted to say “I believe I have no lawful right to (free the slaves), and I have no inclination to do so.”His number one goal was to protect the union
29 EMANCIPATION PROCLOMATION September 22, 1862Issued as a military decree, it freed all enslaved people in states still in rebellion January 1, 1863It was a war tactic, and a dramatic turning point in the war
30 BATTLES Confederate Victories Union Victories Bull Run Seven Days Armies meet in VirginiaGeneral “Stonewall” Jackson gets his nick name refusing to back downSeven DaysSeries of battlesConfederate keeps VirginiaBattle of ChancellorsvilleDevastating to the UnionStone Wall Jackson diedLee’s army pushes into Northern SoilUnion VictoriesBattle of AntietamThe bloodiest single day of the Civil WarGave Lincoln the momentum to release the Emancipation ProclamationBattle at VicksburgAlong the Mississippi RiverGrant is the HeroPlaced Vicksburg under siegeSiege- military tactic in which an army surrounds, bombards, and cuts off all supplies to an enemy positionLasted over a month
32 Gettysburg Battle lasted three days Confederates took the first day Union won the battle and forced the Confederates to retreatThe confederates would never again attempt to fight on union soilLincoln delivered the Gettysburg address to honor the dead
33 GETTYSBURG ADDRESSConfirms that the goals of the Union are to preserve the nation and fulfill the Declaration of Independence.
34 AppomattoxGeneral Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Grant at Appomattox Courthouse on April 9, 1865.The terms of surrender guaranteed that the United States would not prosecute Confederate soldiers for treason.Lincoln gave a speech in which he explained his plan for restoring the Southern states in the Union.
36 EFFECTS OF THE WAR It left more than 600,000 Americans dead Economy The North continued to flourishThe South was destroyedBegan to heal years of disunity between the North and SouthInstead the economic, political, and social life of the regions began to intertwineMade Federal government strong