Establishes 36° 30 Latitude Line as a dividing line for Free / Slave States. Maine – enters as a Free State. Missouri – Slave State
California is admitted as a free state. New Mexico and Utah will become territories. A fugitive slave law will be enforced and runaway slaves who make it to free states must be returned to their owners. Slaves may no longer be bought and sold in Washington D.C. but slavery will still be legal.
If California can be free – Kansas & Nebraska can be Slave?? On January 4, 1854, Stephen A. Douglas, wanting to ensure a northern transcontinental railroad route that would benefit his Illinois constituents,
introduced a bill to organize the territory of Nebraska in order to bring the area under civil control.
But southern senators objected; the region lay north of latitude 36°30 and so under the terms of the Missouri Compromise of 1820 would become a free state.
1854 – Act passed that allows Kansas and Nebraska to decide Slave or Free by Popular Sovereignty. Nullifies the Missouri Compromise of 1820.
Book – published by Harriet Beecher Stowe in 1852. Changes the way many look at slavery in the North and around the World. Many slave owners believed Stowe was evil for publishing such a book. Leads to more people advocating for the rights of slaves.
Dred Scott was a slave. His master took him from the slave state of Missouri to the free state of Illinois. Scott lived as a slave for four years in a free state.
Then his master took him back to Missouri. Abolitionists thought it was a good case to test slavery.
Abolitionists paid for a lawyer so Scott could sue his master for freedom. The case went to the Supreme Court. On March 6, 1857 the court decided Scott had no right to freedom because he was property, not a person, and could be moved anywhere. It also said it was unconstitutional for Congress to limit slavery anywhere.
John Brown and some of his sons lead a raid on the government arsenal at Harpers’ Ferry They believe that an “army of slaves” will rise up and join them in a revolution After his capture, a jury finds Brown guilty of murder, treason, and inciting a slave insurrection after a week of trial and forty-five minutes of deliberation. He was sentenced to hang.
He was 5’ tall, born in Vermont, then moved to Illinois, he was a rich political leader, lawyer, businessman, who made a fortune in land speculation and railroads.
Abraham Lincoln an attorney from Springfield, Illinois, ran against Douglas for the Senate seat in that state
They held a series of 7 debates where the candidates threw insults in the heat and cold and rain of frontier Illinois. The issue between them was slavery. Douglas portrayed Lincoln as a fanatical abolitionist, a black Republican who wanted to put slaves on equal footing with whites.
The Candidates 1. Abraham Lincoln (Republican) 2. Stephen Douglas (Democrat – North) 3. John Breckenridge (Democrat – South) 4. John Bell (Constitutional Union
Fort Sumter: April 12, 1861 Lincoln decides to supply Ft. Sumter, but wants the South to fire the first shot.
In March, Brigadier General P.G.T. Beauregard of the South Carolina Militia took command of Confederate forces in Charleston. He made repeated demands that the Union force surrender and took steps to ensure that no supplies from the city were available to the defenders, whose food was running out.Brigadier GeneralP.G.T. Beauregard
On April 6, 1861, Lincoln notified South Carolina Governor Francis W. Pickens that "an attempt will be made to supply Fort Sumter with provisions only, and that if such attempt be not resisted, no effort to throw in men, arms, or ammunition will be made without further notice, [except] in case of an attack on the fort."April 61861Francis W. Pickens In response, the Confederate cabinet decided to open fire on Fort Sumter in an attempt to force its surrender before the relief fleet arrived.
On news of Lincoln's election, South Carolina (site of nullification fight in 1830s) secedes
Secede: To break away from South Carolina was the first state to secede from the Union Their reasoning was the election of a President “whose opinions and purposes are hostile to slavery” Six other states follow in secession and they formed the...
Confederate States of America The Confederacy writes a constitution and elects Mississippi senator Jefferson Davis as their president
ADVANTAGES Population 22 million vs. 9 million More Resources Nations coal and iron came from Union mines. Factories + Immigrants= more ammunition, arms, uniforms, medical supplies, and railroad cars Navy Naval blockade prevented merchant vessels from entering or leaving the south RUINED ECONOMY Established Government The leadership of Abraham Lincoln ADVANTAGES Commitment Keeping slavery meant everything to the South they were fighting for survival Strong military tradition Robert E. Lee “With all my devotion to the Union, and the feeling of loyalty and duty of an American citizen, I have not been able to make up my mind to raise my hand against my relatives, my children, my home. I have therefore resigned my commission in the army and save in defense of my native state…. I hope I may never be called upon to draw my sword” Location
Known as the Union Leaders: President – Abraham Lincoln Leading Generals – George McClellan Ulysses S. Grant Known as the Confederacy or the Confederate States of America. Leaders: President – Jefferson Davis Leading General – Robert E. Lee
Lincoln avoided the slavery issue to not lose BORDER STATES- Missouri, Kentucky, Delaware, and Maryland He is quoted to say “I believe I have no lawful right to (free the slaves), and I have no inclination to do so.” His number one goal was to protect the union
September 22, 1862 Issued as a military decree, it freed all enslaved people in states still in rebellion January 1, 1863 It was a war tactic, and a dramatic turning point in the war http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SUV kXthLz4w
Confederate Victories Bull Run Armies meet in Virginia General “Stonewall” Jackson gets his nick name refusing to back down Seven Days Series of battles Confederate keeps Virginia Battle of Chancellorsville Devastating to the Union Stone Wall Jackson died Lee’s army pushes into Northern Soil Union Victories Battle of Antietam The bloodiest single day of the Civil War Gave Lincoln the momentum to release the Emancipation Proclamation Battle at Vicksburg Along the Mississippi River Grant is the Hero Placed Vicksburg under siege Siege- military tactic in which an army surrounds, bombards, and cuts off all supplies to an enemy position Lasted over a month
Battle lasted three days Confederates took the first day Union won the battle and forced the Confederates to retreat The confederates would never again attempt to fight on union soil Lincoln delivered the Gettysburg address to honor the dead
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BvA 0J_2ZpIQ Confirms that the goals of the Union are to preserve the nation and fulfill the Declaration of Independence.
General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Grant at Appomattox Courthouse on April 9, 1865. The terms of surrender guaranteed that the United States would not prosecute Confederate soldiers for treason. Lincoln gave a speech in which he explained his plan for restoring the Southern states in the Union.
It left more than 600,000 Americans dead Economy The North continued to flourish The South was destroyed Began to heal years of disunity between the North and South Instead the economic, political, and social life of the regions began to intertwine Made Federal government strong