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Causes of the American civil war Which Theory?. Causes of the American civil war 1. Culture Theory: Clash of civilizations--sections so different conflict.

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Presentation on theme: "Causes of the American civil war Which Theory?. Causes of the American civil war 1. Culture Theory: Clash of civilizations--sections so different conflict."— Presentation transcript:

1 Causes of the American civil war Which Theory?

2 Causes of the American civil war 1. Culture Theory: Clash of civilizations--sections so different conflict was inevitable 2.Western Theory: Struggle to control the West 3.Economic Theory: Clash of labor and economic systems (rich mans’ war, poor man’s fight) 4.Political Theory: States’ rights vs Federal Supremacy 5.Social Theory: Issue and morality of slavery 6.Historical Theory: Establishment of Jamestown and Massachusetts

3 Western Theory Conflict between North and South to control new acquisitions in the West— Manifest DestinyConflict between North and South to control new acquisitions in the West— Manifest Destiny Texas Texas California California Oregon Oregon Politics of the Transcontinental RailroadPolitics of the Transcontinental Railroad Wilmot Proviso and the Expansion of SlaveryWilmot Proviso and the Expansion of Slavery

4 Culture Theory North saw itself as a region of progress, activity, and action…saw the south as an aristocratic medieval region, evil slave owners A region of cities, commerce, technological advancement—fast-paced, frenetic Hamiltonian? South saw itself as honorable, noble, and followers of the code of chivalry…saw the North as corrupt, full of immigrants, urban, “pasty white mechanics” without honor A rural, agriculturally based society with a feudalistic social structure—deliberate, traditional Jeffersonian?

5 Economic Theory Two competing regions – industrial north vs. agrarian southTwo competing regions – industrial north vs. agrarian south Free labor vs Slave laborFree labor vs Slave labor High tariffs vs low tariffsHigh tariffs vs low tariffs Tariff of 1828 and nullification crisis Compromise tariffs of 1832 and 1833 Walker Tariff of 1846 Western lands: free labor vs slave labor

6 Political Theory Political balance in the SenatePolitical balance in the Senate Federal power or states’ rightsFederal power or states’ rights Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions Nullification and Force Bill Nullification and Force Bill Maysville Road Veto and Webster-Hayne Debate Maysville Road Veto and Webster-Hayne Debate “Gag” Rule and Post Office Affair “Gag” Rule and Post Office Affair Hartford Convention Hartford Convention Bonus Bill Bonus Bill Whigs vs. Democrats Whigs vs. Democrats

7 Social Theory Immorality of Slavery Immorality of Slavery Nat Turner’s Revolt Nat Turner’s Revolt Northern Abolitionism Northern Abolitionism Southern defense of the “peculiar” institution Southern defense of the “peculiar” institution Underground Railroad Underground Railroad Fugitive Slave Law Fugitive Slave Law “personal” liberty laws “personal” liberty laws Uncle Tom’s Cabin Uncle Tom’s Cabin

8 Historical Theory The founding of Jamestown and Massachusetts The founding of Jamestown and Massachusetts Differences between: Differences between: Puritans and Anglicans Puritans and Anglicans New England and Chesapeake New England and Chesapeake demographics demographics economies economies social structures social structures geographies geographies labor supply labor supply Tobacco, indentured servitude, etc Tobacco, indentured servitude, etc

9 Early Issues Missouri CompromiseMissouri Compromise Tariff of Abominations and Nullification CrisisTariff of Abominations and Nullification Crisis Turner’s Revolt and Rise of AbolitionismTurner’s Revolt and Rise of Abolitionism Texas QuestionTexas Question Gag RuleGag Rule Liberty PartyLiberty Party

10 Manifest Destiny: 1840s Oregon TerritoryOregon Territory Texas AnnexationTexas Annexation CaliforniaCalifornia Transcontinental RailroadTranscontinental Railroad Free Soil Party and Election of 1848Free Soil Party and Election of 1848 California Gold RushCalifornia Gold Rush

11 Compromise of 1850 The Law Admit California as a free stateAdmit California as a free state Ban slave trade in Washington DCBan slave trade in Washington DC Stringent Fugitive Slave LawStringent Fugitive Slave Law Pay Texas $10 million to redefine bordersPay Texas $10 million to redefine borders Utah and New Mexico territories to use popular sovereignty to settle slavery issueUtah and New Mexico territories to use popular sovereignty to settle slavery issue Reaction Condemned by abolitionists: “higher law”Condemned by abolitionists: “higher law” Daniel Webster condemned for “Seventh of March” speechDaniel Webster condemned for “Seventh of March” speech Nine Northern states pass “personal” liberty lawsNine Northern states pass “personal” liberty laws Nashville Convention: protest the lawNashville Convention: protest the law Southern “fire-eaters” hint at secessionSouthern “fire-eaters” hint at secession Whigs lose 1852 election and disappearWhigs lose 1852 election and disappear

12 Transcontinental Railroad Proposals Northern Route: Illinois to San Francisco Southern Route: New Orleans to San Diego Gadsden Purchase: $15 million Political “hot potato” Connect West Coast to East Coast Solution Senator Stephen Douglas (D) from Illinois proposes the Kansas-Nebraska Bill

13 Ostend Manifesto President Pierce in 1853 sent a secret delegation to negotiate with Spain the purchase of Cuba for $130 millionPresident Pierce in 1853 sent a secret delegation to negotiate with Spain the purchase of Cuba for $130 million Cuba produced mainly sugar using slave laborCuba produced mainly sugar using slave labor Negotiations took place in Ostend, BelgiumNegotiations took place in Ostend, Belgium News leaked to the press and a major controversy ensued: Federal govt sided with the “slavocracy”News leaked to the press and a major controversy ensued: Federal govt sided with the “slavocracy”

14 Uncle Toms’ Cabin Harriet Beecher Stowe From an abolitionist familyFrom an abolitionist family Visited Kentucky onceVisited Kentucky once 300,000 copies sold in first year; 2 million sold by 1860300,000 copies sold in first year; 2 million sold by 1860 Popular in EuropePopular in Europe Place a human face on slavery; also created stereotypesPlace a human face on slavery; also created stereotypes Harsh Southern reaction; accused North of “wage” slaveryHarsh Southern reaction; accused North of “wage” slavery "So this is the little lady who made this big war.” –Abraham. Lincoln

15 Kansas-Nebraska Act Sen. Stephen Douglas Proposed northern route of transcontinental railroad through unorganized territory of old Louisiana Purchase Used popular sovereignty to determine slavery in new territories (above 36 o 30’) to attract Southern votes Pierce signs bill into law in 1854 Repealed the Missouri Compromise “The Little Giant”

16 Rise of Republican Party 1852 Whigs lose Presidency Whigs are split between “cotton” Whigs and “conscience” Whigs Both Webster and Clay die in 1852 Whigs disappear Republican Party formed in 1854 in Ripon, Wisconsin Republican Party Mix of Free-Soilers, abolitionists, Whigs, Liberty Party Favored stronger central governmentFavored stronger central government Stronger banking systemStronger banking system Opposition to the expansion of slaveryOpposition to the expansion of slavery Free homesteads in territoriesFree homesteads in territories Public education systemPublic education system Favored moral reformsFavored moral reforms Federal funding of transcontinental railroad and other infrastructureFederal funding of transcontinental railroad and other infrastructure Protective tariffs Protective tariffs Immigration restrictions Immigration restrictions

17 “Bleeding” Kansas Conflict People rush into Kansas: abolitionists and border “ruffians” from MissouriPeople rush into Kansas: abolitionists and border “ruffians” from Missouri Slave or free stateSlave or free state Towns sacked and others burned, 200 settlers killed, battles, millions in damagesTowns sacked and others burned, 200 settlers killed, battles, millions in damages Lecompton Constitution controversy: prohibited future import of slaves, but did not prohibit slaveryLecompton Constitution controversy: prohibited future import of slaves, but did not prohibit slavery Pottawatomie Massacre

18 Sumner-Brooks Affair Charles Sumner Abolitionist senator from MassachusettsAbolitionist senator from Massachusetts Gave speech in Senate” “Crime against Kansas”Gave speech in Senate” “Crime against Kansas” Personal attacked on Sen. Andrew Butler: "a mistress who, though ugly to others, is always lovely to him; though polluted in the sight of the world, is chaste in his sight—I mean, the harlot, Slavery."Personal attacked on Sen. Andrew Butler: "a mistress who, though ugly to others, is always lovely to him; though polluted in the sight of the world, is chaste in his sight—I mean, the harlot, Slavery." Preston Brooks Congressman from South CarolinaCongressman from South Carolina Nephew of Sen. ButlerNephew of Sen. Butler Attacked Sumner in the Senate with a cane: beaten to unconsciousnessAttacked Sumner in the Senate with a cane: beaten to unconsciousness

19 Sumner-Brooks Affair Sumner severely beatenSumner severely beaten Took three years to recoverTook three years to recover Massachusetts re-elects Sumner in 1858Massachusetts re-elects Sumner in 1858 South Carolinians send scores of new canes to BrooksSouth Carolinians send scores of new canes to Brooks South Carolina re-elected BrooksSouth Carolina re-elected Brooks

20 Dred Scott Decision Dred Scott Slave of a physicianSlave of a physician Wife (Harriet) and Scott sue for freedom in state courts because they have lived most of their lives in free territoryWife (Harriet) and Scott sue for freedom in state courts because they have lived most of their lives in free territory Use Northwest Ordinances, forbidding slavery, as grounds for freedomUse Northwest Ordinances, forbidding slavery, as grounds for freedom Scott v Sandford (1857) In 7-2 vote, Chief Justice Roger Taney cited the following:In 7-2 vote, Chief Justice Roger Taney cited the following: Any African descendent, free or slave, could not be a citizen of the U.S. Congress could not regulate slavery in the territories Missouri Compromise is unconstitutional

21 Dred Scott Decision ConsequencesConsequences Panic of 1857: Only affected the NorthPanic of 1857: Only affected the North South overjoyedSouth overjoyed North condemned the “slavocracy”North condemned the “slavocracy” Slavery free to expand anywhereSlavery free to expand anywhere Douglas issues Freeport Doctrine: cities and counties could simply not enforce state law permitting slaveryDouglas issues Freeport Doctrine: cities and counties could simply not enforce state law permitting slavery

22 Lincoln- Douglas Debates Senate Race in Illinois in 1858 Seven debates in seven towns Issue: the extension of slavery Sen. Douglas won re- election Launched Lincoln into national prominence

23 John Brown’s Raid October, 1859 John Brown leads 20 men on raid at the Federal Arsenal in Harper’s Ferry Goal: Incite a slave insurrection in Virginia Buchanan sends U.S. Marines under Robert E. Lee recapture Federal arsenal: 10 killed including two of Brown’s sons Brown wounded and captured

24 John Brown’s Execution Hung on December 2, 1859 Last words: “I, John Brown, am now quite certain that the crimes of this guilty land will never be purged away but with blood. I had, as I now think, vainly flattered myself that without very much bloodshed it might be done.”


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