Presentation on theme: "DECADE OF CRISIS 1850’s. Abolitionist Movement William Lloyd Garrison- most radical white abolitionist-newspaper “The Liberator”- 1831 Frederick Douglass-"— Presentation transcript:
Abolitionist Movement William Lloyd Garrison- most radical white abolitionist-newspaper “The Liberator”- 1831 Frederick Douglass- escaped slave- became an abolitionist author and speaker
Reformers and abolitionists: Harriett Tubman- leader of the Underground Railroad Sojourner Truth- abolitionist and women’s rights
The Grimke Sisters 1830s Abolitionist sisters from S.C. Sarah and Angelina
Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony First women’s right convention-1848 Seneca Falls, NY Fought for women’s rights
Compromise of 1850 California is admitted as a free state Utah and New Mexico will have popular sovereignty (people decide issue of slavery) Buying and selling slaves (slave trade) in Washington, D.C. is illegal, but owning slaves is not. Fugitive Slave Law (next slide)
Fugitive Slave Law 1. Federal law to help slaveholders recapture slaves. 2. Slaveholders could demand help from authorities. 3. Blacks (free or slaves) could not defend themselves. 4. Anyone who helped a slave or refused to help the slaveholder could be fined and/or jailed.
Reaction to the Compromise of 1850: Results: 1. Made Northerners accomplices in slavery against their will. 2. Made slavery personal to those who had not been touched by it. 3. Ordinary people began to join abolitionist groups. 4. Northern states passed Personal Liberty Laws which conflicted with the Fugitive Slave Act. (State vs. Federal Law)
Reaction to Compromise of 1850: Uncle Tom’s Cabin – written by Harriet Beecher Stowe- 1852 1. Written in protest to the Fugitive Slave Act. 2. She talked to escaped slaves 3. Showed slavery at its best and worst
Uncle Tom’s Cabin (cont’d) 4.Excellent propaganda; sold more than any book except the Bible 5.Northerners – agitated and wanted to order an end to slavery 6.Southerners – angry; defended slavery 7.Uncle Tom’s Cabin and reaction to it helped cause the Civil War.
Kansas-Nebraska Act & Its Results Terms of the Compromise: – proposed by Stephen Douglas- 1854 1. Popular Sovereignty for Kansas and Nebraska territories. Repealed Missouri Compromise (trying to increase Southern support to run for President). 2. Proposal would get Southerners to agree with a northern route for the railroad.
Kansas-Nebraska Act & Its Results: Results – Douglas misjudged Northern dislike of slavery in territories Kansas – fraudulent election produced pro-slavery territory government. Elected 2 governments – 2 capitals (Topeka and Lawrence)
Kansas-Nebraska Act & Its Results: “Bleeding Kansas” – 200 deaths Pro Slavery men murdered anti slavery men in Lawrence John Brown and sons murdered 5 slavery supporters (called the Pottawatomie Massacre) Abolitionists helped “free soil” settlers move to Kansas so they could vote “Beecher’s Bibles” - guns
Kansas-Nebraska Act & Its Results: Violence Spreads 1. Senator Charles Sumner (Mass.) – violent anti slavery speaker. 2. Preston Brooks – (S.C.) Republican who beat Sumner unconscious on the Senate Floor. 3. S.C. cheered Brooks for defending the honor of the South. *This proved to the North that the South had a violent Society.
Immigration and New Parties Immigration Flood 1. 1845-1860 – mostly from Ireland, most go to New York 2. Settled in free states – jobs, land, no slave labor for compromise 3. Germans, Scandinavians went to mid- west; Irish stayed in cities.
Immigration and New Parties Opposition To Immigrants 1. Nativism – native born people favored over immigrants 2. Job Competition – immigrants worked for less 3. Religion – many immigrants were Roman Catholic 4. Language differences - accents
Immigration and New Parties New Political Alliances- Whig party had split over slavery, Dem. Party was weak- this opened the door for new parties Parties began to split into Northern and Southern branches
-One new party was the American Party-also called the “know nothings” -Strong b/c nativist attitudes against immigrants was so strong -created from a secret organization called the “Order of the Star Spangled Banner” and answered ques. w/ “I know nothing”
Republican Party -1854-based entirely in North Favored: 1. Higher wages 2. Transcontinental Railroad 3. Protective Tariff 4. No Slavery in Territories Election of 1856 – Buchanan won the Presidency
Free-Soil Party- opposed the extension of slavery into new territories
Crisis - Secession Dred Scott Case- 1856 1. Background – Scott was a slave, taken to a free state and back to a slave state. He sued for freedom but lost because: 1. He was not a citizen therefore he can’t sue. 2. He was considered property and property does not change with geography. 2. Ruled Missouri Compromise Unconstitutional
P. 332 Red Book 1. On what basis did Dred Scott sue for his freedom? 2. What state Supreme Court did the case end up in? Did this help or hurt Scott’s case? 3. What year did the case make it to the Supreme Court and how many of the nine justices voted against Scott? 4. List two reasons why Chief Justice Taney ruled against Scott. 5. Why was the Supreme Court’s ruling so shocking and controversial? Even though it was a victory for the south, how did it help the Republican Party?
Lincoln-Douglas Debates 1. Part of Illinois Senate race 2. Focus was on slavery in territory 3. Great Contrast: Douglas – (Dem.) Fashionable, flowery language, confident politician. Popular Sovereignty Lincoln – (Rep.) plain-spoken, self-educated, very honest. No slavery in territories. * Douglas won but Lincoln was now famous (South saw that both national parties were against slavery).
John Brown’s Raid -1859 1. Wanted to spark slave rebellion 2. Captured Federal arsenal in Harper’s Ferry, Va. 3. Brown and his raiders surrendered to Robert E. Lee. 4. Brown was tried and executed for treason
Event aroused strong feelings: North: “Courageous martyr” South: “reckless disregard for human life” to urge slave rebellions Moved US closer to war Election of Lincoln – Nov.1860 4 Parties and candidates- divided votes Lincoln won with only Northern support S.C. and 6 others seceded- Dec. 1860