Presentation on theme: "S LAVERY W ITHOUT S UBMISSION, E MANCIPATION W ITHOUT F REEDOM C HAPTER N INE A NALYSIS Presented by: Krystal Marie Edwards."— Presentation transcript:
S LAVERY W ITHOUT S UBMISSION, E MANCIPATION W ITHOUT F REEDOM C HAPTER N INE A NALYSIS Presented by: Krystal Marie Edwards
O VERVIEW OF C HAPTER During the 1800s the United States main reason for supporting slavery was because slavery was the main source of economics for the South. Slave revolts became more and more frequent and they take place in many different places in the United States. There was a strong connection among slaves and their families The Fugitive Act is passed in 1850, which made it easy for slave owners to recapture ex-slaves or simply pick any African Americans and claimed they were ran aways.
O VERVIEW OF CHAPTER Fredrick Douglas, Nat Turner, J.W. Loguen, Harriet Tubman and W.E.B Du Bois contribute to helping slaves. Abraham Lincoln becomes president in March of Southern States separate from the North. The Civil War begans in 1861 due to the Confederate States refusal to rejoin the Union.
O VERVIEW OF CHAPTER In 1861 the Confiscation Act is passed by Congress, allowing confiscation of any property being used to support the Confederate independence effort, including slaves. African Americans are able to gain freedom if they fight for the Union. The recruitment of African Americans increases to help win the war. The reaction to slaves becoming free is one of mixed reactions between African Americans and Whites.
O VERVIEW OF CHAPTER The 13 th Amendment is adopted by the Senate to end slavery and on January 1865 the House of Representatives agrees which led to the end of slavery. The 14 th Amendment in 1868 was overturned which addressed the citizenship rights and equal protection of African Americans The 15 th Amendment states that not citizen should be denied the right to vote on the basis race, color, or previous condition of Servitude
O VERVIEW OF CHAPTER Violence erupts after the Civil War The Southern white Oligarchy use its economic power to organize the Ku Klux Klan May 1866, Memphis Tennessee whites on rampage kill forty-six blacks, five black women are raped, and ninety homes, twelve schools and four churches were burned. From 1860 to the early 1870s the Ku Klux Klan organizes raids, lynching, beatings and burnings.
O VERVIEW OF CHAPTER The government became less enthusiastic about defending blacks, which is seen in the court case Plessy vs Ferguson when the court ruled that the railroad could segregate blacks. The atmosphere among African American leader’s changes and some began to question if they really are free. Booker T. Washington advise caution and moderation for blacks John Hope and W.E.B. Du Bois and other leaders give hope to African Americans.
A map of States in 1854 : The Black States are Slave States, Red States are free and the Green area is territories where “Popular Sovereignty” was in affect.
K EY POINTS IN CHAPTER NINE
S LAVE REVOLTS
K EY POINTS IN THE CHAPTER : S LAVE REVOLTS The largest slave revolt in the United States took place near New Orleans in 1811 which included four to five hundred slaves. Nat Turner’s slave revolt was led by Nat Turner a religious leader. Turner’s rebellion took in Southampton, Virginia in the summer of 1831; slaves went on a rampage from plantation to plantation. Harriet Tubman, the most famous conductor of the Underground Railroad escorted more than three hundred slaves to freedom.
K EY EVENTS IN THE CHAPTER : S LAVE REVOLTS Rebellion was a fear of slave-owners and there was a strong need for slave control. One example was religion. Whites controlled African American time for religion allowing one hour every Sabbath morning. Slave communities revolted in many different forms. Some strategies were small like low productivity or big for example protesting, running away and speaking outwardly against slavery. According to Zinn he wrote, “Running away was much more realistic than armed insurrection. During the 19850s about a thousand slaves a year escaped into the North, Canada, and Mexico.
A BRAHAM L INCOLN
K EY POINTS IN THE CHAPTER : A BRAHAM L INCOLN, THE CIVIL WAR AND THE EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION Lincoln’s principle objective was to save the Union when he first became president and not to free the slaves. As he stated in his first Inaugural Address in March 1861, “I have no purpose, directly or indirectly, to interfere with the institution of slavery in the States where it exist. I believe I have no lawful right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so.” As Zinn wrote, “He would keep the abolition of slavery not at the top of his list of priorities, but close enough to the top so it could be push there temporarily by abolitionist pressures and by practical political advantage.” Lincoln was able to argue against slavery on moral grounds under skillful mask of politics.
K EY POINTS IN THE CHAPTER : A BRAHAM L INCOLN, THE CIVIL WAR AND THE EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION Zinn wrote, “It was only as the war grew more bitter, the casualties mounted, desperation to win heightened, and the criticism of the abolitionists threatened to unravel that tattered coalition behind Lincoln that he began to act against slavery.” As the Civil War continued Congress passed the Confiscation Act which allowed freeing slaves who fought for the Union. The Emancipation Proclamation was issued January 1, 1863 which declares all slaves free who were fighting and in the summer 1864,400,000 signatures were gathered asking legislation to end slavery. It was sent to Congress and in April the Senate had adopted the 13 th Amendment ending slavery.
KEY POINTS IN THE CHAPTER : THE AMENDMENTS The 13 th Amendment meant for slaves, slavery was ended The 14 th Amendment was challenged in the Dred Scott vs. Sanford when a slave sued for freedom but was denied by the Supreme Court because he was not a person but he was property. The court ruled that Americans descended from African slaves could not be citizens of the United States. But in 1868 it was overturned granting citizenship to all those born in the United States regardless of color. The 15 th Amendment was the right to vote and no one should be denied based on their color, race or previous condition of servitude.
T HE A FRICAN A MERICAN MOSAIC
K EY POINTS IN THE CHAPTER : B LACK SPIRITUALITY & B LACK ACTIVIST In the chapter Howard Zinn found in historian Herbert Gutman’s book “The Black Family in Slavery and Freedom,” showed a stubborn resistance of slave families to the pressure of disintegration. Gutman also showed stable marriages among slave men and women. Zinn wrote about how there was stable family networks, rare infidelity and resistance to forced marriage in the slave community. Even under slavery, blacks had strength in family, spirituality and survival and it was unwavering. African American culture according to Zinn was a complex mixture of adaptation and rebellion through the creativity of stories and songs
K EY POINTS IN THE CHAPTER : B LACK SPIRITUALITY & B LACK ACTIVIST Another author referenced by Zinn in the chapter was Lawrence Levine and his book “Black Culture and Black Consciousness,” Levine saw for slave’s music, magic, art, religion were ways for slaves to hold on their humanity. Black’s activist and leaders in the North and South played a key role in maintaining the spirituality and motivation in the slave community. David Walker son of a slave but was born free became well known for his pamphlet Walker’s Appeal. Walker’s pamphlet angered slave owners because he vocalized his thoughts and opinions on the injustices of slavery.
K EY POINTS IN THE CHAPTER : B LACK SPIRITUALITY & B LACK ACTIVIST Fredrick Douglas an African American social reformer escaped from slavery and became a leader of the abolitionist movement and famous for his lecturers, newspaper editor and writer. Douglas contributed profound thoughts and writings about slavery and became a well-known voice among slave. W.E.B Du Bois, J.W. Loguen and Fredrick Douglas among other African American leaders saw the constant struggles of slavery during this period and saw changes happening within slavery. A movement was happening across the nation and as Zinn wrote, “It would take either a full-scale slave rebellion or a full scale war to end such a deeply entrenched system.”
K EY POINTS IN THE CHAPTER : A FTER THE WAR WAS FREEDOM REAL ? After the war the confiscated property of Confederate owners was given back to their families but no compensation was given to African Americans. Zinn explains a the reactions of some slaves after the war. He referenced ex-slave Thomas Hall who said, “Lincoln got the praise for freeing us, but did he do it? He gave us freedom without giving us any chance to live to ourselve and we still had to depend on the southern white man for work, food, and clothing.” Some African Americans were able to experience the changes after the war. For example some African American came forward and voted for the first time.
K EY POINTS IN THE CHAPTER : A FTER THE WAR WAS FREEDOM REAL ? After Lincoln died Andrew Johnson became president but during his presidency he vetoed bills that would of helped African Americans. For example Johnson helped by not guaranteeing equal rights to blacks. States enacted “Black Codes” which targeted African Americans directly not allowing them to rent or lease farmland and black children who had no parents were to do forced labor. There were some positive effects after African American children were able to attend school, two blacks were voted in to the U.S. Senate, and twenty Congressman.
A NALYSIS OF CHAPTER In chapter nine major changes took place during this time period and although African Americans were emancipated they didn’t get true freedom until many years later down the road. After the end of slavery African American still remained dependent on the whites for work, shelter, and the necessities of life because they still lived in a world strongly dominated by whites. There was always the threat of force or death which made equal rights and treatment a long fought battle for African Americans. Commendable changes happened during this time period but it was just the beginning for African Americans and their road for justice, respect and equality.
W ORKS C ITED Abraham Lincoln Papers at the Library of Congress. (n.d.). Retrieved March 29, 2014, from Library of Congress: s/abraham-lincoln-papers/ s/abraham-lincoln-papers/ Reynolds, William C. Reynolds's political map of the United States, designed to exhibit the comparative area of the free and slave states and the territory open to slavery or freedom by the repeal of the Missouri Compromise. New York : Wm. C. Reynolds and J.C. Jones, c map : col. ; 48 x 70 cm. Catalog record: Slaves and the Courts, (n.d.). Retrieved Month 29, 2014, from Library of Congress: s/slaves-court/history.html s/slaves-court/history.html The African-American Mosaic. (n.d.). Retrieved March 29, 2014, from Library of Congress: Zinn, H. (1999). A People's History of the United States. New York, NY: HaperCollins Publishers.