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On a North American continent controlled by American Indians, contact among the peoples of Europe, the Americas, and West Africa created a new world.

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Presentation on theme: "On a North American continent controlled by American Indians, contact among the peoples of Europe, the Americas, and West Africa created a new world."— Presentation transcript:

1 On a North American continent controlled by American Indians, contact among the peoples of Europe, the Americas, and West Africa created a new world.

2 o Before the arrival of Europeans, native populations in North America developed a wide variety of: o social o political and o economic structures based in part on interactions with the environment and each other

3  Southwest dry, arid climate sedentary lifestyle Hohokam, Anasazi, Pueblo  multifaceted societies  farmed with irrigation  constructed/lived in caves, under cliffs, multistoried buildings

4  Southwest spread of maize cultivation  spurred economic development (trade)  spurred social diversification (division of labor)

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8  Northwest Pacific coast, Alaska to California  longhouses

9  Northwest a mix of foraging & hunting (gatherer-hunter)  fishing, gathering nuts, roots, berries isolated by mountains  hindered trade, development to a degree carved totem poles  to preserve stories, legends, myths

10  Great Basin & Great Plains few natural resources  result in mobile lifestyles nomadic hunters  buffalo  lived in tepees sedentary farmers & traders  raised corn (maize), beans, squash  lived in earthen lodges along rivers migration  movement of people within an area/country

11  Midwest Settlements Woodland American Indians  hunted, fished, farmed Adena-Hopewell  large earthen mounds  present day Ohio Cahokia  30,000 inhabitants  present day East St. Louis

12  Northeast Settlements mixed agricultural & gatherer-hunter economy  permanent villages  lived in longhouses Iroquois Confederation  political union of 5 tribes  Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, Mohawk matrilineal heritage  families organized through female lineage’s

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14  Atlantic Seaboard Settlements  Coastal Plains  from New Jersey to Florida  built timber & bark lodgings along rivers  rivers & Atlantic Ocean utilized for food

15 o European overseas expansion resulted in the: o Columbian Exchange o a series of interactions and adaptations among societies across the Atlantic

16  Widespread deadly epidemics small pox, measles, influenza, chickenpox, malaria, and yellow fever disease & Spanish brutality decimates indigenous populations  Racially mixed populations mestizo, mulatto  Caste system based upon intermixture of Spanish settlers, Africans, and indigenous Native Americans

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19  Spanish/Portuguese traders reach West Africa trade for resources, slaves Prince Henry the Navigator  New crops, livestock introduced to New World Columbian Exchange sugar cane, bluegrasses, wheat, apples, pigs, horses, cattle, sheep, goats, the wheel, iron implements, guns effected economic, social, & political development

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21  Encomienda System slave labor used in New World Spanish colonies introduces new form of social/economic organization to region vast tracts of land AND, the indigenous people living there,  given to the Spanish lord/conquistador,  who promises to uplift and Christianize them! slavery by any other name  often brutalized, exploited in sugar fields, silver mines

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23  African Chattel Slavery becomes increasingly important  population of native Indian workers dwindle  disease, brutality, etc …  increased importation of African slaves alters encomienda system

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26  Causes of European expansion: The 3 G’s  Gold, God, Glory  New crops from the America’s fuel population growth in Europe Columbian Exchange  beans, corn (maize), sweet/white potatoes, tomatoes, tobacco, various squashes, chile’s, and manioc

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28  New sources of wealth gold, silver  fuel shift from feudalism to capitalism

29  Improvements in technology and trade arms social technology  bureaucracy, double-entry bookkeeping, mechanical printing amassing wealth/dominating people positively valued on Earth and towards salvation (Lies, p.36) nature of European Christianity  rationalized conquest  “the Requirement” (Lies, p )

30  Improvements in technology and trade European success in island conquests  Malta, Sardinia, Canary Islands, Ireland, etc…  a route to wealth caravel sextant joint-stock companies  precursor to corporation

31 o Contacts among American Indians, Africans, and Europeans challenged the worldviews of each group.

32  Contact with people different from themselves caused debates comparisons of nature and degrees of civility  Juan de Sepulveda  Bartolome de Las Casas ethnocentrism  belief that one’s own culture and way of life is best, superior to all others  common among all human cultures  belief in white superiority evolves

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37  Politically, challenged European ideas of government, social organization  “Lies”, p 61  “without monarchs, without much hierarchy”  “… some Europeans glorified American Indian nations as examples of simpler, better societies from which European civilization had devolved”

38  Religiously, challenged Europe’s uniformity  leads to Protestant Reformation established “mission system”  presidio  fort & mission to protect selves and Christianize natives looked down upon Native American’s …  … earth-centered religion  reverence for the land, resources, etc… assumed the superiority of Christianity!

39  Forms of resistance - Native Americans: refused to plant food abandoned towns near Spanish settlements fled beyond mountains and rivers suicide shunned conception & childbirth aborted murdered their children slave revolts

40  Forms of resistance – African Americans: run away  to Native American communities slave revolts  New York City – 1712  21 blacks executed over a slow fire  Stono Rebellion – 1739  South Carolina  21 whites and 44 blacks killed

41  Juan de Onate Spanish conquistador attempted to spread Catholicism among natives of New Mexico  Acoma War villagers, including men, women, and children killed enslaved the remaining 500 they amputated the left foot of every Acoma man over the age of twenty-five females sent off to be slaves for twenty years  Pope’s Rebellion also known as the Pueblo Revolt an uprising of Pueblo Indians against the Spanish colonizers in present day New Mexico the Pueblo killed 400 Spanish and drove the remaining 2,000 settlers out of the province

42  Gullah blend of English & several African languages spoken by blacks in South Carolina & Georgia  Ring Shout West African religious dance  contributed to development of jazz  Maroon communities runaway black slaves who formed their own communities Caribbean Islands & South America


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