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Slavery to Civil Rights

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1 Slavery to Civil Rights
Part 1

2 The Roots of Conflict King Cotton Eli Whitney’s Cotton Gin (1793)
cotton could be very profitable with large enslaved force By mid 1800’s: North – economy relied mostly on manufacturing with an immigrant workforce South – agricultural economy reliant upon slavery

3 The Missouri Compromise - 1820
until 1818 there were an equal number of free and slave states Missouri petitioned to enter the Union as a slave state balance of power would shift to slave states Compromise: Maine would enter as a free state Missouri would be a slave state region south of 36th parallel in Louisiana territory would be open for slavery land north of 36th (except Missouri) free runaway slaves in free states to be returned

4 The Missouri Compromise

5 War With Mexico Texas declared independence from Mexico in 1836
White southerners wanted Texas to be a slave state Northerners worried balance of power in Congress would swing to the South Southern politicians won out and Texas was admitted to the Union as the 28th state in 1845 Northerners worried about territories to the West which were south of the line established by the Missouri Compromise

6 The Compromise of 1850 Compromise: California be admitted
By 1850, 15 free states and 15 slave states California threatened balance when they applied for admission as a free state Compromise: California be admitted as a free state people in the territories of Utah and New Mexico decide on slavery issue themselves slave trade (but not slavery) be prohibited in the District of Columbia new fugitive slave law to require federal marshals to capture runaway slaves


8 Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 Part of the Compromise of 1850
All runaway slaves must be returned to their masters Abolitionists nicknamed it the “bloodhound law” law enforcement officers could be fined $1,000 for not arresting runaways people aiding runaways by providing food or shelter could face 6 months of $1,000 fine

9 The Underground Railroad
Between 1830 and 1860 helped enslaved African Americans escape by conducting them to safe houses on their way to free territories runaway slaves were pursued by bounty hunters many continued on to Canada


11 The Kansas-Nebraska Act - 1854
Illinois senator Stephen A. Douglas wanted territory north of Missouri line open for the people to decide for themselves whether or not they wanted slavery (known as popular sovereignty) passed in 1854, it divided the Nebraska territory into two separate territories, Kansas and Nebraska in effect it voided the Missouri Compromise, allowing slavery to expand northward violence broke out in Kansas between antislavery and proslavery groups

12 Conflict in Kansas proslavery and antislavery fought for
control of Kansas by 1855 when Kansas applied for statehood proslavery residents of Missouri poured into Kansas to help elect proslavery candidates antislavery forces armed themselves proslavery Missourians opened cannon fire on Lawrence, Kansas burned down homes, businesses, killed several men John Brown and his four sons kidnapped and brutally executed five proslavery settlers

13 Growing Debate Supreme Court Decision:
Lincoln – Douglas Senatorial Debates Dred Scott Decision handed down by the Supreme Court in 1857 Supreme Court Decision: enslaved African Americans were considered legal property no state could deprive citizens of their property without due process of law

14 John Brown Abolitionist who led 21 men on an attack of a
federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, West Virginia in 1859 hoped to spark a slave rebellion that would end slavery he and his men were quickly captured and no slaves joined him as he hoped they would powerful speaker who during his trial became a hero to many Northern antislavery opponents Sentenced to death by hanging

15 John Brown

16 Lincoln Elected When President Abraham Lincoln was elected
in 1860, southerners reacted by calling for secession By December of 1860, South Carolina seceded The following year Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas followed declaring themselves a new nation, the Confederate States of America War begins in 1861 Northern African Americans tried to enlist at the start of the war but were rejected in 1863, and in desperate need of troops, the Union Army admitted black soldiers

17 Emancipation Proclamation
Lincoln was pressured by abolitionists throughout the war to free all enslaved black Americans North’s two main reasons for fighting the war were to preserve the union and to end slavery Fugitive Slave Laws no longer applied to Southern slave owners since after secession from the Union could no longer expect to be protected by the Union’s laws 1863 Executive Order, included all areas in rebellion, excluded areas not in rebellion (border states) applied to more than 3 million of the 4 million slaves in the U.S. at the time

18 Big Question: Were African Americans free during Reconstruction?
The Civil War was over and four million former slaves living in the South were now free. The Period following the Civil War in the South was known as RECONSTRUCTION. It was a period that lasted for about 12 Years, ending in 1877. Big Question: Were African Americans free during Reconstruction?

19 Emancipation “My paramount object in this struggle is to
save the Union, and is not either to save or to destroy Slavery. If I could save the Union without freeing any slave, I would do it; and if I could do it by freeing all of the slaves, I would do it; and if I could do it by freeing some and leaving others alone, I would also do that. what I do about Slavery and the colored race, I do because it helps to save the Union; and what I forbear, I forbear because I do not believe it would help to save the Union.” -Abraham Lincoln, from a letter to Horace Greeley, 1862

20 The Push to Reform the South
some members of Congress criticized Johnson for being too lenient toward the South Johnson did little to prevent new Southern state governments from passing black codes black codes were laws that severely restricted the rights of newly freed blacks Mississippi Black Code Restrictions: prohibited blacks from owning land freed black orphaned children could be assigned to forced labor Andrew Johnson Presidency

21 Black Codes Andrew Johnson did nothing to prevent
Southern states from passing Black Codes Severely restricted the rights of newly freed blacks Barred blacks from renting land, buying property kept them from serving on juries, voting black orphans could be assigned to forced labor by keeping blacks powerless it ensured a stable labor supply in the South

22 Freedmen’s Bureau teachers, legal aid, and other assistance
established to provide freed blacks with food, teachers, legal aid, and other assistance viewed by white southerners as meddling on the part of the federal government vetoed by Andrew Johnson along with the Civil Rights Act Congress overrode both vetoes Johnson removed cabinet members who dis- agreed with him without Senate approval impeachment proceedings, acquitted by 1 vote

23 The 13th Amendment (1865) officially abolished and
continues to prohibit slavery

24 The Civil Rights Act of 1866 gives citizenship to African Americans
guarantees equal protection under the law

25 The 14th Amendment (1868) Secured rights for former slaves
Equal Protection Due Process

26 15th Amendment (1870) no citizen could be prevented
from voting based on race, color, or previous condition of servitude (i.e. slavery).

27 The Enforcement Act of 1870 Problem? empowers federal authorities
to punish violators of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments Problem? United States v. Cruikshank ruled that a state couldn’t discriminate against blacks, but said non-state institutions and individuals could

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