Starr Grade 9 Assessment goals Compare the effects of political, economic, and social factors on slaves and free blacks. Analyze the impact of slavery on current sections of the United States. http://www.cnn.com/2013/02/17/opinion/greene-slave- narrative/index.html?fb_action_ids=721482182010&fb_action_types=og.reco mmends&fb_source=aggregation&fb_aggregation_id=288381481237582 http://www.cnn.com/2013/02/17/opinion/greene-slave- narrative/index.html?fb_action_ids=721482182010&fb_action_types=og.reco mmends&fb_source=aggregation&fb_aggregation_id=288381481237582 If we look into her eyes. What can we say. She probably was a low weight baby. Slave births were more than likely to have been born low weight. She survived a very high infant mortality rate. Survived on perhaps a a peck of cornmeal (1/4 of a bushel), perhaps a few pounds of salt pork or bacon. Perhaps she and her family tended a garden to add vegetables and poultry. Maybe they fished Diet deficient in calcium, vitamin C, protein, and iron. What was her childhood like? Short. Early age her familiy (real and fictive) would have taught her the ropes of being a slave. Coping methods She would have most likely seen slave punishments Would have started working around 6 began adult field work between eight and twelve.
Opening Observations African Americans in the 17 th Century brought to British North America as unfree people but the “terms” of their labor varied before 1680. Large numbers of people from all races were unfree specifically in Virginia and Maryland. First colony to legalize slavery was Massachusetts. Virginia, by contrast, legally defined the institution in 1662.
Slavery in Colonial America New England colonies: -Massachusetts -New Hampshire -Rhode Island -Connecticut Slavery in New England typified by small African American population fairly well-integrated into the larger population. They congregated in industrial and sea faring towns. Small slave population. For example in Mass in 1764 estimates say that the population was 2.2 percent. The largest population ever in the colony.
Middle Colonies: -New Jersey -New York -Delaware -Pennsylvania Larger black population than New England Dutch influence in New York
Southern Colonies -Virginia -Maryland -Carolina -Georgia Larger population of slaves Indigo, rice, and tobacco as cash crops Gang and task labor systems Most severe racial and class hierarchy
Thomas Jefferson 1747-1826 At Birth Majority of slaves born in Africa Height of Slave Trade Few slaves or free African American were Christians
Slavery largely confined to Eastern areas near Atlantic Ocean, Carolinas, and Georgia Slave population unable to reproduce itself yet Ironically most slaves brought to the New World did not end up in British North America. Perhaps 5 percent or so. In comparison 40 percent ended up in Brazil.
Realities at Jefferson’s Death Majority of slaves born in the U.S. Black slave population capable of increasing the slave population by natural reproduction Plantation revolution had made plantations more productive and efficient economic units Increasing numbers of slaves converted to the Christian faith as a result of the first and second Great Awakenings
More realities The Louisiana Purchase and the development of the Mississippi Territory was largely responsible for slavery’s American revival Between 1790 and 1860, Eli Whitney’s invention of the cotton gin which made the cultivation of cotton profitable, led to tens of thousands of slaves being removed from Maryland, Virginia, and the Carolinas to Mississippi, Louisiana, Alabama, and Texas. The best estimates state that roughly 50 percent of the slaves in the upper south were moved involuntarily into the Southwest territory.
Transition to antebellum slavery Slave population increased from roughly 700,000 in 1790 to 4,000,000 in 1860 Seventy five percent of slaves involved in agricultural work Slave populations growing fastest in cotton producing states Class and slave owning. Only 383,673 out of six million white southerners owned slaves. Just one percent owned more than 50 slaves Yet more than half of slaves belonged to masters who had twenty of more slaves
Transition to slavery pt. 2 55 percent of slaves in south cultivated cotton 10 percent grew tobacco 10 percent produced sugar, rice, or hemp. 15 percent were domestic servants The remaining slaves worked in trades and industries. These included textile mills, tobacco factories, and iron foundries.
Controversies of the period involving slavery to 1845 When Missouri applied for statehood, it threatened to disrupt the balance of slave and free states Led to the Missouri Compromise. Slavery was allowed in Missouri but banned in territories north of the 36-30 parallel slave uprisings and planned throughout the new world from Haiti to the US. The most important for the US include: Haiti (1791-1804) Gabriel (1800) Deslondes Revolt (1811) Denmark Vesey (1822) Nat Turner (1831)
Abolitionism Black Abolitionism -Denmark Vesey -David Walker -Maria Stewart -Frederick Douglass -Nat Turner Sought immediate end of slavery and sought agency and freedom from white paternalism
White Abolitionism - William Lloyd Garrison -Arthur and Lewis Tappan -Harriet Beecher Stowe -Grimke Sisters Much more paternalistic of African Americans Theologically much more liberal than African American abolitionist Leaned towards pacifism and peaceful means of ending slavery The American Anti Slavery Society formed by Garrison and the Tappan Brothers eventually split over issues of religion, government intervention, and women’s rights. Tappan eventually formed the American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society. This eventually led to the Liberty Party
What Southerners thought about these transformations Abolitionists exaggerated slavery’s evils Southern intellectuals such as George Fitzhugh argued that slaves were content and that slavery was an economic burden. This contrasted with the prevailing view of abolitionists that slave owners made substantial profits off their slaves John Calhoun argued that slavery instead of being a necessary evil was indeed a positive good for southern society
1845-1860: The Nation Moves Towards War Over Slavery Annexation of Texas and the War with Mexico. Again this led to the Wilmot Proviso to allow the territory into the United States as free territory. What should be done with this new territory led to conflict and the subsequent Compromise of 1850 Compromise of 1850 -Admitted California as free state -Organized Utah territory and New Mexico territory with slavery decided by popular sovereignty -Slave trade abolished in the capital but slavery allowed to remain -The Fugitive Slave Act
The Union Falls Apart Political parties and religious denominations unite and divide over slavery. For example the Southern Baptist Association separated from Northern baptists over slavery The Kansas-Nebraska Act and Bleeding Kansas. This basically nullified the Missouri Compromise. The Dred Scott Case and the Supreme Court’s Decision. Why was Dred Scott case important Determined that Scott could not sue in a federal court because black people were not citizens. Also decided that Scott was not free even though he had travelled into a free territory because Scott was slave property and the slave owner’s property rights took precedence. In going this far the court ruled that Congress could not pass measures—including the Missouri Compromise or the Kansas-Nebraska Act—that might prevent slave owners from taking their property into any territory. Uncle Tom’s Cabin
War John Brown and Radical Abolitionism The 1860 Election and the rise of Lincoln
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