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Presentation on theme: "THE OLD SOUTH & SLAVERY A10Q"— Presentation transcript:

1 THE OLD SOUTH & SLAVERY 1820-1860 A10Q 7.10.30

2 Essential Question To what degree was the South developing as a distinctively different region from the rest of the United States during the period 1820 to 1860? To what degree did slavery shape life in the South during this period? (Consider political, economic, social and intellectual aspects of life in the South)

3 Characteristics of the Antebellum South
Primarily agrarian. Economic power shifted from the “upper South” to the “lower South.” “Cotton Is King!” * 1860 5 mil. bales a yr (57% of total US exports). Very slow development of industrialization. Rudimentary financial system. Inadequate transportation system.

4 Early Emancipation in the North

5 The Agricultural Economy of the South,1860
Roark, American Promise 3e from

6 Changes in Cotton Production
1860 ▼ POJER 1820 ▲

7 Value of Cotton Exports As a Percentage of All U.S. Exports

8 Southern Population

9 Graniteville Textile Co.
Founded in 1845, it was the South’s first attempt at industrialization in Richmond, VA

10 Southern Agriculture

11 Slaves Picking Cotton on a Mississippi Plantation

12 Eli Whitney Invented cotton gin in 1793
Removed the seed, cotton production now seen as profitable 50% more efficient than picking by hand Cotton becomes main cash crop of south Increased the need for slaves, unintended effect Black Belt- cotton production moved into Georgia, Mississippi, Alabama

13 Southern Economy South became a monopolistic economy, dominated by wealthy plantation owners Industrial growth lagged behind the North Southerners resentful the North made huge profits at their expense South complained of northern middlemen, bankers, and shippers South resentful being so dependent on northern manufactures and markets Attention was drawn away from the development of southern cities

14 Slaves Using the Cotton Gin

15 “Hauling the Whole Week’s Pickings” William Henry Brown, 1842

16 Slaves Working in a Sugar-Boiling House, 1823

17 Southern Society (1850) “Slavocracy” [plantation owners]
6,000,000 The “Plain Folk” [white yeoman farmers] Black Freemen 250,000 Black Slaves 3,200,000 Total US Population  23,000,000 [9,250,000 in the South = 40%]

18 Planter Class Held enormous political power * Accomplished this despite small numbers * Especially true in upper south Often viewed as “Aristocrats” * Most did not live life of luxury * Most $ went into purchasing more land Adopted code of “Chivalry” * Concern for defending honor

19 “Southern Lady” Subordinate to men “Women, like children, have but one right, and that is the right to protection. The right to protection involves the obligation to obey” Minimal Exposure to “public world” Small Plantations * May spin, weave, assist with farming Large Plantations * Less involved

20 “Plain Folk” Subsistence Farmers Inferior Education
“Yeoman Farmer” Inferior Education Lower Literacy Rates Subordinate to Upper Class

21 “Plain Folk” Minority Majority – “Hill people”
Living in or west of Appalachians Isolated from slave culture “White Trash” or “Crackers” Extremely poor whites Majority – Live around Plantations Depend on upper class for economic support

22 Southern Society in 1860

23 Weaknesses of Plantation System
Relied on a one crop economy Repelled large scale European immigration Stimulated racism among poor whites Created an aristocratic political elite

24 US Laws Regarding Slavery
U. S. Constitution: * 3/5s compromise [I.2] * fugitive slave clause [IV.2] 1793  Fugitive Slave Act. 1850  stronger Fugitive Slave Act.

25 Southern Slavery--> An Aberration?
1780s: 1st antislavery society created in Phila. By 1804: slavery eliminated from last northern state. 1807: the legal termination of the slave trade, enforced by the Royal Navy. 1820s: newly indep. Republics of Central & So. America declared their slaves free. 1833: slavery abolished throughout the British Empire. 1844: slavery abolished in the Fr. colonies. 1861: the serfs of Russia were emancipated.

26 Slavery Was Less Efficient in the U. S. than Elsewhere
High cost of keeping slaves from escaping. GOAL  raise the “exit cost.” Slave patrols. Southern Black Codes. Cut off a toe or a foot.

27 Slave Auction Notice, 1823

28 Slave Auction: Charleston, SC-1856

29 Slave Accoutrements Slave Master Brands Slave muzzle

30 Anti-Slave Pamphlet

31 Slave Accoutrements Slave leg irons Slave tag, SC Slave shoes

32 Slave-Owning Population (1850)

33 Slave-Owning Families (1850)

34 Slave System Slave pop. 4 million by 1860, 4x as many in 1800
Importation ended in 1808 Slaves were treated as property They were deprived of their African names, culture and religion Africanism- survived as an African American subculture in music, religion and folklore Deprived of their dignity

35 Treatment of Slaves Suffered cruel physical and psychological treatment Were convinced they were inferior and deserved their lot in life Slaves were provided with limited diet, clothing, housing and medical care Discipline by whip very common House servants treated better than field workers 75% worked as field hands Illegal to teach slaves to read and write- fear give slaves idea of freedom

36 Treatment of Slaves Slave pop. Increased due to breeding
Owners rewarded slave women for having many children Sexual abuse of female slaves common White slave owners often fathered sizable mulatto population, most remained slaves Marriages were not recognized Sale of slaves did not respect family ties Sold down the river- meant being sold to owner in deep south

37 The Culture of Slavery Black Christianity [Baptists or Methodists]: * more emotional worship services. * negro spirituals. “Pidgin” or Gullah languages. Nuclear family with extended kin links, where possible. Importance of music in their lives. [esp. spirituals].

38 Slave Resistance 1. Slowing down the work pace
Isolated acts of sabotage. Escape via the Underground Railroad. Organized Revolts (Rarest form) Poisoned food

39 Runaway Slave Ads

40 Haitian Revolution - 1791 Blacks outnumber whites Estimated Deaths
Haitian Constitution Followed by Massacre of remaining Whites May have sparked increase in US attempted revolts

41 Slave Rebellions 1800 - Gabriel Prosser 1822 - Denmark Vesey
Richmond, VA 1000 Slaves Plot revealed before revolt began 35 executed Denmark Vesey Free Black living in Charleston Rumored 9000 followers Plot revealed before revolt began Led to further suppression

42 Slave Rebellions 1833 – Nat Turner in Virginia Slave Preacher
Killed 60 white men, women, children 100+ Slaves murdered in response Caused widespread anxiety among plantation owners causing stricter black codes

Why did many Southerners support the slave system when 75% didn’t own slaves? Was there a change in attitude re slavery? How did they justify slavery? Who did NOT support the slave system? Southern Yeoman farmer’s home Plantation House, St. Mary’s, MD (1830s)

3. Defense of Slavery & White Supremacy “necessary evil” → “positive good” Legal & constitutional History of Greece and Rome Religious – the Bible Better than North – “wage slaves” Black Inferiority [Among Southerners] Elevated poor whites Paternalistic view- necessary to protect blacks from mistreatment and abuse they would receive if they were freed

45 Southern White Paranoia
Feared more revolts Infuriated by abolitionists propaganda Believed institution benefited both races Biological racial superiority to justify slavery Gag Resolutions- southern fears of debate of anti-slavery appeals- prevented debate on abolition proposals Black Codes- banned from holding office, no jury trial, could not carry firearms

46 Southern Pro-Slavery Propaganda

47 Paths of the Internal Slave Trade

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