Presentation on theme: "THE OLD SOUTH & SLAVERY A10Q"— Presentation transcript:
1 THE OLD SOUTH & SLAVERY 1820-1860 A10Q 7.10.30 THE ANTEBELLUM SOUTHTHE OLD SOUTH & SLAVERYA10Q
2 Essential QuestionTo what degree was the South developing as a distinctively different region from the rest of the United States during the period 1820 to 1860?To what degree did slavery shape life in the South during this period?(Consider political, economic, social and intellectual aspects of life in the South)
3 Characteristics of the Antebellum South Primarily agrarian.Economic power shifted from the “upper South” to the “lower South.”“Cotton Is King!” * 1860 5 mil. bales a yr (57% of total US exports).Very slow development of industrialization.Rudimentary financial system.Inadequate transportation system.
11 Slaves Picking Cotton on a Mississippi Plantation
12 Eli Whitney Invented cotton gin in 1793 Removed the seed, cotton production now seen as profitable50% more efficient than picking by handCotton becomes main cash crop of southIncreased the need for slaves, unintended effectBlack Belt- cotton production moved into Georgia, Mississippi, Alabama
13 Southern EconomySouth became a monopolistic economy, dominated by wealthy plantation ownersIndustrial growth lagged behind the NorthSoutherners resentful the North made huge profits at their expenseSouth complained of northern middlemen, bankers, and shippersSouth resentful being so dependent on northern manufactures and marketsAttention was drawn away from the development of southern cities
17 Southern Society (1850) “Slavocracy” [plantation owners] 6,000,000The “Plain Folk” [white yeoman farmers]Black Freemen250,000Black Slaves 3,200,000Total US Population 23,000,000 [9,250,000 in the South = 40%]
18 Planter ClassHeld enormous political power * Accomplished this despite small numbers * Especially true in upper southOften viewed as “Aristocrats” * Most did not live life of luxury * Most $ went into purchasing more landAdopted code of “Chivalry” * Concern for defending honor
19 “Southern Lady”Subordinate to men “Women, like children, have but one right, and that is the right to protection. The right to protection involves the obligation to obey”Minimal Exposure to “public world”Small Plantations * May spin, weave, assist with farmingLarge Plantations * Less involved
20 “Plain Folk” Subsistence Farmers Inferior Education “Yeoman Farmer”Inferior EducationLower Literacy RatesSubordinate to Upper Class
21 “Plain Folk” Minority Majority – “Hill people” Living in or west of AppalachiansIsolated from slave culture“White Trash” or “Crackers”Extremely poor whitesMajority –Live around PlantationsDepend on upper class for economic support
23 Weaknesses of Plantation System Relied on a one crop economyRepelled large scale European immigrationStimulated racism among poor whitesCreated an aristocratic political elite
24 US Laws Regarding Slavery U. S. Constitution: * 3/5s compromise [I.2] * fugitive slave clause [IV.2]1793 Fugitive Slave Act.1850 stronger Fugitive Slave Act.
25 Southern Slavery--> An Aberration? 1780s: 1st antislavery society created in Phila.By 1804: slavery eliminated from last northern state.1807: the legal termination of the slave trade, enforced by the Royal Navy.1820s: newly indep. Republics of Central & So. America declared their slaves free.1833: slavery abolished throughout the British Empire.1844: slavery abolished in the Fr. colonies.1861: the serfs of Russia were emancipated.
26 Slavery Was Less Efficient in the U. S. than Elsewhere High cost of keeping slaves from escaping.GOAL raise the “exit cost.”Slave patrols.Southern Black Codes.Cut off a toe or a foot.
34 Slave System Slave pop. 4 million by 1860, 4x as many in 1800 Importation ended in 1808Slaves were treated as propertyThey were deprived of their African names, culture and religionAfricanism- survived as an African American subculture in music, religion and folkloreDeprived of their dignity
35 Treatment of SlavesSuffered cruel physical and psychological treatmentWere convinced they were inferior and deserved their lot in lifeSlaves were provided with limited diet, clothing, housing and medical careDiscipline by whip very commonHouse servants treated better than field workers75% worked as field handsIllegal to teach slaves to read and write- fear give slaves idea of freedom
36 Treatment of Slaves Slave pop. Increased due to breeding Owners rewarded slave women for having many childrenSexual abuse of female slaves commonWhite slave owners often fathered sizable mulatto population, most remained slavesMarriages were not recognizedSale of slaves did not respect family tiesSold down the river- meant being sold to owner in deep south
37 The Culture of SlaveryBlack Christianity [Baptists or Methodists]: * more emotional worship services. * negro spirituals.“Pidgin” or Gullah languages.Nuclear family with extended kin links, where possible.Importance of music in their lives. [esp. spirituals].
38 Slave Resistance 1. Slowing down the work pace Isolated acts of sabotage.Escape via the Underground Railroad.Organized Revolts (Rarest form)Poisoned food
40 Haitian Revolution - 1791 Blacks outnumber whites Estimated Deaths Haitian ConstitutionFollowed by Massacre of remaining WhitesMay have sparked increase in US attempted revolts
41 Slave Rebellions 1800 - Gabriel Prosser 1822 - Denmark Vesey Richmond, VA1000 SlavesPlot revealed before revolt began35 executedDenmark VeseyFree Black living in CharlestonRumored 9000 followersPlot revealed before revolt beganLed to further suppression
42 Slave Rebellions 1833 – Nat Turner in Virginia Slave Preacher Killed 60 white men, women, children100+ Slaves murdered in responseCaused widespread anxiety among plantation owners causing stricter black codes
43 B. WHITE SOCIETY & CULTURE Why did many Southerners support the slave system when 75% didn’t own slaves?Was there a change in attitude re slavery?How did they justify slavery?Who did NOT support the slave system?Southern Yeoman farmer’s homePlantation House, St. Mary’s, MD (1830s)
44 B. WHITE SOCIETY & CULTURE 3. Defense of Slavery & White Supremacy“necessary evil” → “positive good”Legal & constitutionalHistory of Greece and RomeReligious – the BibleBetter than North – “wage slaves”Black Inferiority[Among Southerners] Elevated poor whitesPaternalistic view- necessary to protect blacks from mistreatment and abuse they would receive if they were freed
45 Southern White Paranoia Feared more revoltsInfuriated by abolitionists propagandaBelieved institution benefited both racesBiological racial superiority to justify slaveryGag Resolutions- southern fears of debate of anti-slavery appeals- prevented debate on abolition proposalsBlack Codes- banned from holding office, no jury trial, could not carry firearms