Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 4: THE UNION IN PERIL"— Presentation transcript:
1CHAPTER 4: THE UNION IN PERIL BEFORE, DURING AND AFTER THE CIVIL WAR
2The “Causes” of the Civil War 1. SLAVERY: as a growing moral issue in the North, versus its defense and expansion in the South.2. CONSTITUTIONAL DISPUTES: over the nature of the federal Union and states’ rights.Was the Constitution an agreement among “We the People” or was it a contract among the various states?
3The “Causes” of the Civil War 3. ECONOMIC DIFFERENCES: between the industrialized North and the agricultural South over such issues as tariffs, banking and internal improvements.4. POLITICAL BLUNDERS AND EXTREMISMWeak political leadershipFanatics
4Consequences 1Both sides saw their way of life or core values threatened.Southerners saw the North as threatening their property and cultureNortherners saw the South as violating the values stated in the Declaration of Independence – “all men are created equal” & “life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness”
5Consequences 2Southerners saw Northerners as “lawless” fanatics who would stop at nothing to end slaveryNortherners saw Southerners as a “slave conspiracy” that wanted to spread slavery throughout the U.S.Both sides stopped talking, stopped listening and saw the other side as dangerous enemies.
6THE DIVISIVE POLITICS OF SLAVERY Over the centuries, the Northern and Southern sections of the United States developed into two very different cultural and economic regionsThere were also differences in geography and climate, as well as religious differences
7THE SOUTH BEFORE THE WAR Rural plantation economyRelied on slave labor“Peculiar Institution” created tensionSoutherners feared the loss of slavery would mean loss of cultureFamily working the cotton field on a Plantation
8THE NORTH BEFORE THE WAR The North had a more diverse economyIndustry flourishedThe North openly opposed slavery in the South and the new territoriesThe North was more urbanized than the SouthBOSTON HARBOR
10SLAVERY IN THE TERRITORIES The issue of whether slavery in California and the West would be legal led to heated debates in CongressGold rush led to application for statehood for CaliforniaCALIFORNIA BECAME A STATE IN 1850
12OVERVIEW: ISSUE OF SLAVERY IN THE TERRITORIES 1. Free-Soil MovementSupported the Wilmot ProvisoBelieved that all blacks – slave and free – should be excluded from the Mexican CessionDid not demand the end of slaverySought to keep the West a land of opportunity for whites onlyWhite majority would not have top compete with the labor of slaves or free blacksFree-Soil Party: “free soil, free labor and free men”Proposed free homesteads (land grants to small farmers)
13OVERVIEW: ISSUE OF SLAVERY IN THE TERRITORIES 2. Southern PositionAny attempts to restrict the expansion of slavery was a violation of their constitutional right to take and use their property as they wished.3. Popular SovereigntyInstead of Congress determining whether to allow slavery in a territoryLet the matter be determined by a vote of the people who settled it
14I. The Basic ProblemA. NOT the morality of slavery B. NOT slavery in the South
15THE FREE-SOILERS “Soil” Another party that emerged in the mid-19th century was the Free-SoilersThey were northerners who opposed slavery in the territoriesFree-Soilers objections to slavery were based on economics not moral objection to slaveryThey believed slavery drove down wages for white workers“Soil”
16-- Economic Reason: Land and Jobs for White Workers
17-- Political Reason: The “Slave Power” and the 3/5 Clause
18The Popular Sovereignty Panacea Mexican American War set the stage for Slavery ControversyThreatened to divide the unionIssue: What to do with new territory?Wilmot ProvisoWhat it saidWhat happened to itWhigs and Democrats wanted to keep lid on Slavery Controversy
19California GoldThe discovery of Gold in California in 1848 blew the lid off the slavery issue.California Gold Rush Country
20Problem #1: California – Free, Slave or Two States?
21California Constitution Citizens write a constitution and apply or statehood as non-slave state.This will put slave states in the minority.The feces hits the fan in the South.South rises in violent opposition to admission of California.
22Why Was South So Concerned? South had the presidency, majority of the cabinet, and majority of the Supreme Court.The cotton economy was good and seemingly held the north and Europe in an economic bind.South not concerned about the immediate outright abolition of slavery.
23Concerns of the South Loss of balance in Senate Rest of the Mexican CessionSlavery in D.C.Texas land claimsBiggest Concern: Run-Away Slaves and enforcement of Fugitive Slave law
24COMPROMISE OF 1850 Southerners threatened secession over issue Henry Clay again worked a CompromiseFor the North: California would be admitted as free stateFor the South: A more effective fugitive slave lawResidents of New Mexico & Utah would vote themselves-”popular sovereignty”CONGRESSIONAL DEBATE
25The Compromise of 1850: CA = free state Popular sovereignty in Utah and New Mexico
26Terms of the Compromise Pro-North:Cal. admitted as a free state;Terr. in dispute between TX and NM goes to NM, so more likely to go freeabolition of slave-trade (but not slavery) in Wash. DC.Pro-South:NM and Utah slavery issue to be decided by popular sovereignty;more stringent Fugitive Slave Law.$3.10 Million to Texas
27Twilight Of The Senatorial Giants 1850 all these issues come to a head.Southern fire-eaters threaten cessionCrisis was looming.Three Senatorial Giants tackle the issue in the Senate. Henry Clay, John C. Calhoun, and Daniel Webster.Webster and Clay urge compromise and reasonable concession to south.Calhoun argues for Const. Amendments to protect the South.
28Breaking The LogjamZachery Taylor (elected 1848) was poised to veto the compromise.1850 President Taylor suddenly died; Vice President Millard Fillmore took the presidency.Fillmore supports the compromiseClay, Webster and Stephen Douglas work hard to get Compromise supported in North, and it generally is.Fire-eaters in South unhappy.Nashville convention
30Fugitive Slave Law South demanded a harsher fugitive slave law. Why? Only losing about 1000 slave a year out of population of 2 Million.More slaves are freed by self-purchase and manumition.
31FUGITIVE SLAVE LAWUnder the law, runaway slaves were not entitled to a trial by juryAnyone helping a slave escape was jailed for 6 months and fined $1,000Northerners were upset by the harshness of the new law and often helped hide fugitive slavesA HARSH FUGITIVE SLAVE LAW FURTHER INCREASED TENSIONS
32UNDERGROUND RAILROADEscape from slavery was dangerous and meant traveling on foot at nightAs time went on, African Americans and white abolitionists developed a secret network of people who would hide fugitive slaves”Conductors” would hide runaways in tunnels and even kitchen cupboards
33HARRIET TUBMAN One of the most famous conductors was Harriet Tubman Tubman escaped slavery and vowed to help others do the sameShe made 19 trips back to South and freed over 300 slaves (Including her own parents)HARRIET TUBMAN
35Backfiring Slave Law Reaction in North to Fugitive Slave Law. Provisions:Slaves not allowed to testify and denied a jury trial.Commissioner who handled the case got twice as much if the slave was returned.Northerners who aided slaves to freedom subject to heavy fines and jail.Northerners could be ordered to assist in capture of run-aways
36Election of 1852 Dems. Hopelessly divided. Nominate Franklin Pierce, a pro-southern, northerner. Compromise candidate.Weak and indecisive.Scant public record, and thus not much to offend either part of partyPlatform for Compromise of 1850 and Fugitive Slave Law
37Election of 1852--Whigs Nominate Winfield Scott. Great general, but not well liked by people. Stuffy.Whigs hopelessly divided.Election turned largely on issues of personality.Pierce wins in a landslide.Effective end of Whig Party.
38UNCLE TOM’S CABINIn 1852, Harriet Beecher Stowe published her influential novel, Uncle Tom’s CabinThe book stressed the moral evil of slaveryAbolitionist protests increasedInstant best seller sold 500,000 by 1857Author Harriet Beecher Stowe
39Consequences of Uncle Tom’s Cabin Published 1852Profound influence on public opinionMoved northerners on the fence into anti-slavery camp.Made many willing to go to war to end Slavery.Made European public unsympathetic to SouthSold several Million copies; translated into 20 languages
40The Gadsden PurchaseNation desperately needs a trans-continental RR to tie California to nation.Both North and South want the route.Why?Southern Route is easier.Gadsden Purchase.Nebraska territory.South doesn’t want this. Why?