Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 4: THE UNION IN PERIL BEFORE, DURING AND AFTER THE CIVIL WAR 1850-1877."— Presentation transcript:
CHAPTER 4: THE UNION IN PERIL BEFORE, DURING AND AFTER THE CIVIL WAR 1850-1877
The “Causes” of the Civil War 1. SLAVERY: as a growing moral issue in the North, versus its defense and expansion in the South. 2. CONSTITUTIONAL DISPUTES: over the nature of the federal Union and states’ rights. Was the Constitution an agreement among “We the People” or was it a contract among the various states? Was the Constitution an agreement among “We the People” or was it a contract among the various states?
The “Causes” of the Civil War 3. ECONOMIC DIFFERENCES: between the industrialized North and the agricultural South over such issues as tariffs, banking and internal improvements. 4. POLITICAL BLUNDERS AND EXTREMISM Weak political leadership Weak political leadership Fanatics Fanatics
Consequences 1 Both sides saw their way of life or core values threatened. Southerners saw the North as threatening their property and culture Northerners saw the South as violating the values stated in the Declaration of Independence – “all men are created equal” & “life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness”
Consequences 2 Southerners saw Northerners as “lawless” fanatics who would stop at nothing to end slavery Northerners saw Southerners as a “slave conspiracy” that wanted to spread slavery throughout the U.S. Both sides stopped talking, stopped listening and saw the other side as dangerous enemies.
THE DIVISIVE POLITICS OF SLAVERY Over the centuries, the Northern and Southern sections of the United States developed into two very different cultural and economic regions There were also differences in geography and climate, as well as religious differences
THE SOUTH BEFORE THE WAR Rural plantation economy Relied on slave labor “Peculiar Institution” created tension Southerners feared the loss of slavery would mean loss of culture Family working the cotton field on a Plantation
THE NORTH BEFORE THE WAR The North had a more diverse economy Industry flourished The North openly opposed slavery in the South and the new territories The North was more urbanized than the South BOSTON HARBOR
DRIFTING TOWARD DISUNION 1854-1861
SLAVERY IN THE TERRITORIES The issue of whether slavery in California and the West would be legal led to heated debates in Congress Gold rush led to application for statehood for California CALIFORNIA BECAME A STATE IN 1850
Westward Expansion Causes Conflict Over Slavery
OVERVIEW: ISSUE OF SLAVERY IN THE TERRITORIES 1. Free-Soil Movement Supported the Wilmot Proviso Supported the Wilmot Proviso Believed that all blacks – slave and free – should be excluded from the Mexican Cession Believed that all blacks – slave and free – should be excluded from the Mexican Cession Did not demand the end of slavery Did not demand the end of slavery Sought to keep the West a land of opportunity for whites only Sought to keep the West a land of opportunity for whites only White majority would not have top compete with the labor of slaves or free blacksWhite majority would not have top compete with the labor of slaves or free blacks Free-Soil Party: “free soil, free labor and free men” Free-Soil Party: “free soil, free labor and free men” Proposed free homesteads (land grants to small farmers)Proposed free homesteads (land grants to small farmers)
OVERVIEW: ISSUE OF SLAVERY IN THE TERRITORIES 2. Southern Position Any attempts to restrict the expansion of slavery was a violation of their constitutional right to take and use their property as they wished. Any attempts to restrict the expansion of slavery was a violation of their constitutional right to take and use their property as they wished. 3. Popular Sovereignty Instead of Congress determining whether to allow slavery in a territory Instead of Congress determining whether to allow slavery in a territory Let the matter be determined by a vote of the people who settled it Let the matter be determined by a vote of the people who settled it
I. The Basic Problem A. NOT the morality of slavery B. NOT slavery in the South
THE FREE-SOILERS Another party that emerged in the mid-19 th century was the Free- Soilers They were northerners who opposed slavery in the territories Free-Soilers objections to slavery were based on economics not moral objection to slavery They believed slavery drove down wages for white workers “Soil”
-- Economic Reason: Land and Jobs for White Workers
-- Political Reason: The “Slave Power” and the 3/5 Clause
The Popular Sovereignty Panacea Mexican American War set the stage for Slavery Controversy Threatened to divide the union Issue: What to do with new territory? Wilmot Proviso What it said What it said What happened to it What happened to it Whigs and Democrats wanted to keep lid on Slavery Controversy
California Gold The discovery of Gold in California in 1848 blew the lid off the slavery issue. California Gold Rush Country
Problem #1: California – Free, Slave or Two States?
California Constitution Citizens write a constitution and apply or statehood as non-slave state. This will put slave states in the minority. The feces hits the fan in the South. South rises in violent opposition to admission of California.
Why Was South So Concerned? South had the presidency, majority of the cabinet, and majority of the Supreme Court. The cotton economy was good and seemingly held the north and Europe in an economic bind. South not concerned about the immediate outright abolition of slavery.
Concerns of the South Loss of balance in Senate Rest of the Mexican Cession Slavery in D.C. Texas land claims Biggest Concern: Run-Away Slaves and enforcement of Fugitive Slave law
COMPROMISE OF 1850 Southerners threatened secession over issue Henry Clay again worked a Compromise For the North: California would be admitted as free state For the South: A more effective fugitive slave law Residents of New Mexico & Utah would vote themselves-”popular sovereignty” CONGRESSIONAL DEBATE
The Compromise of 1850: CA = free state Popular sovereignty in Utah and New Mexico
Terms of the Compromise Pro-North: Cal. admitted as a free state; Cal. admitted as a free state; Terr. in dispute between TX and NM goes to NM, so more likely to go free Terr. in dispute between TX and NM goes to NM, so more likely to go free abolition of slave-trade (but not slavery) in Wash. DC. abolition of slave-trade (but not slavery) in Wash. DC. Pro-South: NM and Utah slavery issue to be decided by popular sovereignty; NM and Utah slavery issue to be decided by popular sovereignty; more stringent Fugitive Slave Law. more stringent Fugitive Slave Law. $3.10 Million to Texas $3.10 Million to Texas
Twilight Of The Senatorial Giants 1850 all these issues come to a head. Southern fire-eaters threaten cession Southern fire-eaters threaten cession Crisis was looming. Three Senatorial Giants tackle the issue in the Senate. Henry Clay, John C. Calhoun, and Daniel Webster. Webster and Clay urge compromise and reasonable concession to south. Calhoun argues for Const. Amendments to protect the South.
Breaking The Logjam Zachery Taylor (elected 1848) was poised to veto the compromise. 1850 President Taylor suddenly died; Vice President Millard Fillmore took the presidency. Fillmore supports the compromise Clay, Webster and Stephen Douglas work hard to get Compromise supported in North, and it generally is. Fire-eaters in South unhappy. Nashville convention
No Slave Trade in Wash. DC
Fugitive Slave Law South demanded a harsher fugitive slave law. Why? Only losing about 1000 slave a year out of population of 2 Million. Only losing about 1000 slave a year out of population of 2 Million. More slaves are freed by self-purchase and manumition. More slaves are freed by self-purchase and manumition.
FUGITIVE SLAVE LAW Under the law, runaway slaves were not entitled to a trial by jury Anyone helping a slave escape was jailed for 6 months and fined $1,000 Northerners were upset by the harshness of the new law and often helped hide fugitive slaves A HARSH FUGITIVE SLAVE LAW FURTHER INCREASED TENSIONS
UNDERGROUND RAILROAD Escape from slavery was dangerous and meant traveling on foot at night As time went on, African Americans and white abolitionists developed a secret network of people who would hide fugitive slaves ”Conductors” would hide runaways in tunnels and even kitchen cupboards
HARRIET TUBMAN One of the most famous conductors was Harriet Tubman Tubman escaped slavery and vowed to help others do the same She made 19 trips back to South and freed over 300 slaves (Including her own parents) HARRIET TUBMAN 1820-1913
Backfiring Slave Law Reaction in North to Fugitive Slave Law. Provisions: Slaves not allowed to testify and denied a jury trial. Slaves not allowed to testify and denied a jury trial. Commissioner who handled the case got twice as much if the slave was returned. Commissioner who handled the case got twice as much if the slave was returned. Northerners who aided slaves to freedom subject to heavy fines and jail. Northerners who aided slaves to freedom subject to heavy fines and jail. Northerners could be ordered to assist in capture of run-aways Northerners could be ordered to assist in capture of run-aways
Election of 1852 Dems. Hopelessly divided. Nominate Franklin Pierce, a pro-southern, northerner. Compromise candidate. Weak and indecisive. Weak and indecisive. Scant public record, and thus not much to offend either part of party Scant public record, and thus not much to offend either part of party Platform for Compromise of 1850 and Fugitive Slave Law
Election of 1852--Whigs Nominate Winfield Scott. Great general, but not well liked by people. Stuffy. Whigs hopelessly divided. Election turned largely on issues of personality. Pierce wins in a landslide. Effective end of Whig Party.
UNCLE TOM’S CABIN In 1852, Harriet Beecher Stowe published her influential novel, Uncle Tom’s Cabin The book stressed the moral evil of slavery Abolitionist protests increased Author Harriet Beecher Stowe Instant best seller sold 500,000 by 1857
Consequences of Uncle Tom’s Cabin Published 1852 Profound influence on public opinion Moved northerners on the fence into anti- slavery camp. Moved northerners on the fence into anti- slavery camp. Made many willing to go to war to end Slavery. Made many willing to go to war to end Slavery. Made European public unsympathetic to South Made European public unsympathetic to South Sold several Million copies; translated into 20 languages
The Gadsden Purchase Nation desperately needs a trans- continental RR to tie California to nation. Both North and South want the route. Why? Why? Southern Route is easier. Gadsden Purchase. Nebraska territory. South doesn’t want this. Why?