Presentation on theme: "Independence, Authoritarianism, and Political Instability"— Presentation transcript:
1CHAPTER 27 CREOLES AND CAUDILLOS : LATIN AMERICA IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY
2Independence, Authoritarianism, and Political Instability Hispaniola in the 1700s was divided between French and Spanish.French part of island produced half of the world’s supply of sugar and coffee.By30,000 white settlers28,000 mulattoes (who owned one-third of the slaves )500,000 slavesSlave rebellion began August 1791 when Vincent Ogé’s uprising failed to get citizen rights for mulattoes who owned property.Rebels were also protesting harsh conditions of slavery.
4Francois-Dominique Toussaint Louverture, a slave, ended the revolt. Rebellion, and fear of British or Spanish invasion of island, led French to abolish slavery in 1794.Francois-Dominique Toussaint Louverture, a slave, ended the revolt.. . . created a constitution based on French constitutional nationalism.First concern was to rebuild sugar production, down by 75 percent.
5Napoleon took over France in 1799 sent an army to Saint-Domingue.tried to reinstitute slavery.Louverture captured in 1802; dies in 1803.Jean Jacques Dessalines, another former slave, took over and defeated the French troops.Declared himself emperor of Haiti in 1804, but was killed in 1806.
6Decades of political instability and agricultural weakness ended in 1874. By 1911, Haiti was a successful black constitutional state.1911 – 1915 numerous political assassinationsUS occupies Haiti 1915 – 1934.
7Joseph rejected by Mexican creoles. Napoleon replaced the King Fernando of Spain with his brother Joseph BonaparteFrench army occupies SpainJoseph rejected by Mexican creoles.Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla led a rebellion.
8Comprised of poor creoles, mestizos, and Indians. Rebellion turned violent, looting and killing peninsulares randomly.Revolution suppressed in 1811, and Hidalgo executed.Creole elites want independence even after Fernando is restored to the throne.In 1824, the creole elites declared the Republic of Mexico.
9Mexican advantages included lots of open lands and abundant natural resources. To encourage settlement, in the 1820s Mexico encouraged immigration.Allowed settlers to be independent as long as they paid taxes.Policy coincided with expansion of the United States needing land for cotton.
11Many immigrants from the United States settled in the region of Texas. Texans violated the Mexican Republic’s ban on slavery.Texans allied with the United States and independent of Mexico.General Santa Anna, as president, sent army to prevent Texas from declaring independence.Santa Anna was acting as a “caudillo,” or strong man.
12Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna 1794 – 1876President of Mexico11 times“. . . perhaps the principalinhabitant eventoday of Mexico's . . .pantheon of thosewho failed the nation."
13At San Jacinto Santa Anna was captured, and an independent Texas declared. Texas asked to be annexed to the United States.
14James K. Polk elected President of the US in 1844. Texas annex by out-going Congress.Mexico saw this as an act of expansionist aggression by the United States and declared war.Mexico lost the war in 1848 and ceded Texas, New Mexico, and California to the United States.Shortly afterward, gold was discovered in California.
16Benito Juarez returns to the presidency. Louis Bonaparte becomes Emperor Napoleon III of France in 1852 after a coup d’état.Determined to rebuild France’s empire and influence.Uses economic leverage and ties to conservatives in Mexico to aid Austrian Prince Maximilian to become Emperor of Mexico from 1864 to 1867.U. S. aid to Mexican liberals led to Maximilian’s execution.Benito Juarez returns to the presidency.
18Porfirio Diaz became president in 1877, and a caudillo; dominated Mexico until 1915.Diaz brought peace and stability to Mexico, helped by stability in the United States in Texas, the southwest, and the south.Diaz developed Mexico’s infrastructure, including rail, telegraph, and telephone lines, as well as industry.
20Development funded by British and U. S Development funded by British and U.S. firms, in exchange for rights to minerals, metals, and agricultural exports.Petroleum drilling was also first begun during his term in office.Diaz driven from power by Francisco Madero, who was wealthy but supported reforms to aid the majority of Mexico’s population, which was poor.
27Mexican instability ended in 1917 with a new constitution that was socialist, limited foreign ownership of land, and more equal land distribution.US troops entered northern Mexico in search of Villa, but failed “Mexican Punitive Expedition”