Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 27 CREOLES AND CAUDILLOS : LATIN AMERICA IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY."— Presentation transcript:
CHAPTER 27 CREOLES AND CAUDILLOS : LATIN AMERICA IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY
Independence, Authoritarianism, and Political Instability Hispaniola in the 1700s was divided between French and Spanish. – French part of island produced half of the world’s supply of sugar and coffee. – By ,000 white settlers 28,000 mulattoes (who owned one-third of the slaves ) 500,000 slaves Slave rebellion began August 1791 when Vincent Ogé’s uprising failed to get citizen rights for mulattoes who owned property. – Rebels were also protesting harsh conditions of slavery.
Rebellion, and fear of British or Spanish invasion of island, led French to abolish slavery in Francois-Dominique Toussaint Louverture, a slave, ended the revolt. –... created a constitution based on French constitutional nationalism. First concern was to rebuild sugar production, down by 75 percent.
Napoleon took over France in 1799 – sent an army to Saint-Domingue. – tried to reinstitute slavery. Louverture captured in 1802; dies in Jean Jacques Dessalines, another former slave, took over and defeated the French troops. Declared himself emperor of Haiti in 1804, but was killed in 1806.
Decades of political instability and agricultural weakness ended in By 1911, Haiti was a successful black constitutional state – 1915 numerous political assassinations US occupies Haiti 1915 – 1934.
Napoleon replaced the King Fernando of Spain with his brother Joseph Bonaparte – French army occupies Spain Joseph rejected by Mexican creoles. Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla led a rebellion.
Comprised of poor creoles, mestizos, and Indians. Rebellion turned violent, looting and killing peninsulares randomly. Revolution suppressed in 1811, and Hidalgo executed. Creole elites want independence even after Fernando is restored to the throne. In 1824, the creole elites declared the Republic of Mexico.
Mexican advantages included lots of open lands and abundant natural resources. To encourage settlement, in the 1820s Mexico encouraged immigration. Allowed settlers to be independent as long as they paid taxes. Policy coincided with expansion of the United States needing land for cotton.
Many immigrants from the United States settled in the region of Texas. – Texans violated the Mexican Republic’s ban on slavery. – Texans allied with the United States and independent of Mexico. General Santa Anna, as president, sent army to prevent Texas from declaring independence. Santa Anna was acting as a “caudillo,” or strong man.
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna 1794 – 1876 President of Mexico 11 times “... perhaps the principal inhabitant even today of Mexico's... pantheon of those who failed the nation."
At San Jacinto Santa Anna was captured, and an independent Texas declared. Texas asked to be annexed to the United States.
James K. Polk elected President of the US in Texas annex by out-going Congress. Mexico saw this as an act of expansionist aggression by the United States and declared war. Mexico lost the war in 1848 and ceded Texas, New Mexico, and California to the United States. Shortly afterward, gold was discovered in California.
Louis Bonaparte becomes Emperor Napoleon III of France in 1852 after a coup d’état. – Determined to rebuild France’s empire and influence. – Uses economic leverage and ties to conservatives in Mexico to aid AustrianPrince Maximilian to become Emperor of Mexico from 1864 to – U. S. aid to Mexican liberals led to Maximilian’s execution. Benito Juarez returns to the presidency.
Porfirio Diaz became president in 1877, and a caudillo; – dominated Mexico until Diaz brought peace and stability to Mexico, helped by stability in the United States in Texas, the southwest, and the south. Diaz developed Mexico’s infrastructure, including rail, telegraph, and telephone lines, as well as industry.
Development funded by British and U.S. firms, in exchange for rights to minerals, metals, and agricultural exports. Petroleum drilling was also first begun during his term in office. Diaz driven from power by Francisco Madero, who was wealthy but supported reforms to aid the majority of Mexico’s population, which was poor.
Madero assassinated by the Mexican Army Victoriano Huerta becomes president. Provokes US reaction... and Mexican revolt.
Emiliano Zapata and Pancho Villa led competing uprisings for land reform. Conservatives and reformers also competed for political power.
Mexican instability ended in 1917 with a new constitution that was socialist, limited foreign ownership of land, and more equal land distribution. US troops entered northern Mexico in search of Villa, but failed. “Mexican Punitive Expedition”