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Across the Atlantic World

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1 Across the Atlantic World
The Age of Revolutions Across the Atlantic World

2 3 Case Studies Examine the causes and outcomes of 4 different Atlantic Revolutions: Haitian, Columbian, and Brazilian General questions to think about: What factors led American colonies to break away from their respective metropolis? Why did these revolutions end so differently? How do these revolutions compare to the American Revolution?

3 General Causes: Republicanism
The Age of Revolutions was a movement seen across the Atlantic World, both in Europe and the Americas, showing a general shift from Absolutism to Constitutional Monarchy and Republicanism. The spread of revolutionary ideas was connected to the spread of the Enlightenment. The writings of Locke, Rousseau, and Montesquieu both made learned men aware that they had “basic” rights and that they should fight for them.

4 General Causes: The French Revolution
Both the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars had huge impacts on the Atlantic World The struggle between republican forces against the European monarchies showed that the “people” could fight successfully to secure their freedoms and demonstrated the symbolic transformation from “privileges” to “rights” Finally, the Napoleonic Wars destabilized the Europe, making it much easier for colonies to assert their independence Storming the Bastille

5 Causes for the Haitian Revolution
Before the revolution, Haiti was considered the most valuable colony in the French Empire, producing some 60 percent of the world’s coffee and 40 percent of its sugar. Slave population numbered at roughly 425,000 (outnumbering whites by about 10 to 1), despite such a high population most of these were African born due incredibly high death rates caused by plantation work. The country was also riven by racial and geographic tensions, split between North (dominated by plantations), the east (where the colonial capital Port-au-Prince was located) and the South (geographically isolated place where freed slaves could make a living). During the French Revolution, the publication of the Declaration of the Rights of Man led many whites to hope for independence from France, however, as the revolution continued questions about slavery began to arise.

6 Haitian Revolution Initiated by a Voodoo priest in August 1791, in the ritual of Bois Caiman who predicted that the slaves would rise up against their masters, by 1792 the northern section of island was effectively under slave control, massacring their former masters and destroying plantations Involved in a war with Great Britain, the French government attempted to correct the situation by granting rights to its freed black population and by freeing slaves in territories that were still under French control. In the midst of the war, both British and Spanish forces attacked the island and were joined by the former slaves By 1794, Robespierre led the French National Convention to abolish slavery, this eventually won over one of rebellion’s leaders, General L’Ouverture After Spanish and English forces were ousted, the French imprisoned L’Ouverture, By 1802, Napoleon attempted to reinstate slavery, fearing this Haitian blacks revolted

7 New Haitian State Haiti gained its independence in 1803, after the Battle of Vertieres Following the battle, some whites were massacred and others forced to leave the island After gaining independence, Haiti went through a period of instability, first being ruled by a despot and then being divided into both a kingdom in the north and a republic in the south In 1825, after Haiti was able to reunify, under the threat of French invasion, the Haitian republic was forced to pay the French government 150 million francs to pay for their freedom. Haitian Coat of Arms

8 Impact of the Haitian Revolution
The Impact of the Haitian revolution was immense. It showed that slaves were more than capable of both overthrowing their masters and fighting successfully for their independence. It further sparked a number of slave revolts, although these were suppressed. The Fall of France’s most economically successful colony meant that all French aims at maintaining its empire in the Americans became untenable and too expensive, resulting in the Louisiana Purchase. In American colonies, it caused the planter elite class, which had formerly been pro republican to adopt a more conservative view on both the French Revolution and republicanism in general.

9 New Grenada The Viceroyalty of New Granada was a rough and only partially developed territory, thus its components were only loosely united. Bourbon Reforms, effecting all of Spanish America, placed pensulares (natives of Spain) in charge of colonial administration, displacing the creole aristocracies. Spread of liberal ideas into the new world from Spain.

10 Collapse of the Bourbon Monarchy
After forcing the Bourbon family to abdicate the throne, Napoleon installed his brother Joseph on the throne, beginning the Peninsular War. Without a king, the Spanish Empire was controlled by competing Juntas both throughout the new world and a central junta based first in Seville and later in Cadiz. Recognizing that the Junta of Cadiz might fall at any moment to the French, Spanish American territories effectively governed themselves independently from the metropolis. Spanish leaders surrender to Napoleon in Madrid, 1808

11 Colombia within Spanish America
Map Key Red: Territory under Spanish Imperial Authority Orange: Territory under Spanish Junta Black: Occupied or territory independent from the Spanish Empire

12 Bolivar and Colombia Admired both the American and French revolution, nevertheless, Bolivar was an abolitionist and believed that Latin America was not ready for a republican style government. After a series of campaigns against royalist forces (not all of them successful), Bolivar was able to push imperial forces out of New Granada. He then turned his attention on pushing the royalist out of Peru, with this accomplished, Gran Colombia, Peru, and Bolivia all gained their independence.

13 Gran Colombia: Bolivar’s Dream and Reality
Though Bolivar was able to secure independence, keeping the former viceroyalty together was a different matter. Broken apart by geographical boundaries and political differences dating back to the early colonial days of the Spanish empire, the nation was riven by federalist and separatist divisions. Combined with losing a war with Peru, Bolivar was forced to flee the country and resign from his dictatorship. Soon after Bolivar’s departure, Gran Colombia split into three nations: Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador. Columbian Coat of Arms

14 Brazil and the Peninsular War
Like Spain, Portugal was also under attack by French forces, but unlike the Spanish monarchy, the Portuguese royal family was able to escape to Brazil before being captured by Napoleon. While staying in the colony, Joao I found it to be enjoyable – safe from French invasions and the political machinations of Portugal, the colony was almost idyllic for the monarch. Thus, during his stay Joao endorsed a number of national institutions, met with the Brazilian aristocracy regularly, and in bringing the court to Brazil, the colonial regime was all but eliminated – this was more or less finalized when Joao promoted the colony to the status of Kingdom in 1815.

15 From Kingdom to Empire By 1821, the Portuguese was demanding that Joao return to the country, which was in a state of devastation, reluctantly the king agreed. However, Joao left behind his son Pedro I to rule a regent, some say that if an independence movement was afoot, that Joao should take the lead so that the family could stay in control of the country. In 1821, the Portuguese Cortes passed a law subordinating Brazil back to Portugal, effectively making it a colony again. In response to this and the attempts by Portuguese commanders to humiliate him, Pedro I declared himself the leader of an Independent Brazil and dismissed the Portuguese troops. Pedro I sends the Portuguese troops back to Portugal

16 Coronation of Dom Pedro !
Emperor in America After declaring independence, Pedro was crowned constitutional emperor of Brazil, in December of 1822. After several small battles, Portuguese military was effectively removed from the country in November 1823. Coronation of Dom Pedro !

17 Impact of Imperial Dynasty
Because of the events in Haiti, many liberals were weary of creating an all out republic because they feared that it might lead to widespread slave revolts or the end of slavery in Brazil. As a result they believed that a strong monarch was the only way to maintain stability in the country. Nevertheless the newly minted empire faced difficulties: a war with Argentina caused the territory of Uruguay to break away from the empire and liberal factions within the parliament attempt to restrict the powers of the emperor in order to make him a figure head instead of an outright leader. Facing these problems and open rebellion in Portugal, Pedro was forced to abdicate the throne and sailed for Portugal, leaving the country in the hands of his young son Pedro II in 1831. A regency council then ruled the empire, though during this period Brazil went through something just short of anarchy – several territories attempted to break away, open rebellions all across the country led to widespread violence, and the many politicians who had previously fought for expanded legislative powers realized that the country needed an emperor to remain stable, thus Dom Pedro II was able to come to power while still under age in 1840, and imperial government would survive until 1889, just after slavery was abolished.

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