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Chapter 7 Southern Slavery From Slavery to Freedom 9 th ed.

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1 Chapter 7 Southern Slavery From Slavery to Freedom 9 th ed.

2 The Domestic Slave Trade King Cotton Technology supported expansion of slave labor Eli Whitney’s 1794 invention of the cotton gin Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama rapidly grew with demand for cotton and sugarcane Growing prosperity in new states caused wave of migrants and greater demand for slaves Insatiable demand for cotton resulted in: acquisition of Florida; admission of Missouri as slave state; annexation of Texas; war with Mexico © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 2

3 3 The Cotton Gin

4 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 4 The domestic slave trade

5 The Domestic Slave Trade The Interstate Slave Trade Domestic slave trade augmented westward movement After 1808 illegalization of Atlantic slave trade, interstate trade became increasingly profitable Slaves brought overland; mostly chained and on foot Slaves a “product” sold by business firms, lottery, and by slave-trading firms © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 5

6 advertisement for slaves

7 The Domestic Slave Trade Speculation integral to slave-trading business Slaves gathered in pens for direct shipment to New Orleans or for resale to other long-distance traders Until ended by Congressional action in 1850, District of Columbia seat of slave trade © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 7

8 8 Alexandria slave pen

9 The Domestic Slave Trade A Capitalist Enterprise Slave trade financially driven; mostly seen as a capitalistic enterprise Families separated because slaves brought higher prices when sold individually Separation of Families by Sale Harriet Tubman Large number of single slaves on market evidence of constant separation of families © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 9

10 The Domestic Slave Trade Market Prices Prices of slaves responded to market factors As demand increased, so did the price of slaves After financial turmoil, price and demand slumped © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 10

11 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 11 Average Prices of Prime Field Hands (young slave men, able-bodied but unskilled) Insert Table: Average Prices of Prime Field Hands (young slave men, able-bodied but unskilled)

12 Persistence of the African Trade Extent of the Illegal Trade Atlantic slave trade continued despite its illegality The Movement to Reopen the African Trade Between 1854 and 1860, every southern commercial convention considered proposals to reopen Atlantic slave trade 1808 federal law so weak and lax, repeal not really necessary © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 12

13 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 13 The illegal slave trade to the United States, Insert Map: The illegal slave trade to the United States,

14 The Slave Codes Passage of slave codes accompanied expansion of slavery Codified viewpoint that slaves were not people but property Slaves denied most rights and freedoms Laws often made stricter in response to insurrections Enforcement Machinery set up for enforcement of slave codes Reluctant to imprison because it meant taking away an owner’s investment © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 14

15 The Slave Codes The Patrol System A type of militia; free white men expected to serve on patrol for period of time apprehending runaway slaves and returning them to masters In quiet times, slave codes disregarded, and slaves given more freedoms Masters tended to prefer taking matters regarding their slaves into their own hands © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 15

16 On the Plantation Work of slaves primarily agricultural In 1860, ¾ of white people in South did not own slaves Slaves concentrated in hands of relatively few Bulk of staple crops produced on large plantations Owners dominated political and economic thinking Field Hands Large plantations had two groups of workers: house servants and field hands © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 16

17 On the Plantation Work regimen for cotton demanding Gang-labor system used Believed that one slave needed for every 3 acres of cotton Work hours longest during harvest time Gender Division of Labor Certain jobs indentified by sex Slave women integral to plantation economy Ranked each other’s status according to creative ability Also worked in fields alongside men © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 17

18 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 18 Cotton and slaves, 1820 and 1860

19 On the Plantation Overseers and Brutality Overseers employed on farms of more than 20 slaves where owner was an absentee landlord No personal interest in slaves’ welfare Owners demanded overseers get most out of slaves; often treated slaves with brutality Some plantations employed driver slaves who assisted overseer and compelled work from fellow slaves Often viewed as a traitor by other slaves © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 19

20 On the Plantation The Slave Diet Each slave household received ration of meal and salt pork Sometimes allowed to maintain own gardens Some even allowed to market their produce © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 20

21 Urban and Nonagricultural Slavery Black Artisans and Inventors Slaves demonstrated diversity of talent in skilled trades Slaves used in pottery and textile mills, iron furnaces, and tobacco factories Slaves proved value as inventors Not allowed to get patent; after 1861 slave owner could be issued patent for his or her slave’s invention © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 21

22 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 22 Haywood Dixon, slave carpenter

23 Urban and Nonagricultural Slavery Slave Hiring Owners put slaves out for hire in period between harvest and new planting Some urban slaves allowed to self-hire; although illegal under southern law Self-hire gave dual sense of freedom and its limits Slaves could not legally contract for their services; contract was between master and hiring employer © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 23

24 Social and Cultural Life Slaves’ personal expression and recreation a rejection of chattel principle Religious Activity Worship services held on larger plantations and in towns With rise of abolition movement and rumors of slave conspiracies, slaves increasingly made to attend owners’ churches Sat in separate sections; earliest example of segregation © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 24

25 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 25 Slave wedding in Virginia 1838

26 Social and Cultural Life The Slave Church Blended Christianity and folk beliefs Slave Families Permanency of slave marriage depended on opportunity to live and work together Childbearing difficult; inadequate medical care Interracial Relationships Children born of slave women and white men visible throughout South Most often the result of physical coercion © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 26

27 Social and Cultural Life Mulatto Slaves Treatment by white fathers varied Some emancipated their slave children © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 27

28 Resistance Slave Market Gambits Slaves used tricks in order to gain control over would-be purchasers Exhibited behavior appealing to a master of their choosing; pretended to be sick or weak in front of undesirable master Sabotage and Suicide Engaged in sabotage like breaking farm tools Suicide widespread Also performed acts of self-mutilation to render themselves ineffective workers © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 28

29 Resistance Running Away Most common form of overt resistance was running away Federal and state legislation sought to aid in recovery of runaway slaves Violent Resistance Owners feared violent resistance Use of poison against masters; Murder of masters Slave Revolts Slaves emboldened by Haitian revolution © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 29

30 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 30 Reward handbill for a runaway slave, 1837

31 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 31 Major American Slave Rebellions

32 Resistance Denmark Vesey Freed black who plotted slave revolt Whites caught wind of conspiracy and rounded up suspects Nat Turner Believed he had been selected by divine power to deliver his people from slavery Began revolt by killing his master and family; revolt spread rapidly until overpowered by state and federal troops © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 32

33 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 33 Nat Turner exhorting his followers


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