In 1803, the Louisiana Purchase nearly doubles the size of the young nation
Slave States vs. Free States As U.S. territory grows, new states are created. States in the North are considered Free States (no slavery) Southern states are considered Slave States. …it’s not necessarily all about slavery.
Slave States vs. Free States The abolition movement is still in its infancy. The creation of slave states vs. free states is mostly about political & economic power. To understand, we have look at how America had developed two very different ways of life…
Life in the North 2½ times the population of the south due mostly to immigrants looking for work in factories 70% of all US railroad track The North was industrial – 110,000 factories vs. 20,000 in the South In 1860 – production of over $1.5 Billion in goods (the South produced just $155 million)
Life in the South 1.Primarily agrarian 2.“Cotton Is King!” * 1860--> 5 million bales a yr. (57% of total US exports). 3.Slow development of industry 4.Rudimentary financial system: $47 million in banking deposits compared to $207 million in the North. 5.Inadequate transportation system: many farmers still used water routes to transport cargo.
Why does the South want Slave States? The South needs to expand their agricultural economy & sees the addition of new states as the perfect answer. HOWEVER… The addition of a new Free State meant 2 more senators & additional congressmen in the House of Representatives that would vote in agreement with other northern states on issues such as tariffs.
Protecting a Way of Life Southerners needed to maintain at least an equal number of slave states to free states so that they have equal representation in Congress (or better). …otherwise, legislation would be passed that was agreeable to the northern way of life – not the southern.
The Missouri Compromise Maine admitted as a free state Missouri admitted as a slave state, but.. Slavery not allowed in any new states created above Missouri’s southern border.
Manifest Destiny Throughout the 1830s & 1840s Americans dreamed of an empire stretching from the Atlantic to the Pacific …”a divine mission to spread liberty across the continent” Newspaperman John O’Sullivan claimed it was the nations “Manifest Destiny” to possess the whole continent
War with Mexico After nearly 10 years, the United States decides the time is right to annex Texas. Mexico protests – war is declared
New Land! War ends with the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hildalgo The US obtains land in what is now California, New Mexico, Arizona and Texas (1.2 million square miles) The Gadsen Purchase completes our southwest territory
Uh Oh – more land, more issues Slave states vs Free states again… The Compromise of 1850 California admitted as a free state Texas & New Mexico slave states Fugitive Slave Law Escaped Slaves are now the government’s responsibility
Uncle Tom’s Cabin 1852 Uncle Tom’s Cabin 1852 Sold 300,000 copies in the first year. 2 million in a decade! Sold 300,000 copies in the first year. 2 million in a decade!
Uncle Tom’s Cabin Harriet Beecher Stowe 1811 - 1896 So this is the lady who started the Civil War. -- Abraham Lincoln
Kansas – Nebraska Act, 1854 “popular sovereignty” to decide free or slave Pro-Abolition & Pro-Slavery forces flood Kansas to sway the vote often clashing with one another - “Bloody Kansas”
Bloody Kansas This led to a series of violent acts in the divided territory. Tempers flared on all sides of the slavery issue, dragging the country closer to war. Militant abolitionist John Brown & few followers crept into a pro- slavery settlement outside of Lawrence, Kansas. They dragged five men out of their homes & hacked them to death with swords.
Dred Scott - 1857 Slaves are property Slaves (& former slaves) were not citizens Property rights are guaranteed by the Constitution (5 th amendment) Missouri Compromise declared unconstitutional
John Brown Brown returns east from Kansas & plans a war in Virginia against slavery. October 16, 1859, he & 21 men (5 blacks & 16 whites) raided the federal arsenal at Harper’s Ferry.
Election of 1860 Birth of the Republican Party Who was their first candidate? The Republicans win the election without winning any Southern States The South sees this as a complete loss of political power in Washington
Secession 11 southern slave states seceded from the US/Union starting in 1860 w/ S. Carolina –SC, MS, FL, AL, GA, LA, TX, VA, AR, TN, NC Confederate States of America –Capital: Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) then Richmond, Virginia –President: Jefferson Davis –VP: Alexander Stephens