Causes of the Civil War (General) State’s Rights Slavery Tariff Disputes Different Economies Cultural Differences
Causes of the Civil War (Specific Issues) Missouri Compromise of 1820 Compromise of 1850 Uncle Tom’s Cabin Kansas-Nebraska Act Dred Scott Decision John Brown’s Mission Election of 1860
Missouri Compromise of 1820 Missouri wants to enter the Union as a slave state, but this would upset the balance between slave states and free states. 22 states = 11 and 11
Slave states and Free States, 1820 Free States –Massachusetts –New Hampshire –Vermont –New York –Rhode Island –Connecticut –Pennsylvania –Indiana –Ohio –Illinois –New Jersey Slave States Maryland Virginia North Carolina South Carolina Tennessee Alabama Mississippi Georgia Delaware Louisiana Kentucky
What to do? Pres. James Monroe ignores the situation Decision left up to Congress Henry Clay, Speaker of the House, is credited with the solution
The Missouri Compromise of 1820 Missouri is added as a slave state Maine is added as a free state In the future, 36’30” parallel line –Divides the FREE North and SLAVE South
Compromise of 1850 Recent Past –War with Mexico, 1848 –California 1849, Gold Rush Quick jump in population Wants to join the union as a free state –New Mexico Wants to join as a free state –Slave states upset that free states are helping runaways
The Compromise of 1850 CA enters as a free state NM and UT –Territories with no restrictions on slavery Texas –Give land to NM, get $ from the US government Stronger Fugitive Slave Laws –Made it a crime to help runaway slaves and allowed officials to arrest those slaves in free areas Washington D.C.> No more slave trade
Most violent slave revolt in history occurred in 1831 Nat Turner was a slave in Virginia 60 whites were killed in the community by the slave mob 100 innocent slaves were killed in an attempt to stop the mob Turner fled for 6 weeks and was eventually caught and executed New slave codes were passed putting tougher restrictions on enslaved people.
Uncle Tom’s Cabin Harriet Beecher Stowe –Lived in New England –Was an abolitionist Opened eyes in America –Best selling book –Made into plays
Kansas-Nebraska Act,1854 Nebraska Territory > split in two –Nebraska –Kansas > Slave or Free State? Stephen Douglas’ proposal –People of Kansas vote for themselves –Two problems with this: –MO Compromise is now VOID Because… –Kansas citizens disagree about slavery
Douglas proposed in 1853 Popular Sovereignty to decide the slavery issue –This canceled the Missouri Compromise Southerners and Northerners flock to the territory to persuade the voters towards their cause. 1855 Kansas had two governments one free and one slave –An election was held to decide which would rule the new state –Violence broke out prior to the election and after the decision was made Bleeding Kansas (In Congress)
1856 violence between Pro and Anti Slavery is getting worse –Tar and feather, murder, corrupt politics Kansas becomes a Free State in 1861 after the southern states had succeeded from the Union.
Rep. Preston Brooks (SC) with the cane beating Sen. Charles Sumner (MA) Caning of Sumner
May 22, 1856 Preston Brooks, member of the House of Representatives walked into the Senate chamber and beat Charles Sumner. Sumner (abolitionist from Mass.) had brought up the issue for debate as to admit Kansas as a free or slave state. –He will publicly call out Sen. Douglas and Sen. Butler –Rep Brooks was from the South Carolina like Butler Both men became heroes for their cause
Dred Scott Decision Dred Scott, a slave sued for his freedom after briefly living with his owner in the North. Roger Taney and the Supreme Court said “NO FREEDOM”. Here’s Why…
Why Dred Scott Lost.. The Supreme Court said… Slaves were not citizens, so they could not have a court case Slaves were property Because the 5 th Amendment protected property, Congress could not ban slavery The MO Compromise, which banned slavery, was unconstitutional
New Party System Sectional Party System for the first time Republican Party created by Northerners committed to stopping the expansion of slavery –Made up of former Whigs, Democrats, Free Soilers and Know-Nothings. Democratic Party split into N and S factions Whig Party died and joined either R or D. Abraham Lincoln switched from Whig to Republican because he cared so much about the slavery expansion issue.
John Brown Kansas, 1856 John Brown, a fanatical abolitionist –Moved to Kansas when it was up for a vote –Leader of the Pottawatomie Creek Massacre His mob murdered five men who favored slavery Bodies were left torn apart in the village Warning to others who supported slavery –One son was killed in revenge of Pottawatomie
John Brown will leave Kansas to prepare for a bigger and harsher statement against slavery in America
John Brown Harper’s Ferry, VA 1859 Mob: 21 men (16 white, 5 black) Plan: Capture town arsenal, gather arms, and head into the hills Goal: Hand out weapons to slaves and encourage a widespread slave uprising
Harper’s Ferry The Outcome: A Complete Failure Town was alerted to the action, Brown and mob were held up in an engine house President was alerted of the news, sent out federal troops to end the situation Federal troops (led by Colonel Robert E. Lee) captured and arrest John Brown
Election of 1860 Northern Democratic Candidate = Stephen Douglas Southern Democratic Candidate = John C. Breckinridge (supported slavery in the territories) Constitutional Union Party = John Bell (Slave holder who opposed Kansas-Nebraska Act) Republican Candidate = Abraham Lincoln (promised not to abolish slavery where it already existed) Lincoln’s election signaled to the south that they were losing their political power.
Southern Point of view –The south was angry that Lincoln said that slavery could not expand and would eventually die out –They believed that their way of life was impossible without slavery –South started to consider session because they reasoned that the states had approved the Constitution so they could void that approval
On December 20, 1860 South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas seceded and formed the Confederate States of America –Jefferson Davis elected president Lincoln took office on March 4, 1861 –He opposed the idea that states could leave, but that only the will of the majority could change the government of the United States.