Presentation on theme: "Emergence of a New World 1500 - 1800 The Origins of the Trans- Atlantic Slave Trade European Empire Building."— Presentation transcript:
Emergence of a New World 1500 - 1800 The Origins of the Trans- Atlantic Slave Trade European Empire Building
Focus Questions & Terms Where were the early centers of trade prior to European development and expansion? What are the origins of the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade? Straight of Malacca Malian & Songhai Kingdoms Iberian Sugar Industry & New Mercantile Capitalism Prince Henry “The Navigator” of Portugal Crusading Mentality Seafaring Technology
Early Centers of Trade 13 th C - 16 th C Muslims and Conversos developed the Spice Trade. 16 th C Malacca was the leading economic power in the region Spread of Islam South East Asia
Early Centers of Trade 14 th C Musa made Haj to Mecca Islamic Merchants transmitted Islamic values Political culture & Legal traditions Trade items –Continued to expand into west Africa Malian Empire (14 th -15 th C) Mansa Musa
The Songhai Kingdom, 15 th C Sunni Ali 1464 – 1492 forged new Empire –Restored influence of trading centers Jenne and Timbuktu –system of provincial administration –Extended boundaries, by mid 1500’s dominated Central Sudan
The Songhai Empire.
Timbuktu Great Sankore mosque –Library –University –Scholars, Jurists, Theologians –Book symbolized the Islamic world Book trade, most lucrative Business in Timbuktu
1. Origins of Trans Atlantic Slave- trade Early Sugar Industry –1095-1291 CE Enslavement to produce sugar began in Southern Iberia –1382 Castilians - Canary Islands New Mercantile Capitalism of Mediterranean: Genoese, Venetians, Florentines –Principal financiers of Iberian Explorers & Colonizers –Key sugar industrialists & players in slave trade
Crusades beginning in 1095 beginning 600-700 years of struggle Crusading Mentality Valued war Valued accumulated wealth Sense of Religious superiority Sense of Religious Mission
2. Origins of Trans Atlantic Slave- trade Portuguese interest in gaining from the Trans-Saharan gold-and-slave trade. Portuguese expansion in Africa –Objectives of Prince Henry Challenge Islamic presence Expand Trade (Mercantile Capitalism) Expand Christianity (rationale) Slave raiding for Sugar industry
Trade in Humans 1441 Portuguese ships reached the Senegal River Exported first human cargo to Lisboa 1443, 1,000 people were being enslaved –Circumvented the traditional trans-Saharan slave route from central Africa to the Mediterranean –engaged in slave raiding to supply demand for labor in Sugar Industry of southern Portugal.
Complicity of Catholic Church Pope Eugene IV (1431-1447) first to compromise with European Atlantic Slave traders –Rescinded Bull Sicut Dudum that ordered freedom in the Canary Islands –Followed Prince Henry’s report of success of Captain Goncalvez’s slave raids –Re-invoked “Curse of Caanan or Ham” that demonized Africans in the 2-6 th CE.
3. Origins of Trans Atlantic Slave- trade Technological breakthrough launched the Trans-Atlantic slave trade Launched world wide European Expansion 1450s – restructuring & Expansion of Slave Trade –Focus on Senegambia Region – dense populations and states allowed for defense –Trade and barter for slaves began
The Rise of the West Imperial Rivalries for control of the commerce & trade: Portuguese, Spain, Dutch, English and French Dutch East India Company consolidated military and political power over spice trade in Indonesia by 18 th C The Mainland resisted encroachment –Burma, Thailand, Vietnam