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Slavery in America 1609–1865 CICERO © 2010
Origins Slavery has existed since the beginning of human history.People were enslaved for a number of reasons: they were captured in battle, they owed a debt, or they were born to slave parents. The word slave comes from the Slavic people of Eastern Europe who were conquered so often that their name became synonymous with servitude. Most cultures have practiced slavery in one form or another. CICERO © 2010
Middle Passage This was the section of the Atlantic slave trade that transported African people from Africa to slave markets in the Americas. It was called the Middle Passage because it was the second of the three-part triangle trade route. Slaves were packed tightly on ships, shackled, and fed very little for the three- to five-month journey. About eighteen million Africans were transported between 1600 and 1800, and about three million died on the journey. CICERO © 2010
3 1 1 2 Middle Passage CICERO © 2010 Doorway of no returnEl Mino Slave Castle Ghana 2 CICERO © 2010
Arrival in America Europeans originally enslaved American Indians, but after many died from diseases, they began importing African slaves who were resistant to European diseases. The first African slaves arrived in Jamestown, Virginia, on a Portuguese ship in 1609. Shortly before their arrivals, slaves usually were fed better to make them look healthy. Slaves were auctioned to plantation owners and businessmen from the city. They performed a variety of jobs. Slave Auction CICERO © 2010
Slave Codes Slave codes were laws to control slaves.These codes forbid slaves from learning to read, owning firearms, or marrying a white person. The penalty a slave faced for learning to read was to have his or her thumb cut off. These laws also made children born to slaves for life (generational slavery). Slaves wore slave tags. This slave collar was equipped with bells. A slave yolk was used to bind two slaves together. CICERO © 2010 Captured African Slave The ends of a whip were tipped with iron barbs.
Southern Account of Turner’s RebellionSlaves Resisted! Slaves were bound to a life of servitude. Slaves resisted in a number of ways: escaping, slowing down on the job, intentionally doing a job wrong, or participating in violent rebellion. One of the most famous slave revolts was in Virginia. Nat Turner led seventy other slaves to kill fifty-five white men, women, and children. Turner and his men were later captured and hanged. Slaves also resisted by singing spirituals, or religious folk songs that contained coded messages. Slave spirituals led to the creation of jazz and the blues. Nat Turner Southern Account of Turner’s Rebellion Reward Poster CICERO © 2010
The Underground RailroadThe Underground Railroad was a large network of people who helped fugitive slaves escape to the North and Canada. It is estimated that up to 100,000 slaves escaped the South with the help of “conductors.” or guides. The most famous of these guides was Harriet Tubman. Slaves escaping North would use a series of “stations,” or safe houses as refuge along the route. The paths slaves traveled North were known as “tracks.” Although slavery was outlawed in the North, escaping slaves were not truly free until they reached Canada. Harriet Tubman Lawn jockeys were used to mark stations on the Underground Railroad. This quilt shows the track pattern that told escaped slaves this was a “station,” or safe place. CICERO © 2010
CICERO © 2010
Wheatley’s, Burlington Holden House, Jersey City Croft Farm, Cherry Hill Peter Mott House, Lawnside Bethel AME Church, Greenwich Township * In 1745 about 4,000 slaves lived in New Jersey, most in the southern part of the state. CICERO © 2010
The Abolition of SlaveryFrom 1861–1865 Americans in the North and South fought the Civil War over the issue of slavery. More than 600,000 soldiers on both sides died. In January 1863, President Lincoln made it clear he sought to end slavery when he signed the Emancipation Proclamation. After the war, the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution ended slavery in the United States. Slavery had been abolished in New Jersey since 1804. Lee Surrendering to Grant Emancipation Proclamation CICERO © 2010
Slavery in America
Slavery in America Origins Slavery has existed since the beginning of human history. People were enslaved for a number of reasons some of which.
Slavery in America 1609–1865. Origins Slavery has existed since the beginning of human history. People were enslaved for a number of reasons: they were.
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