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Slavery in Africa Slaves represented the bottom stratum of African society Different from slavery as it developed in the Americas Most African slaves were.

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Presentation on theme: "Slavery in Africa Slaves represented the bottom stratum of African society Different from slavery as it developed in the Americas Most African slaves were."— Presentation transcript:

1 Slavery in Africa Slaves represented the bottom stratum of African society Different from slavery as it developed in the Americas Most African slaves were captives of war Slavery in Africa not permanent or hereditary Assimilation Africans enslaved by other Africans

2 Indentured Servitude A means for people to get to the New World Master paid for passage to America Indentured servant then owed 5–7 years of work Once indenture was paid, servant became free Indentured servants initially more desirable than slaves A certificate of indenture

3 The Origins of American Slavery First African slaves in America brought to Jamestown in 1619 Slavery institutionalized in many states by 1640 Slaves became “chattel property” African slaves landing at Jamestown, 1619

4 Development of Slavery in the New World Using Native Americans as slaves problematic African slaves became more cost effective than indentured servants Colonists viewed blacks as inferior Slaves were servants for life South American Indians captured as slaves by Europeans

5 The Middle Passage Voyage of slaves from Africa to the New World Slaves tightly packed in ships’ holds Filthy conditions Disease outbreaks Some 20% died during the voyage to America Diagram of a tightly packed slave ship

6 The Triangular Trade Involved Europe, Africa, and the Americas Trade goods carried to Africa for slaves Slaves taken to the Americas and traded for raw materials Raw materials sent to Europe to be made into trade goods

7 Slave Auctions Slaves “seasoned” Slaves auctioned in a manner similar to livestock Inspected by potential buyers “Grab and go” auctions Slave auctions such as the one depicted here were common in the colonial era and after the Revolutionary War

8 African Americans in the Revolution Blacks fought for both sides British promised freedom to slaves Washington originally denied black enlistments Rhode Island free black regiment Crispus Attucks, a former slave, was one of those killed by British troops in the 1770 Boston Massacre

9 Slavery and the Constitution Slavery a major issue at Constitutional Convention Northern delegates wanted to count slaves for taxation, but not legislative representation Southern delegates wanted to count slaves for representation, but not taxation “Three-fifths compromise”

10 State Constitutions and Slavery Northern states abolish slavery in their constitutions Vermont first with “conditional abolition” Other state constitutions established gradual emancipation Constitutions in New York and New Jersey eliminated slavery, but enacted “apprenticeship” programs

11 Slavery and the Northwest Ordinance Ordinance designed to create from three to five new states out of the Northwest Territory Slavery not permitted in the new states Some settlers brought slaves with them to the territories

12 Slavery and the Cotton Gin Machine separates cotton “lint” from seeds Invented by Eli Whitney Made cotton production more efficient and profitable Increased need for slaves in the South

13 Explosion in Cotton Production

14 Slavery in the North Northern colonies relied less on agriculture; thus, fewer slaves needed Northern slaves mostly in cities or small farms Northern slaves had more legal rights than Southern slaves However, many Northern whites still considered blacks inferior A slave being sold in New York, 1643

15 Decline of Slavery in the North States pass laws abolishing slave trade Abolitionist societies grow in North Religious groups take the lead Congregational Church; Quakers create groups Slavery less an economic necessity in the North John Jay, the first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, campaigned to outlaw slavery in New York state

16 Economic Impact of Slavery on the North Provided work for many skilled and unskilled workers involved in processing slaves British mercantile policies affected the slave trade, which affected New England’s economy New England goods contributed to the “Triangular Trade” Slave trade made some wealthy Enslaved Africans landing at an American port

17 Slavery in the South Many worked as field hands; the rest were artisans or house servants Slavery entrenched in Southern society by 1860 Nearly one in every four Virginia families owned slaves More than 2,300,000 slaves in the lower South More than 1,200,000 slaves in upper South Nearly 430,000 slaves in the border states

18 Why Slavery Flourished Economically in the South Fewer urban centers Predominantly agricultural “King Cotton” Tobacco still a staple crop

19 Slave Children Slave infant mortality rates high Children generally malnourished Children forced to work at an early age Most labor involved unskilled work “Picking Cotton on a Georgia Plantation” Note the children working side-by-side with the adults in the field.

20 Life as a Slave Most slaves worked as agricultural laborers Some served as house servants and semi- skilled labor Slaves worked long hours in difficult conditions Some slaves given land to grow their own food

21 Discipline of Slaves Slave owners used a range of punishments Denying passes to leave plantation Whipping Shackles and chains Imprisonment in private jails A few rewards existed


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