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Chapter 5: Part 2 Colonial North America & the African Americans SOC 327 Race & Ethnic Relations.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5: Part 2 Colonial North America & the African Americans SOC 327 Race & Ethnic Relations."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 5: Part 2 Colonial North America & the African Americans SOC 327 Race & Ethnic Relations

2 Dr. SantosSoc 3272 The Incorporation of Africans into the Americas & the Atlantic Slave Trade The Atlantic slave trade was successively controlled over four centuries by the Portuguese, Dutch & British - with a parallel French “Exclusive” Triangular, mercantilist, trade circuits between Europe, Africa, & the Americas: boats never empty

3 Dr. SantosSoc 3273 The Forced Immigration of Africans to the Americas 100 million directly affected in Africa from 1440s - 1880s 10-12 million recorded “live sales” in the Western Hemisphere; An equal number is estimated to have died in transit or in capture

4 Dr. SantosSoc 3274 The Atlantic Slave Trade Destinations One third of the African slaves went to Portuguese Brazil Another third went to the Caribbean Most of the rest went to Spanish America Only about 4 % to British North America (half of Haiti’s percent)

5 Dr. SantosSoc 3275 The Atlantic Slave Trade & the U.S. Slave Population Anomaly The U.S. became the only historical case of slave population growth: 400,000 sold alive to the U.S. area from 1619 to 1865, most in the 1700s. About the same number of Blacks were counted in the first U.S. census of 1790, which is remarkable. 4,000,000 were emancipated in 1865 Between 1790-1865: 1000% growth!

6 Dr. SantosSoc 3276 Evolution of U.S. Slavery & Racism Plantations: tobacco, sugar, cotton Initial African servitude became black chattel slave system by 1700 Southern social system became caste-like & paternalistic, but based on terror & human trafficking Fear of slave revolution grew in time Ideological racism became “scientific” > 1850s (Social Darwinism) too late to make a difference

7 Dr. SantosSoc 3277 Three Reasons for the Remarkable U.S. Slave Population Growth, 1790-1865 The invention of the cotton gin gave the stagnant South a fantastic 2nd. wind: huge demand in England was matched by huge supply from dynamic US South. The development of an internal slave trade system within the South: breeding plantations (northern zone) fed the cotton plantations with an ever growing supply of slave workers (southern zone). The exceptional implantation of the “one-drop rule” for Blacks & fullest system of hereditary chattel slavery => growth of BOTH “Negroes” and slaves.

8 Dr. SantosSoc 3278 Significance of Haitian Revolution to the Americas Clarified the national liberation strategy of the Spanish American settler revolts: the criollos embraced the abolitionist cause and national independence from Spain. Made Cuba the “new Haiti” but now with vast ingenios based on the steam engine, producing slavery’s most industrial & regimented model! => Also blew up: 10-year war of independence (1868-1878) defeated with U.S./British support

9 Dr. SantosSoc 3279 Significance of the Haitian Revolution (1789-1804) to the U.S. Napoleon’s dream of settling Louisiana with re- enslaved Haitian sugar profits vanished, so he sold it to the U.S. for $15 Million in 1803, doubling the size of the U.S., a great geopolitical breakthrough! Made the Southern planter class even more fearful of imminent slave revolution, hence more opressive, while the Northern capitalists became more convinced that slavery was too explosive and thus doomed as a modern labor form: US “national” polarization grew.

10 Dr. SantosSoc 32710 British Reasons for Ending Atlantic Slave Trade Haitian Revolution of 1789-1804 was the writing on the wall for all of plantation America British Industrial Revolution favored machine- made production & the wage labor in Europe: new leading commodities = manufactured goods Incorporation of Africa itself and Asia as European colonial peripheries in the XIX Century changed direction and form of colonial migrant labor flows from intercontinental to intracontinental Abolitionist movement in Great Britain gained momentum: homeland liberal democracy at work in the era of British imperialism yielded fruits

11 Dr. SantosSoc 32711 The End of the Atlantic Slave Trade in Four Stages: Trade unilaterally & globally banned by the hegemonic British in 1807 but: After the 1812 War, the British encouraged U.S. Southern cotton planters to expand production using home-grown slaves & supported the U.S. South’s attempt to seceed from the Union British Caribbean planters given roughly 30-year period to abolish slavery itself (1834) Spanish American republics all abolished slavery British (& U.S. too) “winked” at massive Cuban/ Brazilian slave contraband up to the 1880s

12 Dr. SantosSoc 32712 U.S. at the Crossroads, 1850s/60s British hegemony & its new industrial / agrarian global system of accumulation gave the U.S. great opportunities, but also great challenges over its own “nation-building project”: Rise of the manufacturing North became a British regional rival in N. America (& potentially global) Rise of rich Ante Bellum plantation South could become a British cotton-producing preserve at the expense of the U.S. North, even secede.

13 Dr. SantosSoc 32713 Four Strategic U.S. Nation- Building Tensions in 1850s/60s Industrial/agrarian core-bound economy vs agrarian/industrial semiperipheral economy tied to British core economy one continental nation vs. 2 or 3 nation-states free wage vs. continue with a mixed system of labor regimes (free/slave) Build a monoracial nation-state vs. a multiracial egalitarian plural society vs. a multiracial inegalitarian plural society

14 Dr. SantosSoc 32714 U.S. Civil War 1861-1865 It resolved at a very high price in blood: Labor system issue: waged labor only National issue: a single, continental nation- state poised for internal territorial expansion: "Manifest Destiny” to establish the “Sphere of Liberty” & “Anglo-Saxon Civilization” Global issue: Poised to build a new world power => "Monroe Doctrine" enforced in the Americas vs. European powers

15 Dr. SantosSoc 32715 Post Civil War Era Left unresolved was the multiracial character of the new nation-state: Indian genocide & military “ethnic cleansing”campaigns => reservations Jim Crow apartheid forced on Blacks Mexican-American land usurpation /ethnic subordination / waves of expulsions Anti-Asian exclusionary & discriminatory laws from the 1850s until 1960s Open door policy for non-WASP European immigrants: the new industrial labor force

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