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AFRICA and the ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE(S) A BALANCED APPROACH DR. BRUCE M. HAIGHT WESTERN MICHIGAN UNIVERSITY KRESA TEACHER’S WORKSHOP March 19, 2008.

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Presentation on theme: "AFRICA and the ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE(S) A BALANCED APPROACH DR. BRUCE M. HAIGHT WESTERN MICHIGAN UNIVERSITY KRESA TEACHER’S WORKSHOP March 19, 2008."— Presentation transcript:

1 AFRICA and the ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE(S) A BALANCED APPROACH DR. BRUCE M. HAIGHT WESTERN MICHIGAN UNIVERSITY KRESA TEACHER’S WORKSHOP March 19, 2008

2 MDE CONTENT EXPECTATIONS STRENGTHS: * HELPFUL FRAMEWORK * DEVELOPED WITH RECENT INPUT CHALLENGES: * CAN BE ‘TWEAKED’ * CURRENT TEXTS OFTEN DO NOT REFLECT RECENT SCHOLARSHIP

3 WHAT’S A TEACHER TO DO TO SUPPLEMENT TEXTS? ATTEND MCSS FOR LECTURES AND WORKSHOPS PARTICIPATE IN SUMMER WORKSHOPS TAKE ADDITIONAL COURSES FIND RELIABLE WEBSITES AND DO WEBSEARCHES SET UP A READING PROGRAM TO UPDATE LESSON PLANS

4 OBJECTIVES OF THIS LECTURE PROVIDE GUIDANCE TO RELEVANT WEBSITES, BOOKS, & ARTICLES THAT DRAW UPON MORE RECENT RESEARCH IDENTIFY THEMES ON THE ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE OFTEN MISSING FROM CURRENT TEXTS SPECIFIC SUGGESTIONS FOR ‘TWEAKING’ THE MDE CONTENT EXPECTATIONS

5 WHERE TO BEGIN? DR. HAIGHT’S WEBSITE THAT GIVES ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ON RELIABLE RESOURCES WMU HISTORY DEPARTMENT WEBSITE FOR WORKSHOP INFORMATION

6 FABULOUS WEBSITE FREE FOR ALL MICHIGAN RESIDENTS MICHIGAN ELECTRONIC LIBRARY At their home page look under Mel Databases For books: click on WorldCat Then go to MELCAT to borrow the book For articles (free download full text): click on InfoTrac World History Collection

7 MISSING THEMES ON THE ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE DETAILED INFORMATION IS NOW AVAILABLE ON DEMAND TO TEACHERS AND YOUR STUDENTS ON NEARLY 27,000 VOYAGES ACROSS THE MIDDLE PASSAGE SOURCE: THE TRANSATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE: A DATA BASE ON CD-ROM

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9 MISSING THEMES ON THE ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE WHAT MOVED IN THE COLUMBIAN EXCHANGE WAS MORE THAN SEEDS AND PLANTS; KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS ALSO MOVED SOURCEBOOK: JUDITH CARNEY, BLACK RICE

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11 MISSING THEMES ON THE ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE SLAVERY IN NORTH AMERICA CHANGED OVER TIME - CHARTER GENERATIONS - PLANTATION GENERATIONS - REVOLUTIONARY GENERATIONS SOURCEBOOK: IRA BERLIN, MANY GENERATIONS GONE

12 SOCIETIES WITH SLAVES: THE CHARTER GENERATIONS SLAVE SOCIETIES: THE PLANTATION GENERATIONS SLAVE AND FREE: THE REVOLUTIONARY GENERATIONS SOURCEBOOK: IRA BERLIN, MANY GENERATIONS GONE

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14 MISSING THEMES ON THE ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE THERE WAS MORE THAN ONE ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE - BLACK SLAVES FROM SUBSAHARAN AFRICA TO THE NEW WORLD - WHITE SLAVES FROM EUROPE AND NORTH AMERICA TO NORTH AFRICA SOURCEBOOK: ROBERT DAVIS, CHRISTIAN SLAVES, MUSLIM MASTERS

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16 FOR A PERSPECTIVE THAT TAKES INTO ACCOUNT AFRICAN AMERICAN VIEWS FROM SLAVE TIMES ONWARD SEE MICHAEL A. GOMEZ, REVERSING SAIL

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18 HOW DO WE ATTAIN THEMATIC BALANCE? IDENTIFY MAJOR THEMES FROM THE MDE CONTENT EXPECTATIONS, e.g. slavery and the slave trade. ASK: THIS THEME IS CHARACTERISTIC OF WHICH AREAS OF THE WORLD DURING WHICH TIME PERIODS? ASK: DO OUR CONTENT EXPECTATIONS REFLECT THIS?

19 WHAT WOULD BALANCE LOOK LIKE IN RELATION TO THE ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE(S)? WHERE & WHEN HAS SLAVERY EXISTED? WHERE & WHEN HAS THERE BEEN A SLAVE TRADE? DO OUR CONTENT EXPECTATIONS REFLECT THIS?

20 WHERE & WHEN HAS SLAVERY EXISTED? FOR BLACKS IN AFRICA: UNTIL THE 19TH CENTURY FOR BLACKS IN THE NEW WORLD: 16TH - 19TH CENTURY FOR WHITES IN NORTH AFRICA: 16TH - EARLY 19TH CENTURY

21 WHERE & WHEN HAS THERE BEEN A SLAVE TRADE? SLAVE TRADE IN BLACK SLAVES - WITHIN AFRICA - ACROSS THE SAHARA DESERT TO NORTH AFRICA - ACROSS THE ATLANTIC TO EUROPE & THE NEW WORLD VIA THE ATLANTIC & THE CARRIBEAN SLAVE TRADE IN WHITE SLAVES TO N. AFRICA - CAPTURED IN THE MEDITERRANEAN & THE ATLANTIC FROM SHIPS - CAPTURED FROM COASTAL TOWNS IN EUROPE, ENGLAND, IRELAND, ICELAND

22 DO OUR CONTENT EXPECTATIONS REFLECT THAT FROM THE 16TH THROUGH THE 19TH CENTURY THERE WERE TWO ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADES? 12 MILLION AFRICANS LEFT AFRICA FOR THE NEW WORLD AS SLAVES 1.25 MILLION EUROPEANS WERE CAPTURED AND TAKEN TO NORTH AFRICA AS SLAVES

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24 CAN & SHOULD WE ‘TWEAK’ THE MDE CONTENT EXPECTATIONS AND SUPPLEMENT WHAT APPEARS IN U.S. HISTORY & WORLD HISTORY TEXTS TO TEACH MORE ACCURATELY ABOUT WHAT HAPPENED IN THE PAST?

25 ARE OUR CONTENT EXPECTATIONS BALANCED? With regard to all types of slavery in the same time period & changes over time? In that they acknowledge the impact of slavery when it was significant? With reference to coverage of Africa and peoples from Africa in the U.S. as compared to other areas and peoples? Within materials covered at each grade level? As students progress from Grade 5 to Middle and to High School?

26 CONTENT EXPECTATIONS

27 INTEGRATED UNITED STATES HISTORY GRADE FIVE ERA 1 - BEGINNINGS TO 1620

28 GRADE 5 U1.3.1 The Five Major Regions of Africa NORTH AFRICA WEST AFRICA CENTRAL AFRICA EAST AFRICA SOUTH AFRICA

29 HOW DO THESE REGIONS RELATE TO THE THEME: THE ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE(S)? WEST AFRICA NORTH AFRICA CENTRAL AFRICA EAST AFRICA SOUTH AFRICA

30 GRADE 5 U1.3.2 WEST AFRICA BEFORE 1500

31 THE ECONOMY IN WEST AFRICA BEFORE 1500 MOST WEST AFRICANS EARNED THEIR LIVING * FARMING * AS PASTORALISTS * FISHING

32 DESERTIFICATION AND INNOVATION 300 BC CE THE AREA OF THE SAHARA DESERT BECAME MUCH DRYER GLABERRIMA RICE DOMESTICATED ALONG THE NIGER RIVER BY 300 CE STATES AND THE THREE MAJOR EMPIRES EMERGED IN THIS AREA

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37 THE ECONOMY IN WEST AFRICA BEFORE 1500 SOME WEST AFRICANS EARNED THEIR LIVING IN: TRADE - AS MERCHANTS IRON MAKING & BLACKSMITHING POLITICS MILITARY SERVICE

38 FAMILY STRUCTURES IN WEST AFRICA BEFORE 1500 PATRILINEAL / MATRILINEAL HOUSEHOLDS OFTEN INCLUDED FREE & SLAVE MEMBERS THE FAMILY AND HOUSEHOLD WERE FOUNDATIONAL FOR ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL LIFE

39 WHICH WEST AFRICAN PEOPLES CAN WE USE TO REPRESENT OUR THEMES? FARMERS - BAMBARA, BAGA, YORUBA, & IGBO PASTORALISTS - FULANI FISHERMEN - DO & KRU

40 WHICH WEST AFRICAN PEOPLES CAN WE USE TO REPRESENT OUR THEMES? FARMERS -MALINKE TRADERS - MALINKE IRONWORKERS - MALINKE POLITICIANS - MALINKE MILITARY - MALINKE

41 THE GROWTH OF TRADE IN WEST AFRICA BEFORE 1500 WITHIN WEST AFRICA FROM WEST AFRICA ACROSS THE SAHARA DESERT TO NORTH AFRICA

42 THE GROWTH OF VILLAGES, TOWNS & CITIES IN WEST AFRICA BEFORE 1500 LARGER CITIES IN THE INTERIOR VILLAGES NEARER THE COAST

43 THE GROWTH OF STATES IN WEST AFRICA BEFORE 1500 THE GREAT EMPIRES OF GHANA ( ), MALI ( ), AND SONGHAI ( ) WERE IN THE INTERIOR ALONG THE NIGER RIVER SMALLER STATES WERE ON THE FRINGES OF THE EMPIRES ACEPHALOUS GROUPS WERE IN OUTLYING AND DEFENSIBLE REGIONS THE MOST DENSELY POPULATED AREA OF WEST AFRICA WAS THEN IN THE INTERIOR, NOT ALONG THE COAST. THIS WOULD REVERSE LATER BY THE END OF THE SLAVE TRADE.

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46 GRADE 5 U1.4 THREE WORLD INTERACTIONS FROM THE LATE-15TH THROUGH THE 17TH CENTURY

47 GRADE 5 U1.4.1 THE CONVERGENCE OF EUROPEANS, AMERICAN INDIANS AND AFRICANS IN NORTH AMERICA FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE AFRICANS FROM 1492 TO 1700

48 GRADE 5 U1.4.4 THE COLUMBIAN EXCHANGE AND ITS IMPACT ON EUROPEANS, AMERICAN INDIANS AND AFRICANS

49 THE COLUMBIAN EXCHANGE: ITS IMPACT ON AFRICA STAPLE CROPS FROM THE NEW WORLD THAT WERE ADOPTED ALONG THE WEST AFRICAN COAST –CASSAVA / MANIOC (TAPIOCA) –MAIZE –OKRA –GROUNDNUTS (PEANUTS) –CAPISCUM PEPPERS

50 THE COLUMBIAN EXCHANGE: ITS IMPACT ON AFRICA STAPLE CROPS FROM THE NEW WORLD THAT WEST AFRICANS BROUGHT TO NORTH AMERICA –OKRA –GROUNDNUTS (PEANUTS) –CAPISCUM PEPPERS

51 THE COLUMBIAN EXCHANGE: ITS IMPACT ON AFRICA STAPLE CROPS DOMESTICATED IN AFRICA THAT WEST AFRICANS BROUGHT TO NORTH AMERICA –GLABERRIMA RICE –GUINEA CORN (SORGHUM) –MILLETS –BLACK-EYED PEAS

52 THE COLUMBIAN EXCHANGE: WEST AFRICAN KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS FOR GROWING RICE RESULTED IN SLAVES INTRODUCING THE MOST PROFITABLE CROP TO SOUTH CAROLINA

53 ERA 2 - COLONIZATION AND SETTLEMENT

54 GRADE 5 U2.1.1 SIGNIFICANT DEVELOPMENTS IN THE SOUTHERN COLONIES THE DEVELOPMENT OF ONE-CROP ECONOMIES: A. RICE IN SOUTH CAROLINA B. TOBACCO IN VIRGINIA THE DEVELOPMENT OF SLAVERY

55 GRADE 5 U2.1.2 SIGNIFICANT DEVELOPMENTS IN THE NEW ENGLAND COLONIES (A BALANCED VIEW? ODDLY - NOTHING ON SLAVERY LISTED)

56 GRADE 5 U2.1.3 SIGNIFICANT DEVELOPMENTS IN THE MIDDLE COLONIES (A BALANCED VIEW? ODDLY - NOTHING ON SLAVERY LISTED)

57 GRADE 5 U2.1.4 COMPARE REGIONAL SETTLEMENT PATTERNS OF THE SOUTHERN COLONIES, NEW ENGLAND, AND THE MIDDLE COLONIES

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59 GRADE 5 U2.2 THE EUROPEAN SLAVE TRADE AND SLAVERY IN COLONIAL AMERICA

60 GRADE 5 U2.2.1 THE TRIANGULAR TRADE A MORE BALANCED VIEW (1808) THE 19TH CENTURY

61 GRADE 5 U2.2.1 THE TRIANGULAR TRADE (1808) ROUTES PEOPLES AND GOODS TRADED THE MIDDLE PASSAGE THE IMPACT ON LIFE IN AFRICA

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65 THE TRIANGULAR TRADE: WEST AFRICA TO NORTH AMERICA THE CHARTER GENERATION ROUTE: THE GRAIN COAST TO CARLESTON, SOUTH CAROLINA PEOPLES TRADED - rice farmers (especially women and children) - cattle herders

66 THE TRIANGULAR TRADE TO SOUTH CAROLINA IMPACT IN NORTH AMERICA AFRICANS OF THE CHARTER GENERATION INTRODUCED THREE NEW SYSTEMS OF GROWING RICE –UPLAND RICE –RICE IN INLAND FRESHWATER SWAMPS –RICE IN TIDAL ESTUARIES (SALT AND FRESH WATER ) –CONDITIONS WORSENED: STONO’S REBELLION 1739

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69 THE TRIANGULAR TRADE TO SOUTH CAROLIINA IMPACT ON LIFE IN WEST AFRICA BANCE ISLAND IN THE SIERRA LEONE RIVER BECAME AN IMPORTANT SLAVE TRADING PORT IN AN AREA WITH KINGDOMS PARADOX: THE BAGA, WHO WERE ACEPHALOUS, INCREASED THEIR OWN RICE YIELD, MAINTAINED INDEPENDENCE, AND EXPANDED THEIR POPULATION ALONG THE COAST

70 GRADE 5 U2.2.2 THE LIVES OF FREE AND ENSLAVED AFRICANS

71 GRADE 5 U2.2.3 AFRICAN AMERICAN CULTURE: ROOTS IN AFRICA AND NEW ADAPTATIONS

72 GRADE 5 U2.3 LIFE IN COLONIAL AMERICA GRADE 5 U2.3.3 GOOD BALANCE COMPARISON INCLUDES INDENTURED SERVANTS, ENSLAVED PEOPLE AND FREE AFRICANS AMONG OTHERS

73 GRADE 5 U2.3.4 DESCRIBE THE EMERGING LABOR FORCE GOOD BALANCE INCLUDES CASH CROP FARMERS, INDENTURED SERVANTS, SLAVES CHARTER GENERATION: SIMILAR TO HOUSEHOLD PATTERNS IN WEST AFRICA

74 ERA 3 - REVOLUTION AND THE NEW NATION CONSIDER ADDING FOR BALANCE A PARALLEL TO GRADE 8 U4.3.2 GRADE 5 U3.1.3 (b) Describe opposition to slavery and the formation and development of the abolitionist movement against the slave trade -- Militant opposition: Stono’s Rebellion Political opposition: Quakers & aboliltionists

75 GRADE 5 U3.1 CAUSES OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION A BALANCED VIEW? THE INSTITUTION OF SLAVERY IS NOT AMONG THE FACTORS LISTED HERE IT COULD BE ADDRESSED IN U3.1.8

76 GRADE 5 U3.2 THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION AND ITS CONSEQUENCES

77 GRADE 5 U3.2.3 COMPARE AND CONTRAST THE ROLE OF WOMEN, AFRICAN-AMERICANS, AMERICAN INDIANS & FRANCE IN HELPING SHAPE THE OUTCOME OF THE WAR GOOD BALANCE IF AFRICAN-AMERICANS FIGHTING FOR THE BRITISH (1,000) AS WELL AS FOR THE U.S. (5,000) ARE INCLUDED

78 GRADE 5 U3.3 GRADE 8 U3.3 CREATING NEW GOVERNMENT(S)

79 GRADE 5 U3.3.3 GRADE 8 U3.3.3 MAJOR ISSUES AT THE CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION GOOD BALANCE INCLUDES SLAVERY

80 GRADE 5 U3.3.4 GRADE 8 U3.3.4 ISSUES OVER RESPRESENTATION AND SLAVERY GOOD BALANCE IF THE SLAVE TRADE TO THE U.S. IS INCLUDED AMONG THE ISSUES PRESENTED

81 GRADE 7 W3.1.8 TEACH THE WIDESPREAD PRESENCE OF SLAVERY IN CLASSICAL CIVILIZATIONS AND EMPIRES THIS WILL BALANCE A TENDENCY FOR STUDENTS TO THINK THAT ONLY AFRICANS WERE SLAVES WHEN THEY LATER STUDY THE ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE

82 GRADE 8 U4.1.2 FOR BALANCE, ADD AMERICA’S TREATIES/AGREEMENTS WITH THE NORTH AFRICAN STATES OF ALGIERS IN 1784, 1785, 1795, AND TRIPOLI IN 1805, & 1815 EATON’S VICTORY NEAR TRIPOLI IN 1805 RESULTED IN: THE MARINE HYMN’S LINE “TO THE SHORES OF TRIPOLI” FRANCIS SCOTT KEY WRITING A SONG IN CELEBRATION OF THE VICTORY NEAR TRIPOLI AND LATER ADAPTING IT TO BECOME “THE STAR SPANGLED BANNER”

83 GRADE 8 U4.1.2 FOR BALANCE, ADD AMERICA’S TREATIES/AGREEMENTS WITH THE NORTH AFRICAN STATES OF ALGIERS IN 1784, 1785, 1795, AND TRIPOLI IN 1805, & 1815 EATON’S VICTORY NEAR TRIPOLI IN 1805 RESULTED IN: THE MARINE HYMN’S LINE “TO THE SHORES OF TRIPOLI” FRANCIS SCOTT KEY WRITING A SONG IN CELEBRATION OF THE VICTORY NEAR TRIPOLI AND LATER ADAPTING IT TO BECOME “THE STAR SPANGLED BANNER”

84 GRADE 8 U4.2.2 THE INSTITUTION OF SLAVERY GOOD BALANCE IF IT INCLUDES NEW ENGLAND, THE MIDDLE COLONIES AND THE SOUTH

85 GRADE 8 U4.3.2 THE INSTITUTION OF SLAVERY GOOD BALANCE IF IT INCLUDES NEW ENGLAND, THE MIDDLE COLONIES AND THE SOUTH


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