2Nature of Slavery within African Societies Natural part of African societyIn West Africa, system of slavery resembled European feudalismSlaves were used to increase production and population of region = more powerSeen more as resource, rather than trade commodity
3Treatment of Slaves within African Societies Generally, slaves were well treatedWhile low in hierarchy, active contributor to kingdom or communitySome held high positions in government with significant responsibilityAccepted by and lived with non-slaves in family settingsSlavery was not hereditary, children born to slaves were born free
4Islamic TradersConquest of North Africa by Muslims expanded slavery in AfricaHarsh interpretations of Islamic law justified enslavement of non-MuslimsIslamic traders exported slaves from 8th through 19th century
5European Expansion Affects Africa (1450 to 1750) Portuguese were the first to explore the African coastline.Spanish took an early lead in exporting Africans to the Americas.The Portuguese and other countries participated in the exporting of slaves from Africa.First Africans in Hispaniola in 1505~12 million Africans sent to AmericasDuring the 17th century, more than 40 percent of all Africans went to Brazil, which dominated the European sugar market.
8Slavery Develops with Triangular Trade Europeans transported manufactured goods to the west coast of Africa & goods were exchanged for slavesSlaves carried to the West Indies (Americas)Merchants sold the slaves for sugar, tobacco, and other goods and were carried back across the Atlantic to EuropeEuropean products (cloth, firearms) sent to coast of Africa for slaves to begin triangle trade again
10Why Africans? No written language, many languages Native Americans dying offNo muskets and gunpowderAfricans participated in trade by enslaving others, selling debtors and criminals, and kidnappingPicture: Cape Coast Castle, W. Africa
11Reasons the Europeans Used Africans as the New Labor Force: Many Africans were already used to European diseases and had built up immunities.Africans had already experienced farming and could be taught large scale plantation work.They were strangers to America and were unfamiliar with the landscape, which could possibly deter them from escaping once in America.
12Justification Slavery made development of New World profitable Native American slaves died of diseases, escaped easilyAfrican tribes needed weapons and supplies from Europe
13Exportation Trip called Middle Passage 5000 miles, 3 weeks to 3 months 20-25% diedStrip Africans’ self respect and self identity
15Middle Passage Sickening cruelty characterized this journey Africans were packed in dark holds of large shipsSlaves fell victim to whippings and beatings from merchantsDisease was rampant and swept through the vesselThe smell of blood, sweat, and excrement filled the holdCaptives often lived in their own vomit and wasteIt is estimated that 20% died during the brutal trip to the Americas
16Effects Focus on men affected male/female ratios Over the years numbers of slaves going to the Americas increasesAfrican nations collapsed and were formedSlavery finally considered immoral
17EffectsAs the slave trade grew, some African rulers voiced opposition.African leaders that had been selling Africans as slaves to Muslim, saw little difference in selling slaves to Westerners.King Nzinga Mbemba of Congo in west-central Africa originally participated in the slave trade.He soon saw its devastating effects.In 1562, he wrote a letter to the King of Portugal
18King Nzinga Mbemba wrote, “And we cannot reckon how great the damage is, since…merchants are taking every day our natives, sons of the land and the sons of our noblemen and vassals and our relatives, because the thieves and men of bad conscience grab them…they grab them and get them to be sold; and so great, Sir, is the corruption…that our country is being completely depopulated, and Your Highness should not agree with this nor accept it…it is our will that in these kingdoms there should not be any trade of slaves nor outlet for them.”
19Upon arriving in the Americas, captured Africans usually were auctioned off to the highest bidder. A British minister who visited a slave market in Brazil commented on the process: “When a customer comes in, they (the slaves) are turned before him; such as he wishes are handled by the purchaser in different parts, exactly as I have seen butchers feeling a calf.”
20Harriett Beecher Stowe When she was a young adolescentshe witnessed a slave woman being auctioned.The slave had her young daughter with her.When the mother was “sold” the young girl was rippedfrom her mother’s armsand cried inconsolably.Harriet never forgotthis emotional scene.
21Harriet Beecher Stowe – Writer and Abolitionist Years later Harriet experienced the loss of a son toillness. This loss brought up memories of the slave womanand her child.Harriet began to write aboutWhat she had witnessed.The book she wrote wasUncle Tom’s Cabin. Itshowed the nation thecruelties of slavery. Southernersdisliked the book immensely.
22Harriet’s Book is a Hit!1851 – 1852 In the first installments of the book 5,000 copies were printed.By the end of its first year 300,000 books had been sold.It was made into a play and re-energized the abolitionist movement.When Harriet met President Lincoln, he greeted her by saying, “so you are the little woman who wrote the book that started this great war.”
23John Henry Newton (24 July 1725 – 21 December 1807) was a British sailor and Anglican clergyman. Starting his career at sea, at a young age, he became involved with the slave trade for a few years, and was himself enslaved for a period. After experiencing a religious conversion, he became a minister, hymn-writer, and later a prominent supporter of the abolition of slavery. He was the author of many hymns, including "Amazing Grace" and "Glorious Things of Thee are Spoken."Amazing grace! (how sweet the sound) That sav’d a wretch like me! I once was lost, but now am found, Was blind, but now I see.’Twas grace that taught my heart to fear, And grace my fears reliev’d; How precious did that grace appear, The hour I first believ’d!The Lord has promis’d good to me, His word my hope secures; He will my shield and portion be, As long as life endures.
24William Wilberforce of the House of Commons He was born in 1759In 1784 he converted to Evangelical ChristianityHe became involved with the Society for the Abolition of the Slave Trade in EnglandWilberforce introduced a bill to the House of Commons abolishing slavery in England in 1804After many heated debates over the next 3 years slavery was finally abolished with a resounding vote of 283 to 16 in the House of CommonsIn 1807 the Abolition of the Slave Trade Act was instituted, but had to be watched by the Abolitionists of England.
25Abolition Around the World 1807—Britain outlawed slave trade1808—US outlawed slave trade1833 —Britain outlawed slavery1863—US outlawed slavery1888—Brazil outlawed slaveryJohn NewtonWilliam Wilberforce
26Life as a SlaveAfricans developed a way of life based on their cultural heritageThey kept their musical traditions aliveThey passed down stories of their ancestorsThey made themselves less productive by breaking hoes, uprooting plants, and working slowlyTheir resistance hurt their owner’s profitsThousands ran away to the north using the Underground Railroad system
27ResistanceAs early as 1522, about 20 slaves on Hispaniola attacked and killed several Spanish colonists.Larger revolts occurred throughout Spanish settlements during the 16th centuryIn Colombia, enslaved Africans destroyed the town of Santa Marta in 1530.Brazil, the West Indies, and North America experienced uprisings.Many slaves died while fighting and those that were captured were executed.
28Columbian ExchangeThe Columbian Exchange is the global transfer of foods, plants, and animals during the colonization of the Americas .Ships from the Americas brought back an array of items that Europeans, Asians, and Africans had never seen before, such as: tomatoes, squash, pineapples, tobacco, and cacao beans (for chocolate).
30Examples of Columbian Exchange Going West to the Americas: Europeans took livestock (sheep, goats, pigs – never seen before in the Americas), grains (brought weeds to Americas), peaches, pears, plums, fig trees, smallpox, inventions, etc.They took to Europe – tomatoes, potatoes, corn, turkeys, tobacco, syphilis, etc.