Presentation on theme: "Chapter 18: The Atlantic System and Africa 1550-1800 Notes by: Grace Cramer and Mike Rajecki."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 18: The Atlantic System and Africa 1550-1800 Notes by: Grace Cramer and Mike Rajecki
Introduction Slaves branded to show ownership Royal African Company (RAC)- association of English investors –1672, received a charter from English monarchy –Rights to trade Atlantic coast of Africa Slaves had to stay healthy on the ships Atlantic system- moved goods, wealth, people, and cultures around the Atlantic
Colonization Before 1650 West Indies revived after 1600 European settlements –Montserrat –Barbados French settlements –Martinique –Guadeloupe New, important cash crop: tobacco
Colonization Before 1650 Chartered companies –Private investors get monopolies over colonies for an annual fee Increase of indentured servants, but eventually changed to mostly African slaves 1600 = Brazil is world’s greatest sugar producer Dutch merchants invest in Brazil sugar
Colonization Before 1650 Dutch fighting for independence from Spanish crown Dutch West India Company in 1612 –Carried conflict to Spain’s possession –Private trading company –Capture of Spanish fleet in 1628 finances attack on Brazil’s sugar areas –Took trading port of Luanda on Angolan Coast, 1614 –Shipped slaves to Brazil and West Indies
Colonization Before 1650 Portuguese free of Spanish, 1640 Portuguese drove out Dutch sugar planters from Brazil Expelled planters gave knowledge to smaller Caribbean colonies, English, and French Caribbean islands
Sugar and Slaves Dutch knowledge brings wealth to European colonies 1700, West Indies surpassed Brazil as the worlds main export of sugar Huge increase in number of slaves –Come from Africa –Going mainly to Brazil, but also to English, French, and Dutch West Indies
Sugar and Slaves Is now decided that the increase of slavery was because Africans had cheep labor costs Slaves not cheep however –Indentured servants cost half as much –But…slaves lived longer, while indentured servants’ contract was about four years Sugar prices raised to help buy slaves
Intro. England founds Jamaica French take half of Hispaniola –This colony, Saint Domingue (present day Haiti), now the leading producer of sugar
Technology and Environment Tools for sugar –Spade for planting –Hoes for weeds –Machete to harvest –Crushing and processing equipment Cane juice boiled, dried, and packed for shipping Typical size of plantation increases
Technology and Environment Plantations were very damaging to the environment –Soil exhaustion –Deforestation All animals and plants in the Caribbean were ones that Europeans had brought –Crowded out indigenous species –Some indigenous people also wiped out, Europeans and Africans take over
Slaves’ Lives Plantations –90% Slaves –Power = plantocracy Rich men who owned the slaves and land Slaves –Workday: up to 18 hours –Assigned task (except for ill, infants, and very old) –Organized by age, sex, and ability
Slaves’ Lives “Great Gang” –Strongest slaves –Heaviest work “Grass Gang” –Children with adult supervision –Weeding, and collecting grass Women –Field workers –Nursing mothers took babies to the field
Slaves’ Lives Working hard= food, clothing, time off, or escape punishment Driver- privileged male slave who ensured that work was completed Punishment –Iron muzzle –Flogging –confinement
Slaves’ Lives Sunday = live their own life No rest/relaxation –Sing to pass the time No education/schooling Deaths outnumbered births for slaves –Males’ life expectancy: 23 years –Females’ expectancy: 25.5 years Greatest killer was disease –Newly arrived slaves go through seasoning, which is an adjustment to the new environment, 1/3 usually died
Slaves’ Lives Lots of slave deaths = increase in slave trade Slaves wanted freedom –Tried to run away –1760, large slave rebellion in Jamaica Led by Tacky Stormed plantations, lighting them on fire and killing Europeans tried to curb African traditions
Free Whites and Free Blacks Social Class –Grands Blancs/“Great Whites” Dominated the economy and society –Petits Blancs/“Little Whites” Farmed Sold goods –Free Blacks Some even owned their own slaves ¾ of the farmland in Jamaica belonged to people who owned at least 1,000 acres
Free Whites and Free Blacks 1774, Invested $100,000 to receive medium-size plantation (600 acres) –1/3 money for land –1/4 equipment –Most was to buy slaves Rich planters translated wealth into political power 1730-1775, rich planters secured election to British Parliament
Free Whites and Free Blacks Manumission- legal grant of freedom to an individual slave Free blacks less common in British colonies, manumission was rare Runaway slaves were known as maroons 1739, recognized independence of maroon communities in return for stopping runaways
Capitalism and Mercantilism Spain and Portugal trying to keep monopolies Private investors to fund growth of Atlantic economy Capitalism- system of large financial institutions (banks, stock exchanges…) that helped investors to reduce risks and increase profit Banks the center of capitalism Mercantilism- policies adopted by European states to promote their citizens’ overseas trade and bring in precious metals –Chartered companies were the first example
Capitalism and Mercantilism 1672, royal charter placed English trade with West Africa with the new Royal African Company –Headquarters: Cape Coast Castle (picture) Restrictions on Dutch access to French/English colonies provoked wars with Netherlands, 1652-1678 1698, England opened trade in Africa, ending monopolies 1660s, England passed Navigation Acts, confined trade to English ships and cargoes 1698, French mercantilist legislation, Exclusif Britain’s imports = 1/5 from West Indies
The Atlantic Circuit Atlantic Circuit –Clockwise network of sea routes –Started in Europe, to Africa, then to Americas, and back to Europe –Wind and “desire” drove ships First leg –Europe to Africa –Carried European manufactures (metal bars, guns…)
The Atlantic Circuit Middle Passage –Slaves to plantations Third leg –Plantation goods from colonies to Europe Other trading voyages also –Triangular Trade- carried rum to West Africa, and slaves to West Indies, then rum back to New England
The Atlantic Circuit European interests dominated the Atlantic system 1700, annual consumption of sugar in England rose to four pounds per person –Started to put sugar in beverages 1750, annual consumption of sugar in Britain had doubled twice to 18 pounds per person Flow of sugar depended on flow of slaves
The Atlantic Circuit 1650-1800, boom in sugar production and in slave trade –7.5 million slaves traded –1/2 West Indies –1/3 Brazil –5% in Spanish America Slaves carried on specific ships, packed tight Slave trade in the hands of chartered companies Many deaths on the ship to the Americas
The Atlantic Circuit Slaves shackled to prevent them from trying to escape from the boat “Fixed Melancholy”- developed by slave, deep depression –Some slaves are said to have willed themselves to death Some slaves tried to overpower their captors –Rarely successful Whippings/Beatings took place on the ship Many people didn’t want to be involved with slave trade
The Atlantic Circuit Most slaves, however, died of disease rather than abuse –Smallpox –Dysentery Crew members also died from these diseases, but also had malaria –Death of crew could be as bad as deaths of slaves, on board
The Gold Coast and the Slave Coast Europeans didn’t want to colonize Africa, but to trade with it Royal African Company made 40% of profit from gold/ivory/forest products African merchants were picky about what they traded for slaves –Mostly wanted: textiles, guns, and hardware –1680s, 60% Indian/European textiles, 30% hardware/weapons, 3% beads/jewelry –Cowrie shells (picture) used for money
The Gold Coast and the Slave Coast Eighteenth century: goods needed to purchase a slave on the Gold Coast doubled Each European nation had a trading “castle” on the Gold Coast –Reduced Europeans’ bargaining strength 1700, Willem Bosman, head of Dutch East India Company, didn’t like the fact that to stay competitive, he had to add to Africans’ military power 1772, Whydah, small slave port annexed by larger Dahomey –Rise in 1720s depended on firepower
The Gold Coast and the Slave Coast 1730, Dahomey overrun by Oyo Asante, west of Dahomey, expanded after 1680 Oyo and Asante were stimulated, but not controlled by external trade Slaves were not parents selling their children, but prisoners of war English rulers sentenced seventeenth-century Scottish/Irish prisoners to forced labor in the West Indies
The Bight of Biafra and Angola Coast Sizable States = No wars –No prisoners of war –Kidnappings were main source of slaves Slaves = debtors, kidnapped victims, and criminals “Slave Fairs” Portuguese = middlemen between inland traders and Brazilian ships Drought of Angola was a huge business for powerful African leaders, who exploited the needs of refugees –Most powerful of these leaders became the heads of states established to stabilize the area after the drought Most inland slaves were prisoners of war from expansion
Africa’s European and Islamic Contacts Two main European bases = Angola (Portuguese) and East India Company’s Cape Colony (Dutch) –Most slaves imported from Madagascar, South Asia, and the East Indies During 16th century, nearly all of North Africa was added to the Islamic Ottoman Empire Songhai pushed Sahara region from south –Drew wealth from trans-Saharan trade –Ruled by indigenous Muslim dynasty Moroccan conquest over Songhai yielded massive tributes of slaves and goods After Moroccan conquest, Hausa cities attracted much more attention
Africa’s European and Islamic Contacts Most Islamic slaves were soldiers and servants Bornu = Sudanese kingdom power Islam influential in African trading cities Europeans obtained 4x as many slaves as Muslims Overall African population stayed the same throughout slave trade Local businesses in Africa suffered greatly More men sold than women = greater ability to recover from population loss European goods importation did not affect African local artisans greatly
The first object which saluted my eyes when I arrived on the coast was the sea, and a slave ship, which was then riding at anchor, and waiting for its cargo. These filled me with astonishment, which was soon converted into terror, which I am yet at a loss to describe nor the then feelings of my mind. When I was carried on board I was immediately handled, and tossed up, to see if I were sound by some of the crew; and I was now persuaded that I had got into a world of bad spirits, and that they were going to kill me. Their complexions too differing so much from ours, their long hair, and the language they spoke, which was very different from any I had ever heard, united to confirm me in this belief. Indeed, such were the horrors of my views and fears at the moment, that, if ten thousand worlds had been my own, I would have parted with them all to have exchanged my condition with that of the meanest slave in my own country. When I looked around the ship too, and saw a large furnace or copper boiling, and a multitude of black people of every description chained together, every one of their countenances expressing dejection and sorrow, I no longer doubted of my fate; and, quite overpowered with horror and anguish, I fell motionless on the deck and fainted. When I recovered a little, I found some black people about me, who, I believed were some of those who brought me on board, and had been receiving their pay; they talked to me in order to cheer me, but all in vain. I asked them if we were not to be eaten by those white men with horrible looks, red faces, and long hair? They told me I was not; and one of the crew brought me a small portion of spirituous liquor in a wine glass; but, being afraid of him, I would not take it out of his hand. … First Hand Account
continued …One of the blacks therefore took it from him, and gave it to me, and I took a little down my palate, which, instead of reviving me, as they thought it would, threw me into the greatest consternation at the strange feeling it produced, having never tasted any such liquor before. Soon after this, the blacks who brought me on board went off, and left me abandoned to despair. I now saw myself deprived of any chance of returning to my native country, or even the least glimpse of hope of gaining the shore, which I now considered as friendly; and I even wished for my former slavery, in preference to my present situation, which was filled with horrors of every kind, still heightened by my ignorance of what I was to undergo. I was not long suffered to indulge my grief; I was soon put down under the decks, and there I received such a salutation in my nostrils as I had never experienced in my life; so that, with the loathsomeness of the stench, and crying together, I became so sick and low that I was not able to eat, nor had I the least desire to taste any thing. I now wished for the last friend, Death, to relieve me; but soon, to my grief, two of the white men offered me eatables; and, on my refusing to eat, one of them held me fast by the hands, and laid me across, I think, the windlass, and tied my feet, while the other flogged me severely....
Questions to Consider Why did the slave say he would have preferred death to continued existence on the slave ship? How did the slave find himself is such a terrible predicament? Did he seem to hold any grudge against his original captors? Where was the slave going, and what awaited him when he got there?
First Hand Account Not a few in our country fondly imagine that parents here sell their children, men their wives, and one brother the other. But those who think so, do deceive themselves; for this never happens on any other account but that of necessity, or some great crime; but most of the slaves that are offered to us, are prisoners of war, which are sold by the victors as their booty. When these slaves come to Fida, they are put in prison all together; and when we treat concerning buying them, they are all brought out together in a large plain; where, by our surgeons, whose province it is, they are thoroughly examined, even to the smallest member, and that naked both men and women, without the least distinction or modesty. The invalids and the maimed being thrown out, as I have told you, the remainder are numbered, and it is entered who delivered them. In the meanwhile, a burning iron, with the arms or name of the companies, lies in the fire, with which ours are marked on the breast. This is done that we may distinguish them from the slaves of the English, French, or others (which are also marked with their mark), and to prevent the Negroes exchanging them for worse, at which they have a good hand. I doubt not but this trade seems very barbarous to you, but since it is followed by mere necessity, it must go on; but we yet take all possible care that they are not burned too hard, especially the women, who are more tender than the men.
continued We are seldom long detained in the buying of these slaves, because their price is established, the women being one fourth or fifth part cheaper than the men. The disputes which we generally have with the owners of these slaves are, that we will not give them such goods as they ask for them, especially the boesies [cowry shells] (as I have told you, the money of this country) of which they are very fond, though we generally make a division on this head, in order to make one part of the goods help off another; because those slaves which are paid for in boesies, cost the company one half more than those bought with other goods. When we have agreed with the owners of the slaves, they are returned to their prison; where, from that time forwards, they are kept at our charge, cost us two pence a day a slave; which serves to subsist them, like our criminals, on bread and water: so that to save charges, we send them on board our ships with the very first opportunity, before which their masters strip them of all they have on their backs; so that they come to us stark-naked, as well women as men: in which condition they are obliged to continue, if the master of the ship is not so charitable (which he commonly is) as to bestow something on them to cover their nakedness. You would really wonder to see how these slaves live on board; for though their number sometimes amounts to six or seven hundred, yet by the careful management of our masters of ships, they are so [well] regulated, that it seems incredible. And in this particular our nation exceeds all other Europeans; for as the French, Portuguese, and English slave-ships are always foul and stinking; on the contrary, ours are for the most part clean and neat. The slaves are fed three times a day with indifferent good victuals, and much better than they eat in their own country. Their lodging place is divided into two parts; one of which is appointed for the men, the other for the women, each sex being kept apart. Here they lie as close together as it is possible for them to be crowded.
Questions to Consider From whom did Bosman acquire the slaves he traded for in Guinea? How did the process actually work? What were the conditions of those enslaved? Why did Bosman maintain that the Dutch slave ships were so much cleaner than those of other European states? What is the importance of having both male and female slaves? What role will each play on the plantation?