2The Atlantic Slave Trade Section 1 Slavery Becomes a SystemSection 2 The Middle PassageSection 3 Africans in the Americas
3Section 1: Slavery Becomes a System Main IdeaSlavery, which had been practiced around the world for thousands of years, has a long history in Africa.Reading FocusWhat was slavery like in ancient times?How did the arrival of Europeans in Africa affect the slave trade?Why were Europeans eager for slaves from Africa?
4Building BackgroundAfrica’s great wealth eventually attracted the attention of other civilizations around the world. Soon there was a growing demand for trade with the empires of gold-rich West Africa. Among the leaders of this new trade were Europeans, who found another valuable trade good in Africa—slaves.
5The Institution of Slavery Slavery’s OriginsPractice did not start with Europeans; common since ancient timesSlaves used for manual labor—physical work done by handSlaves vital form of cheap labor; tended crops, built temples, worked on farms, in mines and on construction projectsOther FunctionsSkilled workers—musicians, weavers, carpentersMuslim rulers trained slaves as professional soldiersIn ancient Rome, educated slaves served as teachersOthers featured in theaters and gladiator competitions
6The Treatment of Slaves Slaves considered property of owners in all societies; their treatment varied greatlyIn Africa children born to slaves kept with familiesIn China owners were free to sell children of slaves, separating familiesSome cultures regulated treatment of slavesLaws protecting them from crueltyIn ancient Athens, striking a slave was against the lawSlavery not based on raceSlaves from wide variety of backgrounds and culturesMost slaves captured in war; others sold as punishment for crimesSome born to slave parents or sold as payment of debtConsidered as property of owner to be resold or given away
8Manumission Freeing Slaves In ancient times, not uncommon for slaves to be freedAct of manumission practiced around the worldFreeing slave considered honorable actExamplesMuslim holy book, the Qur’an, promotes idea of manumitting (freeing) slavesSlaves freed after years of dedicated service; Roman wills show slaves granted freedom upon owner’s death
9Reading CheckDraw ConclusionsWhy might many ancient societies have practiced slavery?Answer(s):To have a cheap source of manual labor; to humiliate enemies conquered in war
10Africa and the Slave Trade Slavery in AfricaInstitution existed for many centuriesPracticed by small kingdoms and great empiresExamplesKanem and Bornu in Central Africa raided nearby landsEgyptians and Nubians in North Africa looked to south for slavesMuslimsFirst entered Africa in 600sExpanded African slave trade; captured or purchased Africans from local rulersTraded all over Muslim worldSign of WealthServed as household servants, agricultural workers; crew members, pearl divers18 million slaves exchanged from AD 650 to 1905
11European Contact with Africa Muslim merchants traded slaves throughout Asia and Africa, not EuropeAfter collapse of Roman Empire (AD 476) Europeans isolatedBy 1100s countries of Europe ready to enter world trade againPeriod of great discovery during 1400s and 1500sInterest in trade and adventure led to explorationReasons includedadventure and famespread of Christianityhope of wealth from tradeTrade expeditions launched; lure of spices, jewels, and silksAfrica was target for exploration
12Great African kingdoms Europeans heard stories of great wealth; tales of West African goldMali’s legendary Mansa MusaEuropean access blocked by strong Muslim kingdoms in North AfricaBy 1400s Portugal determined to find way to reach gold-rich AfricaPrince Henry the NavigatorPortugal took early lead from his efforts; Henry gathered Europe’s best sailors, astronomers, mapmakersSent them off into Atlantic; convinced could get to Asia via AfricaWest African gold could finance future explorationsEstablished trade in gold dust, salt; turned to valuable slave trade
13Reading CheckRecallWhy were European explorers initially interested in Africa?Answer(s):To search for a sea route around Africa to Asia and to gain gold to finance future operations
14Africans and Europeans Trade for Slaves Portuguese soon learned great wealth to be found in selling African captives as slaves in European markets. With European settlement of the Americas in 1500s, demand for labor skyrocketed.Portuguese tradeAmong first in Europe to take partFirst large-scale shipment of slaves arrived in Portugal in 1444Triggered increased interestCheap laborPlanters islands in Atlantic eager for cheap laborWealthy Europeans sought slaves as domestic servants50,000 African slaves in Europe by 1500Methods changedNo longer content to raid villages; turned to trade with local African rulersHorses, cloth, or grain for prisoners of war; established treaties with kings
16Europeans Send Slaves to the Americas Importation of slaves to Americas minor, but profitable enterprise1400s no great European demand for cheap manual laborBut Spain, Portugal, and others expanded into the AmericasDemand for slave labor soaredChristopher ColumbusVoyages of 1492 set off wave of European colonizationExplorers attracted to wealth of resources in “New World”Riches to be found in gold, silver; crops of sugarcane, tobaccoMines and plantations (huge farms) establishedRequired enormous amount of laborNeeded to collect and process raw materialsInitially used Native Americans as forced labor
17Resistance Native peoples Solution Atlantic slave trade Growing resistance to enslavementRapidly decreasing native populationsEuropeans forced to look elsewhereSolutionLook to African slaves—unlike Native Americans, African slaves resistant to European diseases and could not successfully hide after escapingFamiliar with farming methods; already worked as reliable laborers in EuropeAtlantic slave trade1502 first black slaves imported to the Caribbean Americas by PortugueseFirst in small numbers, but growing demand led to active tradeSystem of slaves from Africa to the Americas known as Atlantic slave trade
18Reading CheckExplainWhy did Europeans look to African slaves as a source of labor in the New World?Answer(s):African slaves were less likely to successfully escape; were immune to European diseases; were familiar with farming methods and had proven to be reliable laborers
19Section 2: The Middle Passage Main IdeaAfrican slaves were transported by the millions to the Americas.Reading FocusWhat role did the slave trade play in the triangular trade?What difficulties did captives face on the Middle Passage?What were some of the results of the slave trade?
20Building BackgroundThe transatlantic slave trade was a key part of an active international trade between the Old World and the New World. Key to this trade system was the traffic of African slaves across the Atlantic Ocean—a tragic journey known as the Middle Passage.
21Triangular Trade Spanish colonies Other European powers Small numbers of African slaves to Americas in 1500sSpread of mines and plantations led to growing demand for slave laborHispaniola and Cuba in the Caribbean; Portugal’s Brazil in South AmericaAtlantic slave trade integral part of international trade system by end of 1500sOther European powersPortugal and Spain joined by England, France, and the Netherlands by mid-1600sUsed slaves to work on plantations in AmericasBy mid-1700s British merchants dominated Atlantic slave tradeImported estimated 2.5 million slaves to Americas between 1701 and 1800
22Traffic of Slaves Complex system Different routes Trade complicated between Old World and New WorldTrade routes formed triangular pattern across AtlanticTriangular trade featured exchange of goods between Europe, Africa, and the AmericasDifferent routesEuropeans exchanged manufactured goods (guns and alcohol) for African slavesSlaves transported along Middle Passage to locations in the AmericasMerchants traded slaves for raw materials (sugar, molasses, lumber) which were taken back to Europe
24Reading CheckIdentifyWhat was the triangular trade?Answer(s):A trade system in which goods and slaves were exchanged between Europe, Africa, and the Americas
25The Journey to the Americas Middle PassageMost profitable leg of triangular trade; slaves transported from Africa to the AmericasMillions were captured and enslaved; sent to AmericasCaptureSearch began on West African coast; majority of slaves shipped from thereEuropean slave traders did not capture slaves directlyTrading postsObtained slaves from local middlemen at coastal trading posts, who got slaves from local rulers in African interiorRulers received various goodsEnslavementAfter exchange captives chained and marched to trading posts like Gorée Island and Elmina; there they waited to be chosen for shipment
26Olaudah EquianoNeeding good laborers, slave traders examined captives to find healthy men and womenStrong, young men in high demandOne African, Olaudah Equiano, sold into slavery at age elevenHe later wrote about his capture and life as a slaveSlaversAfter selection, branded and shackled captives transferred aboard slave ships, called slaversThey faced the horrors of the Middle Passage
28The Middle PassageOnce aboard slave ships, African captives faced a frightening and difficult trip to the Americas.Voyage detailsTook three to six weeks to complete; in crowded conditions packed below ship’s deckMore slaves transported meant more profit for ship captainsChained together, little room to move; unsanitary conditionsDisease and malnutrition common; many did not surviveAttempts to escapeFor some death preferable to slavery; jumped overboard or refused to eatCaptives fought for freedom; many accounts of uprisings on slave shipsSome successes, but most uprisings failed; slaves subdued and placed back in captivity
29Reading CheckDescribeWhat were conditions like on the Middle Passage?Answer(s):Captives faced crowded, unsanitary conditions, with little food, exercise, or fresh air.
30Effects of the Slave Trade Impact on AfricaHuman cost great10 million to 12 million Africans shipped to the AmericasMore died on forced marches, on board ships, or resistingAfrican kingdomsEntire communities devastatedWars common among rival kingdoms to win captivesEconomically dependent on European goodsImpact on the AmericasSlaves played vital role in settlement of many areas, especially Brazil, the CaribbeanFilled labor needs and helped strengthen colonial economiesAfrican diasporaAnother result was spread of African culture and traditionsScattering of Africans called African diasporaMusic, art, and religion spread
32Reading CheckSummarizeHow were African kingdoms affected by the Atlantic slave trade?Answer(s):Kingdoms were hurt by loss of their people, by warfare to capture slaves, and by economic dependence on European goods.
33Section 3: Africans in the Americas Main IdeaAfter arriving in the New World, blacks made many contributions to the settlement of the Americas.Reading FocusWhat different jobs did African slaves perform in the New World?What role did Africans play in settling the Americas?
34Building BackgroundFor slaves who survived the treacherous journey known as the Middle Passage, the difficulties were far from over. As they arrived in the New World, they were often sold to the highest bidder. Thousands of miles away from their homelands, they were forced to start new lives as slaves.
35Slavery in the Americas With no native labor force and hoping to take advantage of the rich natural resources of the Americas, Europeans needed slave labor.The CaribbeanPrimary destination with Spanish, English, and French coloniesHuge plantations were set up for cash crops, agricultural products produced primarily for profit, to be sold in EuropeCrops included tobacco, cotton, and some sugar caneIn 1640s large-scale sugar industry introduced with dramatic changesSugar plantations required huge labor supply for planting, harvesting, and processing; more and more slaves brought into islandsFrom 6,000 slaves in 1640s, by 1682 number was 46,000Final total of four million slaves brought to Caribbean
36Caribbean slaves Most on plantations Great numbers, resistance Demanding and dangerous work; 10 to 18 hours a dayOverseers employed to manage and direct the work; relied on violenceOther difficulties with exhaustion, disease, and lack of food, medical carePlanters imported slaves in greater numbers from 1600s–1700sGreat numbers, resistanceSlaves outnumbered colonists on many islandsHarsh laws implemented; punishments included whipping, burning, hangingSome resisted; maroons were runaway slaves that escaped to isolated areas in Jamaica, Haiti, and CubaSlave revolts usually failed, but 1791 revolt in Saint-Domingue caused end to slavery there
38Mainland Latin America Labor demandOther key destination for African slaves was Spanish and Portuguese colonies in mainland Latin America; received 45 percent of all slaves imported to AmericasNeed for slaves in Mexico, Peru, and Brazil to work mines, ranches, and plantationsBrazil had sugar plantations in 1540s; gold discovered in 1690sAfrican slaves worked variety of jobs on sugar, coffee, and cacao plantations; labored in Peruvian copper and silver mines; were cattle ranchers, loggers, and fishersIn large urban districts worked as domestic workers, merchants, and skilled workers
39Slavery laws Protection of slaves In Mexico, Central and South America protective laws passedSpanish legal code granted right to marry; discouraged breaking up slave familiesOther protectionsCatholic Church encouraged owners to free their slavesSlaves free to learn reading and writingCould purchase freedomDifficult livesDespite laws, slaves often overworked and mistreatedMany ran awayOften hid in mountains and forests; developed Maroon communitiesEscaped slavesEstablished town near Veracruz in 1608In 1630 established Republic of Palmares in Brazil; Maroon town lasted for 67 years
40British North AmericaColonists in North America imported far fewer slaves. Historians estimate 600,000 or so of those transported went to North America.Group of 20 slaves sold in Jamestown, Virginia in 1619As Christians not lifelong slaves; earned freedom after number of years of serviceBritish colonies relied on indentured servantsWorked in exchange for passageBlack and white servants signed on as indentured servantsServed as plantation labor, domestic servants, and skilled workersDemand for slaves was low as result of existing indenture systemIn 1640 only 150 slaves in VirginiaGrowing need for permanent labor force changed level of satisfaction with temporary labor gained from indenture system.
42Dissatisfaction with indenture Workers left jobs after period of service ended; employers had to find and train new workers; indentured servants ran away and were hard to findBy late 1600s number of available European workers declinedShortage forced other labor supply; slaves were importedIncreased number of slaves in North AmericaLaws passed to regulate1641 slavery legalized in Massachusetts; by 1700s slavery firmly established in all British coloniesNew laws established for slaves to serve for life, children enslaved tooLegal codes set restrictions on slaves; could carry no weapons, could not travel without permission of ownerBasis for American slavery began with these laws
43Reading CheckContrastHow did slavery in British North America differ from other regions?Answer(s):Far fewer slaves were imported; temporary labor was originally more common than slavery.
44Africans Help Settle the Americas In addition to providing vital labor, Africans explored and settled new territories and contributed to the region’s culture.ExplorationNo doubt of role of Africans in New World expeditionsBlack slaves came with Balboa in 1513; Cortés had African slaves as crew to Mexico in 1519Black crew member planted and harvested first wheat crop in AmericasEstevanico crossed southwestConquest and SettlementWest African slave Juan Valiente served as conquistador; awarded estate ands slaves of his ownDu Sable, a Haitian native, founded permanent settlement in area of Chicago; free blacks helped settle Louisiana, Virginia, North Carolina1600s slaves developed profitable rice crops in South Carolina
46African Culture in the Americas Africans played crucial role in development of American cultureSlaves continued to practice their African traditions and customsOver time traditions blended with European and native culture to create unique culture of AmericasInfluence on music and foodBrazilian capoeira, a blend of dance and martial arts, from Angolan slavesAfrican musical instruments included the marimba, the banjo, and various types of drumsAfrican foods include New Orleans Creole, a blend of African, Caribbean, and European cookingInfluence on religion and languageSlaves blended African religious beliefs with Christian onesMixed languages as shown in Haiti and LouisianaGreat cultural diversity of Americas was the result
47Reading CheckExplainHow did Africans help explore and settle the Americas?Answer(s):They took part in early expeditions and battles, helped explore unknown territories, settled permanent communities, and spread African culture