The Plantation System and the "African Solution" Slavery had existed in Europe and Africa before the creation of plantation systems Greater demand for sugar, tobacco, rice then cotton led to increased need for labor Recognized in law 1661 English "slave codes" in Barbados 1685 French "black code" in the Caribbean Stripped Africans of all rights Defined slavery as an inherited racial status that applied only to blacks Condoned by both Catholic and Protestant Churches Noted for extreme differences in wealth, status, and rights
Swedish Colonies Sweden was a North American colonial power until the late nineteenth century. In 1637, it established the colony of New Sweden (later Delaware), with its capital at Fort Kristina, named after Sweden’s famous queen, Later captured by the Dutch, it was ceded to the British and was one of the original thirteen colonies which became the United States: Delaware! Sweden also had an important colony in the Caribbean: St Bartelemy. It acquired the island from France in 1785
Massasoit Sachem of the Wampanoag Massasoit, sachem of the Wampanoag tribe, brought food to sustain the newcomers through their first winter and helped them adjust to life in this strange, new world. As more and more colonists flooded into New England, strains in the relationship began to appear. In 1676, the battle was over. Philip was slain, his body drawn and quartered, and his head paraded in triumph in Plymouth. Philip's son, Massasoit's grandson, was sold into slavery in Bermuda. The generosity of Massasoit in 1620 indirectly resulted in the enslavement of his grandson 56 years later.
French and Indian War The French and Indian War (1754–1763) was the North American chapter of the Seven Year War, known in Canada as the War of the Conquest. The name refers to the two main enemies of the British: the royal French forces and the various American Indian forces allied with them. The conflict resulted in the British conquest of Canada. To compensate its ally, Spain, for its loss of Florida, France ceded its control of French Louisiana west of the Mississippi. Native Americans fought for both sides, but primarily alongside the French (with one exception being the Iroquois Confederacy, which sided with the American colonies and Britain).
Franklin’s 1754 Albany Plan In 1754, Britain and France were struggling for control over portions of North America. In the face of war on American soil, Franklin proposed a plan that would unite the colonial governments into a single federal council. In his Albany Plan, Franklin held that the colonies, by acting with one united voice, could more effectively fend off threatened attacks by the French and their Native American allies. Both the colonists and the British Crown rejected Franklin’s plan because it encroached on their respective powers,
French and Indian War The original rattlesnake flag was a plea for unity during the French and Indian Wars. Ben Franklin adapted the image of a rattler severed into segments, each representing a colony or group of colonies — the head labeled “N.E.” for New England. Rightly so, as this is where the Sons of Liberty first gathered in the mid 1770s. They joined with the like-minded gentlemen from the South. In the French and Indian War both northern and southern colonies used black soldiers. Particularly was this true in New York and Connecticut (which had black men in twenty five militia companies). Several colonies adherred to the classical concept that to risk one's life (by serving in combat) was legally tantamount to earning ones freedom. Benjamin Quarles: The Negro in the Making of America
Iroquois Confederacy Decisions would be made in the following way. The Mohawk and Seneca Lords would have to unanimously agree on a course of action. They sent this decisions to the Oneida and Cayuga Lords, who would also have to unanimously agree on this decision During the American Revolution, the League split apart; the Oneida and Tuscarora sided with the Americans, while the others allied themselves with Britain. The United States took revenge in 1779 which resulted in the Second Treaty of Fort Stanwix (1784) which officially disbanded the League>
Tobacco is King in Virginia Colony By 1614 Virginia had entered the world trade market protected under English laws. By 1620 tobacco was being used as currency in Virginia, a trade option that endured for two centuries. Virginia became a single-crop colony until 1 February 1633, when tobacco laws were codified, limiting tobacco production to reduce dependence on a single- crop economy. tobacco remained the main world trade crop for Virginia for many decades.
17 th Century North Carolina Imposing Terror Carolina authorities developed laws to keep the African American population under control. Whipping, branding, dismembering, castrating, or killing a slave were legal under many circumstances. Freedom of movement, to assemble at a funeral, to earn money, even to learn to read and write, became outlawed.
The Harshness of Human Bondage As Equiano wrote, white and black lived together "in a state of war." The more harshly whites enforced racial enslavement, the more they came to fear black uprisings. As they became more fearful, they responded by further tightening the screws of oppression. "If you're a white authority, you're constantly trying to figure: …How fierce should the punishments be?”
Stono Rebellion of 1739 20 Africans Marching in Cato's Conspiracy or Cato's Rebellion South to Florida
Punishing Freedom Fighters in 1741 Great Negro Plot or Conspiracy of 1741 Fires erupted in in NY city, one at the home of the governor at the time. Blacks arrested with a 16-year old white indentured servant, Mary Burton. In exchange for her freedom, she testified against the others of a conspiracy of poor Whites and Blacks to burn the city, kill the White Men, take the White women for themselves. The two slaves were burned at the stake, and with "fire licking at their feet", confessed to burning the fort. They also named fifty others as co- conspirators. News of the "conspiracy" set off a stampede of arrests. At the height of the hysteria, nearly half the city's male slaves over sixteen were in jail. The number of arrests totaled 152 Blacks and twenty Whites. They were tried and convicted in a show trials in which the judicial authorities have already determined the guilt of the accused: Most of the convicted were hanged or burnt- how many is uncertain
18 th Century British Naval Dominance As Britain rose in naval power and settled continental North America they became the leading slave traders. At one stage the trade was the monopoly of the Royal Africa Company, operating out of London, but following the loss of the company's monopoly in 1689, Bristol and Liverpool merchants became increasingly involved in the trade. By the late 17th century, one out of every four ships that left Liverpool harbor was a slave trading ship.[Royal Africa Company London BristolLiverpoolslave trading ship[
General Assembly colony of Connecticut 1708 Black Codes 1730 This Black Code states that no slave could be acquired without the owner's knowledge (presumably in reference to run-away slaves) and that if a negro or mulatto servant disturb the peace or strike a white person, he shall be whipped. That if any Negro, Indian, or Molatto slave shall utter, publish and speak such words of any person that would by law be actionable if the same were uttered, published or spoken by any other free person such Negro, Indian or Molatto slave, being thereof convicted before any one justice of the peace, shall be punished by whipping, at the discretion of the assistant or justice before whom the tryal is, not exceeeding forty stripes.
1800’s Slave Market in DC Slave Market of America Northerners and foreign visitors to the Capital were horrified and embarrassed to find a large slave market very close to the Capitol building where the nation's lawmakers sat in session. The American Anti- Slavery Society issued posters to show the incongruity of selling slaves in the Nation's Capital with the principles decreed in the Declaration of Independence. The poster was part of the Society's campaign to have Congress abolish slavery in Washington, D.C.
Slave patrols begin in SC 1704 Slave patrols (called patrollers, pattyrollers or paddy rollers by the slaves) were organized groups of three to six white men who enforced discipline they policed the slaves on the plantations and hunted down fugitive slaves. Patrols used summary punishment against escapees, which included maiming or killing them. Beginning in 1704 in South Carolina, slave patrols were established and the idea spread throughout the southern states
Important Events Of African Americans Loudoun Co. Virginia 1764: For the first time a census lists patrollers to “visit all negroe quarters and other places suspected of entertaining unlawful assemblies of slaves or any others strolling about without a pass.” 1764: At the close of the French and Indian War there are about 1,100 slaves, or 19 percent of 5,800 persons. Now, about 60 percent of the slaves are owned by residents; 40 percent by absentee landlords. 1768: Three slaves of George West, the county surveyor, strike overseer Dennis Dallas with axes and hoes “so he instantly expired.” The slaves are hanged, March 2, in the county’s first public execution. 1773: On the eve of the American Revolution, the population is 11,000, with 1,950 slaves—17 ½ percent of the populace. The average cost of a slave is about $125—over a third of what an average man earns in a year. April 1778: Jane Robinson of Loudoun, a mulatto born to a white woman, is the first to receive emancipation under 1765 Commonwealth legislation.
ASSEMBLY RESOLUTION No. 270 Nov. 8, 2007, STATE OF NEW JERSEY WHEREAS, New Jersey, with as many as 12,000 slaves, had one of the largest populations of captive Africans in the northern colonies; and WHEREAS, Although the State of New Jersey passed a gradual emancipation law in 1804, it was the last northern state to emancipate its slaves, and required all children of slaves born after July 4, 1804 to remain the “servant of the owner of his or her mother” until they were twenty-one years of age for women or twenty-five years of age for men; … BE IT RESOLVED by the General Assembly of the State of New Jersey (the Senate concurring): 1. The Legislature of the State of New Jersey expresses its profound regret for the State’s role in slavery and apologizes for the wrongs inflicted by slavery and its after effects in the United States of America; expresses its deepest sympathies and solemn regrets to those who were enslaved and the descendants of those slaves, who were deprived of life, human dignity, and the constitutional protections accorded all citizens of the United States
Petition of 1780 by slaves for the abolition of slavery in Connecticut We are all of us the Same mind as we was when we asked this advantige of your honners Last may that our marsters have no more Rite to make us Searve them then we have to make our Marsters Searve us and we have Resen to wonder that our Case has not Ben taken into Consideration So fare as to Grant us our Libertys But we must consider what the Book of Eceleisastes says at 8 Chapter & at the 11 varce Because Sentence aganst an Evel work is not Executed Speedily theirfore the hart of the Sons of men is fully Set in them to do Evel - and for this Reson we Think our Cause is Not Regarded and we Still must Say as Jeremiah Says in his Lamentations at the 5 Chapter & at the 5 varce Our necks are under Persecution we Labour and have no rest -
Toussaint L’Overture and Jean Jacque Dessalines In 1789 Saint Domingue was the most profitable real estate in the world. its sugar plantations = two- thirds of France's overseas trade, they also stimulated the greatest individual market for the slave trade. The slaves were brutally treated and died in great numbers, prompting a never-ending influx of new slaves. The French Revolution sent waves all the way across the Atlantic. The slaves seized the moment rebelled en masse and when it ended in 1803, Saint Domingue had become Haiti, the first independent nation in the Caribbean.
Louisiana Territory The French also established forts, trading posts, and settlements in the areas surrounding the Great Lakes and up and down the Mississippi River, including the huge colony of Louisiana. The territory encompassed the modern- day states of Louisiana, Arkansas, Oklahoma, Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wyoming, Montana, Colorado, and Idaho. Named after the French King Louis XIV, its capital, New Orleans, at the mouth of the Mississippi River, was founded in 1718. After the Treaty of Paris at the end of the French and Indian War (1763), the French surrendered Louisiana to Spain until 1800.
1790 Naturalization Law limited citizenship to immigrants who were “foreign whites”. 1792 enlistment in militias was limited to white men. States in the NW Territory placed special restrictions and requirements on Blacks who entered.
St. Domingue proposed as home for deported slaves and free blacks "West Indies offer a more probable & practicable retreat for them... the most promising portion of them is the island of St. Domingo, where the blacks are established into a sovereignty de facto, & have organised themselves under regular laws & government.“ He was searching for a suitable place to send rebellious slaves in the aftermath of Gabriel's Rebellion in Virginia.
Racial stereotypes during the antebellum period were rampant. The sambo caricature was the most persistent of Black males. Based on white chauvanistic ideas of superiority and the view of Negroes as the extreme “other”
Sambo and Uncle Big Smile: happy to Serve Uniform: proud of subservient role Speech: creolized English, viewed as indicative of lack of intelligence
Mother Bethel -1795 1st Black Sunday School -1807 Free People of Color School