Presentation on theme: "In Modern Bondage: Human Trafficking in the 21 st Century By Laura J. Lederer, J.D. Adjunct Professor, Georgetown Law Center Vice President, Global Centurion."— Presentation transcript:
In Modern Bondage: Human Trafficking in the 21 st Century By Laura J. Lederer, J.D. Adjunct Professor, Georgetown Law Center Vice President, Global Centurion
Question: There are many kinds of modern slavery Are we directly responsible for any of the slavery occurring around the world today?
Africa – Slavery Still Exists Millions of people in slavery Labor and sex trafficking International trafficking Intra-national traffficking
Cocoa Bean Plantations Cocoa beans grown on cocoa farms in Ivory Coast Children bought for $30 from parents Sold as slaves to cocoa plantations Slave labor to produce chocolate
More About Cocoa Slave Labor 15,0000 children in slave labor on cocoa plantation 500,000 cocoa plantations Cocoa sold to Nestle, Hershey, Mars, Cadbury, and other chocolate factories in U.S., U.K., Europe
The dark side of chocolate Children are underfed Forced to work long hours Locked up at night to prevent escape. If they are caught trying to escape, they are often severely beaten.
Children in slavery I am Sawadogo Sayouba. I am 15 years old now, but I began working when I was 8. The work is hard and horrible. I wake up, go to work on the plantation, return, wash, eat, go to bed. I pick, cut branches and vines, sweep, break cocoa pods, kneed the cocoa. The worst part of my work is the heavy carrying and the mixing after we break the pods.
India – More modern slavery Intergenerational slavery of children and adults 22 million people in bonded labor Labor and Sex Trafficking
Brick factories in India Whole families in debt bondage A life of slavery from birth to death Children forced into labor at very early ages.
Sex Slavery in India Sex trafficking in big cities of India Mumbai, Calcutta, New Delhi, Pune, Chennai Girls sold into slavery at 6 and 8 yrs old Some born into brothels
Child Begging Children sold to professional beggars Sent out on streets to beg Some children maimed to enhance begging capability Political will to stop child begging?
Child Soldiers - DRC
Child soldiers undergoing drill at the Mangango camp, near Beni (DRC)
Child Soldiers Forced to Fight
Child Soldiers Forced to Mine Coltan in DRC
The Flow of Coltan War in DRC forced legitimate mining companies out Rebel groups mine, forcing prisoners and child soldiers Miners work long shifts in hazardous mines which are not maintained to international standards The day’s work is sold for a pittance The coltan ends up in Rwanda or Uganda. Multinational mineral companies buy from rebel groups Coltan also is flown from Rwanda to Europe Buyers set prices in London. More than twenty international mining companies import
Child Soldiers Mining
Coltan: Black Gold
Southeast Asia Sex Trafficking Epidemic
Europe – More trafficking Uzbek women detained after anti- trafficking raid Countries of origin – Russia, Southeast European countries; Eastern European countries
Trafficking in the Middle East
Trafficking in the United States Our “wake-up call” in 1998 Rosa’s story – children trafficked from Mexico to U.S. Since then, a case in every state
The Nature and Scope of 21 st Century Slavery Statistics: Difficult to calculate Underground Activity Intl Criminal Cartels No Methodologies e.g. – U.S. crime stats methodology
What the Experts Say 800,000 – 1,000,000 – U.S. Dept of State 2 million children – UNICEF 4 million people – UNODC 12.3 for labor trafficking -- ILO 22 million in bonded labor in India - IJM 27 million worldwide – Kevin Bales
Economics of Trafficking $217 billion/yr – including ancillary activities $32 billion/yr -- all forms $19 billion – sex trafficking alone
Getting at the Money Asset Tracing Asset Freezing Asset Forfeiture Money Laundering
Getting at the Money, II Criminal Forfeiture – Defendant convicted of a crime can have assets seized. Assets reachable are those “fruits of the crime” - $$, cars, houses, etc. bought with or used in commission of trafficking in persons crime
Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 Expands definition of trafficking to include recruiters, transporters, harborers, sellers; Strengthens penalties – 20 years to life Victim Centered Approach - T Visa President’s Inter-agency Task Force on Trafficking (Cabinet level task force)
Implementing the Law Department of State Department of Justice Department of Homeland Security Department of Defense Department of Labor Department of Health and Human Services
U.S. Department of State Office to Monitor & Combat Trafficking in Persons Annual TIP Report Intl. Grants Program Diplomatic Efforts to Address TIP
U.S. Department of Justice Law Enforcement Task Forces Linking Federal and Local Law Enforcement
Department of Homeland Security
Department of Defense New Statute Added to UCMJ (Uniform Code of Military Justice) Prohibits Patronizing a Brothel Big Change in U.S. Military Culture Enforcement an issue
Department of Health & Human Services National Education Campaign on Human Trafficking
Department of Health & Human Services Programs
For More Information: (then search “trafficking in persons” (then search for Attorney General’s Report on Traffficking in Persons)
What You Can Do Educate Yourself about Human Trafficking Talk to Your Friends Write Articles for School Newspaper Contact Your Legislator Raise Money for the Cause Get Involved with Anti-Trafficking Group Speak in your Church or Community