Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Chapter 4 Slavery and Empire 1441 - 1770 Chapter 4 Slavery and Empire 1441 - 1770 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. OUT OF MANY A HISTORY OF THE AMERICAN.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4 Slavery and Empire 1441 - 1770 Chapter 4 Slavery and Empire 1441 - 1770 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. OUT OF MANY A HISTORY OF THE AMERICAN."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 4 Slavery and Empire Chapter 4 Slavery and Empire © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. OUT OF MANY A HISTORY OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE

2 Part One Introduction 2© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

3 Chapter Focus Questions How did the modern system of slavery develop? What was the history of the slave trade and the Middle Passage? How did Africans manage to create communities among the brutal slave system? What were the connections between the institutions of slavery and the imperial system of the eighteenth century? How and why did racism develop in America? 3© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

4 Part Two American Communities: Rebellion in Stono, South Carolina 4© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

5 American Communities: Rebellion in Stono, South Carolina Group of slaves in South Carolina rose up in rebellion and headed towards Florida where freedom had been promised. Enslaved Africans greatly outnumbered the white colonists in South Carolina. The rebellion signified desperation but also a sense of community. While the history of slavery is harsh it also is a history of community. 5© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

6 Part Three The Beginnings of African Slavery 6© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

7 The Beginnings of African Slavery Europeans were concerned with the moral implications of enslaving Christians. Muslims and Africans could be used as slaves because they were not Christians. In 1441, the Portuguese opened the trade by bringing slaves to the sugar plantations on the island of Madeira. 7© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

8 Sugar and Slavery The expansion of sugar production in the Caribbean increased the demand for slaves. Caribbean sugar and slaves were the core of the European colonial system. 8© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

9 9 African slaves operate a sugar mill on the Spanish island colony of Hispaniola, illustrated in a copperplate engraving published by Theodore de Bry in Columbus introduced sugar on his second voyage and plantations were soon in operation. Because the native population was devastated by warfare and disease, colonists imported African slaves as laborers.

10 West Africans Slaves came from well-established societies and local communities of West Africa. More than 100 peoples lived along the West African coast. Most West African societies were based on sophisticated systems of farming. Extensive trade networks existed. Household slavery was an established institution. Slaves were treated more as family than as possessions. Children were born free. 10© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

11 This image of Mansa Musa (1312–37), the ruler of the Muslim kingdom of Mali in West Africa, is taken from the Catalan Atlas, a magnificent map presented to the king of France in 1381 by his cousin, the king of Aragon. In the words of the Catalan inscription, Musa was “the richest, the most noble lord in all this region on account of the abundance of gold that is gathered in his land.” He holds what was thought to be the world’s largest gold nugget. Under Musa’s reign, Timbuktu became a capital of world renown. 11© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

12 12 A group of slaves being led from the interior to the West African coast by two traders, from Rene Geoffroy de Villeneuve, l’ Afrique (1814).

13 Part Four The African Slave Trade 13© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

14 The Demography of Slave Trade Most slaves were transported to the Caribbean or South America. One in twenty were delivered to North America (600,000) Men generally outnumbered women two to one. Map: The African Slave Trade Chart: Estimated number of Africans Imported to British North America, Chart: Africans as a Percentage of the Total Population of the British Colonies, © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

15 MAP 4.1 The African Slave Trade The enslaved men, women, and children transported to the Americas came from West Africa, the majority from the lower Niger River (called the Slave Coast) and the region of the Congo and Angola. 15 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

16 FIGURE 4.1 Estimated Number of Africans Imported to British North America, 1701–70 These official British statistics include only slaves imported legally, and consequently, undercount the total number who arrived on American shores. But the trend over time is clear. With the exception of the 1750s, when the British colonies were engulfed by the Seven Years’ War, the slave trade continued to rise in importance in the decades before the Revolution. SOURCE: R. C. Simmons, The American Colonies: From Settlement to Independence (London: Longman,1976), © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

17 FIGURE 4.2 Africans as a Percentage of Total Population of the British Colonies, 1650 –1770 Although the proportion of Africans and African Americans was never as high in the South as in the Caribbean, the ethnic structure of the South diverged radically from that of the North during the eighteenth century. SOURCE: Robert W. Fogel and Stanley L. Engerman, Time on the Cross (Boston: Little,Brown,1974),21. 17© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

18 A Global Enterprise All Western European nations participated in the African slave trade. The slave trade was dominated by the Portuguese in the sixteenth century, the Dutch in the sugar boom of the seventeenth century, and the English who entered the trade in the seventeenth century. New England slavers entered the trade in the eighteenth century. 18© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

19 The Shock of Enslavement Enslavement was an unparalleled shock. African raiders or armies often violently attacked villages to take captives. The captives were marched to the coast, many dying along the way. On the coast, the slaves were kept in barracoons where they were separated from their families, branded, and dehumanized. 19© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

20 The Middle Passage The Atlantic voyage was called the Middle Passage because it was the middle portion of the triangle trade. Slaves were crammed into ships and packed into shelves 6 feet long and 30 inches high. They slept crowded together spoon fashion. There was little or no sanitation and food was poor. Dysentery and disease were prevalent. Slaves resisted by jumping overboard, refusing to eat, and revolting. One in six slaves died during this voyage. 20© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

21 Slaves below deck on a Spanish slaver, a sketch made when the vessel was captured by a British warship in the early nineteenth century. Slaves were “stowed so close, that they were not allowed above a foot and a half for each in breadth,” wrote one observer. The close quarters and unsanitary conditions created a stench so bad that Atlantic sailors said you could “smell a slaver five miles down wind.” 21© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

22 The Middle Passage The sale of human cargo occurred in several ways. A single buyer may have purchased the whole cargo. Individual slaves could be auctioned to the highest bidder. The “scramble” had the slaves driven into a corral and the price was fixed. Buyers rushed among the slaves, grabbing the ones they wanted. In the sale process, Africans were closely examined, probed and poked. 22© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

23 Africans herded from a slave ship to a corral where they were to be sold by the cruel method known as "the scramble," buyers rushing in and grabbing their pick. This image was featured in an antislavery narrative published in © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

24 Part Five The Development of North American Slave Societies 24© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

25 Portrait of Olaudah Equiano, by an unknown English artist, ca Captured in Nigeria in 1756 when he was eleven years old, Equiano was transported to America and was eventually purchased by an English sea captain. After ten years as a slave, he succeeded in buying his own freedom and dedicated himself to the antislavery cause. His book, The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano (1789), was published in numerous editions, translated into several languages, and became the prototype for dozens of other slave narratives in the nineteenth century. SOURCE: Museum, Exeter, Devon, UK/Bridgeman Art Library. 25© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

26 The Development of North American Slave Societies Map: Slave Colonies of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries By 1770, Africans and African Americans numbered 460,000 in British North America–comprising over 20% of the colonial population. 26© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

27 MAP 4.2 Slave Colonies of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries By the eighteenth century, the system of slavery had created societies with large African populations throughout the Caribbean and along the southern coast of North America. 27© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

28 Slavery Comes to North America Between about 1675 and 1700 the Chesapeake went from being a society with slaves to a slave society. There was a decline in immigration of English servants. European immigrants had better opportunities in other colonies. The Royal English African Company began shipping directly to the region and the labor shortage was filled with slaves. Expansion of slavery prompted Virginia to develop a comprehensive slave code. More Africans were imported into North America between 1700 and 1710 than in the entire previous century. 28© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

29 The Tobacco Colonies Tobacco was the most important commodity produced in eighteenth century North America, accounting for 25% of the value of all colonial exports. Slavery allowed the expansion of tobacco production since it was labor-intensive. Using slave labor, tobacco was grown on large plantations and small farms. The slave population in this region grew largely by natural increase. 29© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

30 The Lower South South Carolina was a slave society from its founding. The most valuable part of the early economy was the Indian slave trade. Rice and indigo were the two major crops. In South Carolina, large plantations employing many slaves dominated. Georgia prohibited slavery until South Carolina planters began to settle on the coast with their slaves. By 1770, about 80% of the coastal population of South Carolina and Georgia was African American. 30© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

31 Residence and Slave Quarters of Mulberry Plantation, by Thomas Coram, ca The slave quarters are on the left in this painting of a rice plantation near Charleston, South Carolina. The steep roofs of the slave cabins, an African architectural feature introduced in America by slave builders, kept living quarters cool by allowing the heat to rise and dissipate in the rafters. SOURCE: Thomas Coram, “View of Mulberry Street, House and Street.”.Oil on paper, cm. Gibbes Museum of Art/Carolina Art Association © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

32 Slavery in the Spanish Colonies Though the papacy denounced slavery it was a basic part of the Spanish colonial labor system. The character of Spanish slavery varied by region. In Cuba, on sugar plantations, slavery was brutal. In Florida, slavery resembled household slavery common in Mediterranean and African communities. In New Mexico, Indian slaves were used in mines, as house servants, and as fieldworkers. Spain declared Florida a haven for runaway slaves from the British colonies and offered land to those who would help defend the colony. 32© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

33 French Louisiana Natchez Rebellion 1629 The Natchez Indians and the slaves of Louisiana joined together in an armed uprising killing ten percent of the colonial population. Authorities crushed the rebellion but diversified economy and French Louisiana became a society with slaves. French settlers used slave labor but slaves made up only about one-third of the population. Louisiana did not become an important North American slave society until the end of the eighteenth century. 33© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

34 Slavery in the North Slavery was a labor system in some northern commercial farming areas but only made up ten percent of the rural population in these regions. In port cities, slavery was common. By 1750, the slave and free African populations made up 15 to 20% of the residents of Boston, New York, and Philadelphia. Antislavery sentiment first arose among the Quakers of New Jersey and Pennsylvania. 34© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

35 The London Coffee House, near the docks of Philadelphia, was the center of the city’s business and political life in the mid-eighteenth century. Sea captains and merchants congregated here to do business, and as this contemporary print illustrates (in the detail on the far right), it was the site of many slave auctions. Slavery was a vital part of the economy of northern cities. SOURCE: John F. Watson, “Annals of Philadelphia,” being a collection of memoirs, anecdotes, and incidents of Philadelphia. The London Coffee House. The Library Company of Philadelphia. 35© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

36 Part Six African to African American 36© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

37 Mum Bett, also known as Elizabeth Freeman, was born into slavery in a Massachusetts household about As a young woman she was subjected to the violent abuse of her mistress, who struck her with a hot shovel, leaving an indelible scar. Fleeing her owner, Mum Bett enlisted the aid of antislavery lawyer Thomas Sedgwick, who helped win her freedom in This miniature was painted by Sedgwick's daughter Susan in © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

38 The Daily Lives of Slaves Africans formed the majority of the labor force that made the plantations profitable and thus built the South. As agricultural peoples, Africans were used to rural routines and most slaves worked in the fields. Slaves were supplied rude clothes and hand-me- downs from the master’s family. On small plantations and farms, Africans may have worked along side their masters. Large plantations provided the population necessary for the development of an African American culture. 38© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

39 Families and Communities In the development of African American community and culture, the family was the most important institution. Families were often separated by sale or bequest. Slaves created family structures developing marriage customs, naming practices, and a system of kinship. Fictive kinship was used by slaves to humanize the world of slavery. 39© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

40 African American Culture The formative period of African American community development was the eighteenth century. The resiliency of slaves was shown in the development of a spiritually sustaining African American culture drawing upon dance, music, religion, and oral tradition. Until the Great Awakening, large numbers of African Americans were not converted to Christianity. Death and burial were important religious practices. Music and dance formed the foundations of African American culture. The invention of an African American language facilitated communication between American-born and African slaves. 40© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

41 Seeing History A Musical Celebration in the Slave Quarters. 41© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

42 The Africanization of the South Acculturation occurred in two directions—English influenced Africans and Africans influenced English. Africanization was evident in: cooking: barbecue, fried chicken, black-eyed peas, and collard greens material culture: basket weaving, wood carving, and architecture language: yam, banjo, tote, buddy music and dance: banjo 42© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

43 Violence and Resistance The slave system was based on force and violence. Africans resisted in the following ways: Refusing to cooperate and malingering Mistreating tools and animals Running away Revolt There was always fear of uprisings but slaves in North America rarely revolted. Conditions for a successful revolt were not present. Slaves had also developed culture and communities and did not want to risk losing these things. 43© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

44 Fugitive slaves flee through the swamps in Thomas Moran’s The Slave Hunt (1862). Many slaves ran away from their masters, and colonial newspapers included notices urging readers to be on the lookout for them. Some fled in groups or collected together in isolated communities called “maroon” colonies, located in inaccessible swamps and woods. SOURCE: Thomas Moran (American, ), Slave Hunt, Dismal Swamp, Virginia, Gift of Laura A. Clubb, © 2007 The Philbrook Museum of Art, Inc., Tulsa, Oklahoma. 44© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

45 Part Seven Slavery and the Economics of Empire 45© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

46 Eighteenth-century ships being unloaded of their colonial cargoes on London’s Old Custom House Quay. Most of the goods imported into England from the American colonies were produced by slave labor. SOURCE: Samuel Scott, “Old Custom House Quay” Collection. V&A IMAGES, THE VICTORIA AND ALBERT MUSEUM, LONDON. 46© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

47 Slavery and the Economics of Empire Map: Triangular Trade Across the Atlantic The slave trade was the foundation of the British economy. Created a large colonial market for exports that stimulated manufacturing Generated huge profits that served as a source of investments Supplied raw cotton to fuel British industrialization Chart: Value of Colonial Exports by Region, Annual Average, © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

48 48 Map 4.3 Triangular Trade Across the Atlantic This pattern of commerce among Europe, Africa, and the Americas became known as the “triangular trade.” Sailors called the voyage of slave ships from Africa to America the “Middle Passage” because it formed the crucial middle section of this trading triangle.

49 FIGURE 4.3 Value of Colonial Exports by Region, Annual Average, 1768–72 With tobacco, rice, grain, and indigo, the Chesapeake and Lower South accounted for nearly two-thirds of colonial exports in the late eighteenth century. SOURCE: James F. Shepherd and Gary M. Walton, Shipping, Maritime Trade and the Economic Development of Colonial America (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,1972), 211 –27. 49© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

50 The Politics of Mercantilism Mercantilism Colonies existed to benefit the mother country The economy should be controlled by the state The economy was a “zero-sum” game where profits for one country meant losses for another. Competition between states was to hoard the fixed amount of wealth that existed in the world. 50© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

51 The New England artist John Greenwood painted this amusing view of New England sea captains in Surinam in By the early eighteenth century, New England merchant traders like these had become important participants in the traffic in slaves and sugar to and from the West Indies. Northern ports thus became important pivots in the expanding commercial network linking slave plantations with Atlantic markets. SOURCE: John Greenwood, “Sea Captains Carousing in Surinam,” Oil on bed ticking, 95.9 x cm. Saint Louis Art Museum, Museum Purchase. 51© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

52 British Colonial Regulation European nations created state trading monopolies to manage the commerce of its empires. The Navigation Acts passed between 1651 and 1696 created the legal and institutional structure of Britain’s colonial system. The Wool, Hat, and Iron acts reduced colonial competition with British manufacturing interests. Great Britain did not allow colonial tariffs, banking, or local coinage. The increase in colonial trade led Britain to pursue a policy of “salutary neglect.” 52© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

53 Wars for Empire The English, French, and Spanish struggled for control over North America and the Caribbean in a series of wars that had their European counterparts. Wars in the southern region of the colonies focused on slavery. Wars in the northern region were generally focused on the control of the Indian trade. 53© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

54 54

55 The Colonial Economy The colonial economy grew rapidly. The New England shipbuilding was stimulated by trade. Benefits for northern port cities Participation in the slave trade to the South and West Indies Trading foodstuffs for sugar in foreign colonies Between the 1730s and 1770s, the commercial economies of the North and South were becoming integrated. 55© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

56 Part Eight Slavery, Prosperity and Freedom 56© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

57 The Social Structure of the Slave Colonies Slavery produced a highly stratified class society. Elite planters held more than half of the land and sixty percent of the wealth. Small planters and farmers made up half of the adult white male population. Many kept one to four slaves. Throughout the plantation region, landless men constituted about forty percent of the population. Work included renting land, tenant farming, hiring out as overseers, or becoming indentured servants. 57© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

58 White Skin Privilege Skin color determined status. Legal and other racial distinctions were constant reminders of the freedom of white colonists and the debasement of all African Americans, free or slave. Relationships between free whites and enslaved blacks produced a mixed-ancestry group known as mulattoes. Majority of mulattoes were slaves. Racism created contempt between African Americans and colonists. 58© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

59 Thomas Jefferson placed this advertisement in the Virginia Gazette on September 14, Americans need to seriously consider the historical relationship between the prosperity and freedom of white people and the oppression and exploitation of Africans and African Americans. 59© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

60 Part Nine Conclusion 60© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

61 61© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.


Download ppt "Chapter 4 Slavery and Empire 1441 - 1770 Chapter 4 Slavery and Empire 1441 - 1770 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. OUT OF MANY A HISTORY OF THE AMERICAN."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google