Presentation on theme: "Chapter 20 Africa and Africans in the Age of the Atlantic Slave Trade."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 20 Africa and Africans in the Age of the Atlantic Slave Trade
Themes of the Chapter Sub-Saharan Africa (a dependent zone) had a history of being impacted by outsiders (Islam) but still largely moved at its own pace Increasing linkage between Africa and the wider world Forced migration has major impacts but Africa is still largely independent with its own traditions
The Atlantic Slave Trade Dominated by Portuguese, Dutch, English and French respectively First Contact: based on trade (goods, not slaves), mutual appreciation and missionary work
Trend Toward Expansion Sugar= impetus for expansion 1450 to 1850 = 12 million Africans shipped on Middle Passage (80% in 18 th c.) Volume increases from 16 th to 18 th c. Brazil receives 40% of all slaves (high mortality, low fertility—contrast to N.A.) Muslims take 3 million off the East Coast
Slavery & Human Society Exists in many societies=indentured servants, convict laborers, debt peon, chattel slaves) Easier to enslave different civ. than own (exploit the differences) Enlightenment helped to give birth to abolitionist ideas As many as 20 million modern-day slaves (2008)
Demographic Patterns East Coast (Muslim)= mostly women Atlantic = young men African = often kept women and children for own use Results: In Africa, pop. could’ve been cut by half In Americas, ratio was more men to women
Organization of the Trade Control reflects the political situation in Europe Portuguese were first, followed by Northern Europeans Each established forts, traded w/ local rulers, established currency for trade (“Indies Piece”) Profit motive
QUESTION SLIDE: African Societies, Slavery & the Slave Trade How did the Atlantic slave trade change earlier slave patterns already inherent in African society?
Slaving & African Politics W. & C. African states= weak and unstable Presence of Europeans shifts power from costal states to inland states (direct access to weapons but free from direct foreign influence).
Asante and Dahomey Asante= access to weapons, control of gold mines, slave trade helped them remain dominant until the 1820s Dahomey= In 1720s, created an autocratic regime based on trading slaves 9also had firearms)
East Africa & The Sudan Swahili Coast= still producing luxury items for Middle Eastern markets (much of it produced with slave labor) Muslim participation in the slave trade Central African states gain power Renewed Islamization in the late 18 th c. resulted in greater cultural change
White Settlers & Africans in South Africa Various Bantu-speaking chiefdoms vie for power and resources Dutch farmers (Afrikaners) establish colonies at Cape Town but fight Africans and British for land British gain control in 1815 (some Dutch settle Orange Free State and Transvaal)
The Mfecane & the Zulus Shaka Zulu organizes the most effective African resistance to European rule to date but also destroys rival tribes Shaka’s successors continue the Mfecane (time of wars and wandering) until defeat in 1870s Creates tribal tension that becomes the pattern of later conflicts
The African Diaspora Refers to the forced migration of Africans to the New World and their contributions to that society Slavery becomes the way in which Africa is brought into the world economy, for better or worse
Slave Lives Obviously brutal, but slavery does not strip Africans of their culture, especially religion, oral traditions, art and music.
Africans in the Americas Primary workforce for plantations in N. & S. America. Also used in mining (especially Peru) In some places, slaves outnumbered whites, creating fear among slave-owners which lead to tighter controls of the slave population
American Slave Societies Africans were at the bottom of the social scale in the New World Africans were a lager part of the population in Latin America, and their traditions had more of an influence on slave life than in N. America, where numbers were smaller.
The People & Gods in Exile Family units were common, but were maintained only at the whim of the owner Africans relied on their religion for support, and blended it with new World traditions, like Christianity Resistance was more common in Latin America than N. America b/c it was easier to form independent communities
The End of the Slave Trade & Abolition Abolition movements come from outside forces (Enlightenment) Economic self-interest was not the major for ending the slave trade 1807= slave trade abolished 1888 = world slavery abolished
Africa & the World Africa enters the world economy, for better or worse Many African kingdoms forced to adapt in ways that will weaken them to further European interference Legacy of the slave trade lingers long after slavery was abolished