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WHAT IS A SLAVE? Sex - Male or female Age -

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1 WHAT IS A SLAVE? Sex - Male or female Age -
JOB DESCRIPTION OF A SLAVE: Sex - Male or female Age - Any age; from 4 until death Characteristics - Poor and vulnerable; prisoners captured in tribal wars; Africans captured by European slave traders. Hours - A slave is someone who is forced to work through violence or the threat of it, they are under the complete control of their ‘owners’.. They are treated as property and sometimes bought and sold. They have no rights, no individual freedom. Up to 20 a day, sometimes more. Days per week - Up to 7; 365 days a year. None Holidays - Sick Leave - None Health and safety provision - None Pay - Nothing Accommodation - Very basic

2 The Atlantic Trade The Triangular Trade

3 What is Triangular Trade?


5 The Triangular Trade

6 West African Coast

7 Definition Triangular Trade:
Trade routes between Africa, Europe and the Americas during the Atlantic Slave Trade.

8 Triangular Trade The demand for labor in the western hemisphere stimulated a profitable three-legged trading pattern European manufactured goods, namely cloth and metal wares, especially firearms, went to Africa where they were exchanged for slaves The slaves were then shipped to the Caribbean and Americas where they were sold for cash or sometimes bartered for sugar or molasses Then the ships returned to Europe loaded with American products

9 Triangular Slave Trade
Europe Africa The Americas

10 Triangular Trade Europeans transported manufactured goods to the west coast of Africa. There, traders exchanged these goods for captured Africans. Aim: How did the Atlantic slave trade effect Africa? Do Now: What is the legacy of Columbus?

11 Maps of the Triangular Trade

12 Two main patterns of Triangular Trade
Rum from New England to West Africa Slaves to sugar islands Molasses home to the New England distilleries Manufactured goods from England to Africa Goods exchanged for slaves taken to West Indies. Profits used to purchase sugar (and other goods) for England.

13 The Route Aim: How did the Atlantic slave trade effect Africa?
Do Now: What is the legacy of Columbus?

14 “Molasses to rum to slaves
Who sail the ships back to Boston Ladened with gold, see it gleam Whose fortunes are made in the triangle trade Hail slavery, the New England dream!” Song from the play 1776

15 Old World versus New World Slavery

16 Old World vs. New World Slavery
Classical world and medieval slavery was not based on racial distinctions. Ancient world did not necessarily view slavery as a permanent condition. Slaves did not necessarily hold the loest status in early civilizations. Slaves in the old world often were symbols of prestige, luxury and power (true even in the ne world prior to European Colonization).

GROWTH OF ABOLITION MOVEMENT, 18TH CENTURY. THE TRANS ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE THE STONE AGE 1807 – BRITAIN DECLARES SLAVE TRADE ILLEGAL 1808 – USA DECLARES SLAVE TRADE ILLEGAL The Portuguese started the Atlantic slave trade, soon to be joined by the Spanish. Christopher Columbus’ conquest of the Caribbean virtually wiped out the native Indians. They were to be replaced by slaves brought from Africa. Hunter-gatherer societies did not have enough food to feed extra mouths, so did not have slaves. 1833 – SLAVERY DECLARED ILLEGAL ACROSS THE BRITISH EMPIRE. – AMERICAN CIVIL WAR ANCIENT CIVILISATIONS MEDIEVAL EUROPE All Ancient civilisations - whether in Europe, the Middle East, Asia or the Americas - made use of slavery.. Western slavery goes back 10,000 years to Mesopatamia (present day Iraq). Slavery often took place in the name of religion – Christians, Muslims and Jews all took part. GLADIATORS FORCED LABOUR SLAVE GIRLS

Europeans began to dominate the African trade from the 16th century onwards. A series of trading forts were built along the African coast to protect European traders interests. THE ARAB TRADE Slaves had been transported across the Sarahan region to the Middle East since Ancient times. Slave market in Yemen showing African slaves, 13 century AD. Slaves were brought to the coastal areas where they were sold to European slave traders

19 History of African Slavery
Slavery has existed since antiquity It became common in Africa after the Bantu migrations spread agriculture to all parts of the continent

20 The Slave Trade in Africa
Ancient and universal phenomena African kingdoms and Islamic nations conduct brisk commerce Not race based Arab merchants and West African kings imported white slaves from Europe West African slave trade dealt mainly in women and children who would serve as concubines and servants European demand for agricultural laborers changed slave trading patterns

21 Slave Trade Atlantic Slave Trade: buying and selling of Africans into slavery. Between 1500 and 1600, nearly 300,000 Africans were transported to the Americas. Most slaves were sold by Spain. They worked throughout South/North America working on plantations and in mines. Aim: How did the Atlantic slave trade effect Africa? Do Now: What is the legacy of Columbus?

22 Origins of Slave Trade: How did it Begin?

23 How Does The Slave Trade Begin?
Early 1400’s – Europeans sent explorers to West Africa to map it and look for gold They traded iron, copper, fish, sugar, ivory, gold, and pepper. Europeans wanted to convert Africans to Christianity

24 How Does The Slave Trade Begin?
Europeans required a large labor force to make their American colonies profitable 1st used Native Americans Then looked to Africans because of their numbers and their lack of modernization

25 The Origins of the Atlantic Slave Trade
In 15th century, slaves used as domestic servants on Iberian Peninsula Other European countries had large work forces and little need for slaves Purchased from African traders Portugal and Spain dominated slave trade in 16th century Dutch dominated 17th century English dominated 18th century

26 European Slave Trade By the time Europeans arrived in Sub-Saharan Africa in the 15th and 16th Centuries, the slave trade was a well-established feature in African society A detailed system for capturing, selling, and distributing slaves had been in place for over 500 years With the arrival of the Europeans and the demand for slaves in the Americas, the slave trade expanded dramatically

27 How was slavery justified?
Early civilizations - accident or bad luck. Aristotle - notion of the “natural slave” Christian world - ‘Curse of Ham” 18th Century European - pseudo-scientific racism.

28 Estimated Annual Exports of Slaves from Western Africa to the Americas, 1500–1700
Figure 2–1. Estimated Annual Exports of Slaves from Western Africa to the Americas, 1500–1700. Source: John Thornton, Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400–1680 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992), 118.

29 Estimated Slave Imports by Destination, 1451–1870

30 Why Africans for slavery?

31 Why was Africa vulnerable to the Slave Trade?
Political Fragmentation Sailing Routes Availability of People (high birth rate) Civilizations and Skills (metalworking, farming, herding) No diplomatic repercussions.

32 Why not others? Disease Knowledge of terrain
Different Agricultural Skills Supply deficit Nation American women worked - not men!

33 Why did European powers eventually turn to African labor?
Labor supply was insufficient. Epidemics reduced the native population by 50% - 90%. Evidence of deeply help racist sentiment. Racism was a consequence of racial slavery as well as a cause. In English colonies the supply of servants decreased.

34 Why was there a slave trade?
Demand for Goods Demand for Slaves

35 European Countries Taking Part in Slavery

36 Countries Participating
Britain Denmark France Holland Portugal Spain Norway

37 Portugal : Prince Henry the Navigator paid for voyages along the West Coast of Africa in search of fishing banks. 1441, Antam Gonclaves captured 10 Africans near Cape Bojador. In 1481, Portugal built the 1st European fort called Fort Elmina. Prince Henry the Navigator

38 Fort Elmina

39 Portuguese Slave Traders
Portuguese began capturing slaves in Africa in the 15th Century, but quickly learned it was easier to buy them In Europe, slaves usually worked as miners, porters, or domestic servants since free peasants and serfs cultivated the land Europeans and Africans Meet to Trade

40 Portuguese Slave Trade
When the Portuguese discovered the Azores, Madeiras, Cape Verde Islands, and Sao Tome in the 15th Century they were all uninhabited The Portuguese population was too small to provide a large number of colonists The sugar plantations required a large labor force Slaves filled this demand Sao Tome Cape Verde

41 Slave Trade and Sugar By the 1520s some 2,000 slaves per year were shipped to Sao Tome Some thereafter, Portuguese entrepreneurs extended the use of slave labor to South America Eventually Brazil would become the wealthiest of the sugar-producing lands in the western hemisphere

42 Katharina Although the overwhelming majority of Africans who were caught up in the Atlantic slave trade went to the Americas, a few reached Europe. This sixteenth-century drawing by German artist Albrecht Dürer depicts Katharina, a servant of a Portuguese official who lived in Antwerp. SOURCE: Albrecht Dürer (1471–1528), “Portrait of the Moorish Woman Katharina.” Drawing. Uffizi Florence, Italy. Photograph © Foto Marburg/Art Resource, NY.

43 Spain They needed slaves to work on their plantations in South America & in the Caribbean. In the 16th century, Charles I issued the 1st Asiento, a license to import slaves into Spanish Colonies. This gave Spain a monoploy on the slave trade. King Charles I

44 Slavery Expands As disease reduced the native populations in Spanish conquered territories, the Spanish began relying on imported slaves from Africa In 1518, the first shipment of slaves went directly from west Africa to the Caribbean where the slaves worked on sugar plantations By the 1520s, the Spanish had introduced slaves to Mexico, Peru, and Central America where they worked as cultivators and miners By the early 17th Century, the British had introduced slaves to North America

45 Asiento

46 England In 1662, Sir John Hawkins took 3 ships to Sierra Leone & captured 300 slaves.

47 England Hawkins later convinced Queen Elizabeth I to participate in the slave trade.

48 England They began to bring slaves to the Caribbean.  They formed the Royal African Company in This allowed English colonies in America to easily buy slaves from English traders.

49 England At the beginning only a few slaves came to English colonies.
But when the big tobacco, cotton and rice plantations grew in the colonies in the south the slave trade increased. At the conclusion of the War of Spanish Succession, the Treaty of Utrecht gave to Great Britain a thirty-year asiento, or contract, to supply an unlimited number of slaves to the Spanish colonies, and 500 tons of goods per year. This gave England the monopoly on the slave trade.

50 Stage One: Obtaining Slaves in Africa

51 Geography of Slavery Enslaved Africans mostly came from the area stretching from the Senegal River in Africa to Angola. Europeans divided the area into five regions: Upper Guinea Coast Ivory Coast Lower Guinea Coast Gabon Angola


53 Stage One Ships left Europe loaded with goods, such as guns, tools, textiles & rum. Crews with guns went ashore to capture slaves. Slaves were obtained by: 1. Kidnapping 2. Trading 3. People were given by chiefs as tributes (gifts) 4. Chiefs would send people who were in debt 5. Chiefs would send criminals through judicial process 6. Prisoners of tribal wars were also sent.

54 The Atlantic Slave Trade
575,000 Slaves 3,850,000 Slaves 4,700,000 Slaves

55 Who became slaves? Sale of Slaves by Tribal chiefs
Tegbesu is shown here entertaining some European slave traders. King Tegbesu of Dahomy, made around HK$3,000,000 from selling Africans in about 1750. Sale of Slaves by Tribal chiefs Prisoners of Tribal Wars. Potential plotters against the Tribal chief Kidnappings Criminals Royal Wives

56 Capture The original capture of slaves was almost always violent
As European demand grew, African chieftains organized raiding parties to seize individuals from neighboring societies Others launched wars specifically for the purpose of capturing slaves

57 Goree, or Slave-Stick A French naval officer, in the Angola region in the late eighteenth century, describes how slave traders used "a forked branch which opens exactly to the size of a neck so the head can't pass through it. The forked branch is pierced with two holes so that an iron pin comes across the neck of the slave . . ., so that the smallest movement is sufficient to stop him and even to strangle him”

58 Goree, or Slave-Stick


60 Forced Participation African Chiefs did resist in the beginning; however, they needed weapons for defence. The Europeans were too powerful; therefore, any effort to resistance was unsuccessful If chiefs did supply slaves, they were threatened to be taken as slaves.

61 History of African Slavery
Most slaves in Africa were war captives Once enslaved, an individual had no personal or civil rights Owners could order slaves to do any kind of work, punish them, and sell them as chattel Most slaves worked as cultivators


63 TREK TO THE SLAVE COAST Captured slaves often had to trek hundreds of miles from the interior to the slave coast, where the European slave ships awaited them. They were linked together in ‘coffles’, iron, or shown here, wooden collars and clinking chains.

64 African Captives in Yokes

65 Weak Slaves were abandoned to await their death.

66 Slave Trade in the Congo

67 Arrival at the Slave Coast
PHYSICAL CHECKS A dealer checks the condition of newly arrived slaves for bad teeth or grey hair. BRANDING Once bought the slave was then branded with the owner’s initials or mark. Most brands were of silver because wounds healed faster than those made with iron.

68 Slaves were held in prisons along the west coast of Africa.
They were waiting to put on slaves ships. Those that journeyed from the interior and were not fit for the ship were left on the shores to die

69 Cape Coast Castle, W. Africa

Slaves on reaching the coast and awaitingthe arrival of slave ships were kept in slave barracks called ‘barracoons’. Shown below, are other methods of detaining slaves.

71 “Black” Gold for Sale!

72 Stage Two: Middle Passage

73 Stage Two: The Middle Passage
Ships sailed across the Atlantic Ocean to the Americas The journey took 8-10 weeks Some Africans tried to jump ship, refused to eat and rebelled. Loss of a slave’s life was a loss of $ for the sailors.

74 The Middle Passage

75 The Horrors of the Middle Passage
Aim: How did the Atlantic slave trade effect Africa? Do Now: What is the legacy of Columbus?

76 The Middle Passage

77 Stage Two “Loose packing” meant that the captains would take on board fewer slaves in hope to reduce sickness and death. “Tight packing” meant that the captains would carry as many slaves as their ship could hold, as they believed that many blacks would die on the voyage anyway

78 Middle Passage This is the voyage that brought captured Africans to the West Indies and later to North/South America. Cruelty characterized this journey. The Africans were packed into ships with beatings. They suffered horrible disease and abuse. Many committed suicide by throwing themselves overboard. Aim: How did the Atlantic slave trade effect Africa? Do Now: What is the legacy of Columbus?

79 Slave Ship Plan

80 The Voyage Aim: How did the Atlantic slave trade effect Africa?
Do Now: What is the legacy of Columbus?

81 “Coffin” Position: Onboard a Slave Ship

82 Middle Passage Most ships provided slaves with enough room to sit upright, but not enough to stand Others forced slaves to lie in chains with barely 20 inches space between them

83 Middle Passage Tight packing - belly to back, chained in twos, wrist to ankle (660+), naked. Loose packing - shoulder to shoulder chained wrist to wrist or ankle to ankle. Men and woman separated (men placed towards bow, women toward stern). Fed once of twice a day and brought on deck for limited times.

84 Slave Ship Interior

85 Middle Passage Journey lasted 6-8 weeks.
Due to high mortality rate, cargo was insured (reimbursed for drowning accidents but not for deaths from disease of sickness) Common to dump your cargo for sickness or food shortages. Slave mutinies on board ships were common (1 out of every 10 voyages across the Atlantic experience a revolt). Covert resistance (attempted suicide, jumped overboard, refusal to eat).

86 Onboard the Slave Ship

87 Middle Passage Crews attempted to keep as many slaves alive as possible to maximize profits, but treatment was extremely cruel Some slaves refused to eat and crew members used tools to pry open their mouths and force-feed them Sick slaves were cast overboard to prevent infection from spreading During the early days of the slave trade, mortality rates were as high as 50% As the volume of trade increased and conditions improved (bigger ships, more water, better nourishment and facilities), mortality eventually declined to about 5%

88 Middle Passage The time a ship took to make the Middle Passage depended upon several factors including its point of origin in Africa, the destination in the Americas, and conditions at sea such as winds, currents, and storms. With good conditions and few delays, a 17th Century Portuguese slave ship typically took 30 to 50 days to sail from Angola to Brazil. British, French, and Dutch ships transporting slaves between Guinea and their Caribbean island possessions took 60 to 90 days. As larger merchant ships were introduced, these times reduced somewhat

89 Middle Passage Crowded, unsanitary conditions
Slaves rode on planks 66” x 15” only 20”– 25” of headroom Males chained together in pairs Kept apart from women and children High mortality rates One-third perish between capture and embarkation

90 Provisions for the Middle Passage
Slaves fed twice per day Poor and insufficient diet Vegetable pulps, stews, and fruits Denied meat or fish Ten people eating from one bucket Unwashed hands spread disease Malnutrition, weakness, depression, death

91 Sanitation, Disease, and Death
Astronomically high before 1750 Poor sanitation No germ theory prior to early 20th century Malaria, yellow fever, smallpox, dysentery After 1750 Faster ships Hygiene and diet better understood Early forms of smallpox vaccinations

92 African Women on Slave Ships
Less protection against unwanted sexual attention from European men African women worth half the price of African men in the Caribbean markets Separation from male slaves made them easier targets Historian Barbara Bush Middle passage horrors depressed sex drives

93 Middle Passage Statistics
10-16 million Africans forcibly transported across the Atlantic from 2 million died during the Middle Passage (10-15%) Another 15-30% dies during the march to the coast. For every 100 slaves that reached the New World, another 40 died in Africa or during the Middle Passage.

94 Revolt Aboard a Slave Ship




98 Resistance and Revolt at Sea
Uprisings were common Most rebellions before sailing Some preferred death to bondage Justification for harsh treatment by slavers


100 African Captives Thrown Overboard
Sharks followed the slave ships across the Atlantic!

101 Destination of Captives
Caribbean 40% Brazil 40% Latin America 10% British North America 10%

102 Stage Three: Arrival in New World, Auctions, and Plantation Life

103 Stage Three Africans would be sold at auctions in the Americas
The ships’ captains would use the $ from their sale to buy a 3rd cargo of raw materials: sugar, spices or tobacco. They sold this for a further large profit in Europe. In Europe, they would convert the raw materials into finished product.

104 Arrival When the slave ship docked, the slaves would be taken off the ship and placed in a pen There they would be washed and their skin covered with grease, or sometimes tar, to make them look healthy (and therefore more valuable) They would also be branded with a hot iron to identify them as slaves

105 Landing and Sale in the West Indies
Pre-sale Bathed and exercised Oiled bodies to conceal blemishes and bruises Hemp plugs

106 Nineteenth-Century Engraving
This nineteenth-century engraving suggests the humiliation Africans endured as they were subjected to physical inspections before being sold.

107 Seasoning Modify behavior and attitude
Preparation for North American planters

108 Seasoning (cont.) Creoles Old Africans New Africans
slaves born in the Americas worth three times price of unseasoned Africans Old Africans Lived in the Americas for some time New Africans Had just survived the middle passage Creoles and Old Africans instruct New Africans

109 Negros for Sale? What is the first thought you had when you read this?
How would a wealthy colonial American have looked at this? What would an African think when they saw this?

110 Auctions Slaves were sold at auctions
Buyers physically inspected the slaves, to include their teeth as an indication of the slave’s age Auctioneers had slaves perform various acts to demonstrate their physical abilities


112 Notice of a Slave Auction

113 Auctions “We were not many days in the merchant’s custody, before we were sold after their usual manner... On a signal given, (as the beat of a drum), buyers rush at once into the yard where the slaves are confined, and make a choice of that parcel they like best. The noise and clamor with which this is attended, and the eagerness visible in the countenances of the buyers, serve not a little to increase the apprehension of terrified Africans... In this manner, without scruple, are relations and friends separated, most of them never to see each other again. I remember in the vessel in which I was brought over... there were several brothers who, in the sale, were sold in different lots; and it was very moving on this occasion, to see and hear their cries in parting.” Olaudah Equiano, The Interesting Narrative of Olaudah Equiano


115 First Slave Auction New Amsterdam (Dutch New York City - 17c)

116 Slave Auction in the Southern U. S.

117 Auctions There were 3 ways slaves were auctioned off: Public Auctions:
- They put tar on the slaves to hide any sores and cuts - Slaves were inspected - An auction to took place and the higher bidder would get to purchase the slave. - Bids were taken as long as an inch of a candle burned. - Slaves were branded - Families were separated - They were given a European name.

118 Inspection and Sale


120 Slave Master Brands

121 Auctions 2. Private Auctions: Similar to public auctions
They were indoors and red markers would be placed on the door to indicate an auction.


123 Auctions A Scramble: They would take place on the docks or on the deck of the ship There would be a fixed price per head Slave owners would go in and grab who they wanted to purchase.


125 Auctions American born slaves who had skills were the most expensive
African born slaves were less $, as they had to be “broken in” Age, sex and skills determined the cost Slaves with a lot of scars were considered too rebellious

126 30 Lashes

127 Whipped Slave, early 19c

128 A Slave Lynching

129 Negro Hung Alive by Waist

130 The End of the Journey Survival One-third died Adapted to new foods
Men died at a greater rate than women Adapted to new foods Learned a new language Creole dialect well enough to obey commands Psychological ~ no longer suicidal Africans retained culture despite the hardships and cruel treatment Created bonds with shipmates that replaced blood kinship

131 Volume: How Many Slaves?

132 Volume of the Slave Trade
Late 15th and 16th Century… 2,000 Africans exported each year 17th Century… 20,000 per year 18th Century… 55,000 per year 1780s… 88,000 per year All told, some 12 million Africans were transported to the western hemisphere via the Atlantic Slave Trade Another 4 million died resisting capture or during captivity before arriving at their destination

133 Growth of African American Population
1820 1.77 million 13% free 1830 2.33 million 14% free 1840 2.87 million 1850 3.69 million 12% free 1860 4.44 million 11% free


135 Effects: Forms of Resistance to Slavery

136 Forms of Resistance Work slowly Sabotage Runaway Revolt
“Maroons” gathered together and built self-governing communities Revolt Slaves outnumbered the owners and supervisors so revolt was always a threat While causing much destruction, revolts were usually able to be suppressed because the owners had access to arms, horses, and military forces

137 Slave Resistance: Passive and Active Resistance
Breaking tools Faking illness Staging slowdowns Committing acts of arson and sabotage Running Away Underground Railroad

138 Saint-Dominique The only revolt to successfully abolish slavery as an institution occurred on the French sugar colony of Saint Dominique in 1793 The slaves declared independence from France, renamed the country Haiti, and established a self-governing republic in 1804 Francois-Dominique Toussaint was one of the military leaders of the Saint-Dominique revolt

139 Slave Revolts Denmark Vesey The Amistad Nat Turner
Late 18th Century slave revolts erupted in Guadeloupe, Grenada, Jamaica, Surinam, Haiti, Venezuela, Winward Islands Within the United States slave revolts were common as well. Richmond, Virginia, Louisiana, Charleston, South Carolina. Denmark Vesey The Amistad Nat Turner

140 Abolition Movement: Ending Slave Trade and Institution of Slavery

141 Ending the Slave Trade 1700’s – European thinkers begin to oppose slavery Abolition Movement – movement to end slavery 1807 – Britain outlawed trading 1834 – Britain outlawed slavery It continued in USA until 1865

142 The Ending of the Atlantic Slave Trade
Cruelties help end Atlantic slave trade English abolitionists Thomas Clarkson, William Wilberforce, and Granville Sharp Moral crusade and economy less dependent on slave trade Great Britain bans Atlantic slave trade in 1807 Patrols African coast to enforce United States Congress outlaws slave trade in 1808 Guinea and western central African kingdoms oppose banning slave trade

143 Abolitionist Symbol, 19c

144 Abolitionists Former Slaves Politicians Religious Leaders
Olaudah Equiano Politicians William Wilberforce Religious Leaders John Wesley Revolutionaries Simon Bolivar

145 Olaudah Equiano ( ) 1789  wrote and published, The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa the African.

146 Former Slaves: Olaudah Equiano
Equiano was originally from Benin and was captured by slave raiders when he was 10 Spent 21 years as a slave and was able to save up enough money to buy his freedom In 1789 he published The Interesting Narrative of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa, the African, Written by Himself Sold the book throughout Britain, undertaking lecture tours and actively campaigning to abolish the slave trade

147 Politicians: William Wilberforce
English philanthropist elected to Parliament in 1780 Delivered a stirring abolitionist speech to the House of Commons in 1789 and repeatedly introduced the Abolition Bill until it passed in 1807

148 Slavery Abolished in the Britain Empire
1807 = The slave trade was abolished in the British Empire, which meant that no slaves would be carried from Africa in British ships. 1834 = Emancipation Act stated that slaves under 6 years old were freed; field hands over 6 had to work for their owners for 6 more years; house slaves had to work for 10 more years. Britain gave 20 million pounds in compensation to former slave owners and slaves received nothing. 1838 all slaves were given complete freedom Slavery in the USA was not abolished until 1865

149 Religious Leaders: John Wesley
Founder of the Methodist Church Published Thoughts Upon Slavery in 1774 On his deathbed he was reading Equiano’s Narrative

150 Revolutionaries: Simon Bolivar
Inspired by George Washington and Enlightenment ideas, Bolivar took up arms against Spanish rule in 1811 Freed slaves who joined his forces Provided constitutional guarantees of free status for all residents of Gran Columbia (Venezuela, Columbia, and Ecuador)

151 Timeline for Abolition of the Slave Trade
1803: Denmark abolishes slave trade. 1807: Britain abolishes slave trade. 1807: U.S. passes legislation banning slave trade, to take effect 1808. 1810: British negotiate an agreement with Portugal calling for gradual abolition of slave trade in the South Atlantic. 1815: At the Congress of Vienna, the British pressure Spain, Portugal, France and the Netherlands to agree to abolish the slave trade (though Spain and Portugal are permitted a few years of continued slaving to replenish labor supplies). 1817: Great Britain and Spain sign a treaty prohibiting the slave trade: Spain agrees to end the slave trade north of the equator immediately, and south of the equator in British naval vessels are given right to search suspected slavers. Still, loopholes in the treaty undercut its goals and the slave trade continues strongly until 1830.

152 Slavery Continues Abolishing the slave trade did not end slavery
British ships patrolled the west coast of Africa to halt illegal trade The last documented ship that carried slaves across the Atlantic arrived in Cuba in 1867

153 Timeline for Abolition of Slavery
1813: Gradual emancipation adopted in Argentina. 1814: Gradual emancipation begins in Colombia. 1823: Slavery abolished in Chile. 1824: Slavery abolished in Central America. 1829: Slavery abolished in Mexico. 1831: Slavery abolished in Bolivia. 1833: Abolition of Slavery Act passed in Britain which results in complete emancipation by 1838. 1842: Slavery abolished in Uruguay. 1848: Slavery abolished in all French and Danish colonies. 1851: Slavery abolished in Ecuador.

154 Timeline for Abolition of Slavery
1854: Slavery abolished in Peru and Venezuela. 1863: Emancipation Proclamation issued in the U.S. 1863: Slavery abolished in all Dutch colonies. 1865: Slavery abolished in the U.S. as a result of the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution and the end of the Civil War. 1871: Gradual emancipation initiated in Brazil. 1873: Slavery abolished in Puerto Rico. 1886: Slavery abolished in Cuba. 1888: Slavery abolished in Brazil. 1960s: Slavery abolished in Saudi Arabia and Angola

155 Emancipation Proclamation
Issued by President Lincoln after the Federal victory at Antietam “That on the first day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, all persons held as slaves within any State or designated part of a State, the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United States, shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free…”

156 Impact of Emancipation Proclamation on Confederate Diplomatic Efforts
“… the feeling against slavery in England is so strong that no public man there dares extend a hand to help us… There is no government in Europe that dares help us in a struggle which can be suspected of having for its result, directly or indirectly, the fortification or perpetuation of slavery. Of that I am certain” William Yancey, Confederate politician

157 Why did the slave trade end?
Industrialization Less Need for Slaves

158 Slave Exports and Profits
Early 18th Century - 36,000 per year During 1780’s - 80,000 per year Between ,000 captives/year on average. 17th Century - slave sold in the Americas for about $150\ Slave trade illegal in Britain in 1807, US 1808, France 1831, Spain 1834. Once declared illegal prices went much higher s prime field hand $ $1500 (about $18,00 in 1997 dollars).

159 Effects/Impact: Legacy of Slavery

160 Legacy of Slavery Agriculture Rice Sweet Potatoes Herding Basketry
Working Style (cooperative labor) Planting (heel to toe) Food Spices (red pepper, sesame, cajun) Okra, black eyed peas Dishes Gumbo, jambalaya Ash and hot cakes Sweet potato pie Music Banjo Drum Blues/Jazz Call and response Spirituals Religion Call and response patterns Emotional services Multiple spirits and souls Voodoo Tales and Words Trickster takes (Anansi the Spider, Brer Rabbit, Bugs Bunny) Words like bogus, bug, phony, yam, tote, gumbo, tater, jamboree, jazz. Creole Language

161 Impact of Slave Trade in Africa
Mixed Some states like Rwanda largely escaped the slave trade through resistance and geography Some like Senegal in west Africa were hit very hard Other societies benefited economically from selling slaves, trading, or operating ports As abolition took root in the 19th Century some African merchants even complained about the lose of their livelihood On the whole, however, the slave trade devastated Africa “Door of No Return” on Goree Island off the coast of Senegal

162 Impact of Slave Trade in Africa
The Atlantic Slave Trade deprived Africa of about 16 million people and the continuing Islamic slave trade consumed another several million Overall the African population rose thanks partly to the introduction of more nutritious food from the Americas Peanuts were one of several crops introduced to Africa from the Americas

163 Impact of Slave Trade in Africa
The slave trade distorted African sex ratios Approximately 2/3 of all exported slaves were male Slavers preferred young men between the ages of 14 and 35 to maximize investment potential and be suitable for hard labor The sexual imbalance in some parts of Africa such as Angola encouraged polygamy and caused women to take on duties that had previously been the responsibility of men

164 Impact of Slave Trade in Africa
The slave trade brought firearms to such African societies as Asante, Dahomey, and Oyo and this increased violence In the 18th Century, Dahomey expanded rapidly, absorbed neighboring societies, and fielded an army that was largely a slave-raiding force

165 African Diaspora The slave trade sent millions of Africans overseas this created a scattering of individuals Survivors struggled to hold on to their culture African people and their culture of food, music, dance, and tradition was spread across a wide area.

166 African Diaspora Obviously, the main contribution slaves brought to the western hemisphere was an incredible amount of labor, without which the prosperous new societies could not have developed However they brought other contributions as well: Slaves built hybrid cultural traditions made up of African, European, and American elements Influenced language by creating tongues that drew on several African and European languages

167 Gullah For several reasons, Africans, both as slaves and free, enjoyed a relative amount of self-sufficiency in the Sea Islands off of South Carolina Their culture maintained much of its original characteristics as it encountered American culture For example, most of the Gullah vocabulary is of English origin, but the grammar and major elements of pronunciation come from a number of West African languages

168 Gullah beat on ayun: “mechanic”; literally, “beat-on-iron”
troot ma-wt: “a truthful person”; literally, “truth mouth” hush ma-wt: “hush mouth”; literally, “hush mouth” sho ded: “cemetery”; literally, “sure dead” tebl tappa: “preacher”; literally, “table-tapper” ty oonuh ma-wt: “Hush, stop talking”; literally, “Tie your mouth” krak teet: “to speak”; literally, “crack teeth” i han shaht pay-shun: “He steals”; literally, “His hand is short of patience”

169 African Diaspora Impacted on cuisine by introducing African foods to Caribbean and American societies For example, combined African okra with European-style sautéed vegetables and American shellfish to make gumbo Introduced rice cultivation to tropical and subtropical regions Fashioned distinctive crafts such as pottery and baskets Sea Island basket

170 African Diaspora Many slaves were either Christians when they left Africa or converted to Christianity after their arrival in the western hemisphere Their Christianity was not exactly like European Christianity and made considerable room for African traditions Associated African deities with Christian saints Relied heavily on African rituals such as drumming, dancing, and sacrificing animals Preserved their belief in spirits and supernatural powers and made use of magic, sorcery, witchcraft, and spirit possession

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