Presentation on theme: "WHAT IS A SLAVE? Sex - Male or female Age -"— Presentation transcript:
1WHAT IS A SLAVE? Sex - Male or female Age - JOB DESCRIPTION OF A SLAVE:Sex -Male or femaleAge -Any age; from 4 until deathCharacteristics -Poor and vulnerable; prisonerscaptured in tribal wars; Africanscaptured by European slave traders.Hours -A slave is someone who is forced to work through violence or the threat of it, they are under the complete control of their ‘owners’.. They are treated as property and sometimes bought and sold. They have no rights, no individual freedom.Up to 20 a day, sometimes more.Days per week -Up to 7; 365 days a year.NoneHolidays -Sick Leave -NoneHealth and safety provision -NonePay -NothingAccommodation -Very basic
4THE TRIANGULAR SLAVE TRADE CHEAP MANUFACTURED GOODSTHE TRIANGULAR SLAVE TRADETrinkets – pots, pans, beads, shells, clothSLAVES WERE USED ON PLANTATIONS, GROWING SUGAR, TOBACCO, COTTON.THIRD STAGE – RAW MATERIALS SENT TO EUROPEProfits from slave sales were used to buy produce from the plantations eg. sugar, tobacco, cotton, which were sold for great profit in Europe.Cheap trinkets exchanged for slavesFIRST STAGE – EUROPE TO AFRICAU.S.A.TRIBAL CHIEFS EXCHANGE SLAVES , OR SLAVES ARE CAPTUREDMexicoCaribbean IslandsSECOND STAGE - THE MIDDLE PASSAGESLAVE TRADERS THEN SOLD THE SLAVES TO PLANTATION OWNERSBrazilTHE ‘MIDDLE PASSAGE’ – THE JOURNEY ACROSS THE ATLANTIC..THE WORLD AROUND 1750
7Definition Triangular Trade: Trade routes between Africa, Europe and the Americas during the Atlantic Slave Trade.
8Triangular TradeThe demand for labor in the western hemisphere stimulated a profitable three-legged trading patternEuropean manufactured goods, namely cloth and metal wares, especially firearms, went to Africa where they were exchanged for slavesThe slaves were then shipped to the Caribbean and Americas where they were sold for cash or sometimes bartered for sugar or molassesThen the ships returned to Europe loaded with American products
10Triangular TradeEuropeans transported manufactured goods to the west coast of Africa. There, traders exchanged these goods for captured Africans.Aim: How did the Atlantic slave trade effect Africa?Do Now: What is the legacy of Columbus?
12Two main patterns of Triangular Trade Rum from New England to West AfricaSlaves to sugar islandsMolasses home to the New England distilleriesManufactured goods from England to AfricaGoods exchanged for slaves taken to West Indies. Profits used to purchase sugar (and other goods) for England.
13The Route Aim: How did the Atlantic slave trade effect Africa? Do Now: What is the legacy of Columbus?
14“Molasses to rum to slaves Who sail the ships back to BostonLadened with gold, see it gleamWhose fortunes are made in the triangle tradeHail slavery, the New England dream!”Song from the play 1776
16Old World vs. New World Slavery Classical world and medieval slavery was not based on racial distinctions.Ancient world did not necessarily view slavery as a permanent condition.Slaves did not necessarily hold the loest status in early civilizations.Slaves in the old world often were symbols of prestige, luxury and power (true even in the ne world prior to European Colonization).
17A BRIEF HISTORY OF SLAVERY GROWTH OF ABOLITION MOVEMENT, 18TH CENTURY.THE TRANS ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADETHE STONE AGE1807 – BRITAIN DECLARES SLAVE TRADE ILLEGAL1808 – USA DECLARES SLAVE TRADE ILLEGALThe Portuguese started the Atlantic slave trade, soon to be joined by the Spanish. Christopher Columbus’ conquest of the Caribbean virtually wiped out the native Indians. They were to be replaced by slaves brought from Africa.Hunter-gatherer societies did not have enough food to feed extra mouths, so did not have slaves.1833 – SLAVERY DECLARED ILLEGAL ACROSS THE BRITISH EMPIRE.– AMERICAN CIVIL WARANCIENT CIVILISATIONSMEDIEVAL EUROPEAll Ancient civilisations - whether in Europe, the Middle East, Asia or the Americas - made use of slavery..Western slavery goes back 10,000 years to Mesopatamia (present day Iraq).Slavery often took place in the name of religion – Christians, Muslims and Jews all took part.GLADIATORSFORCED LABOURSLAVE GIRLS
18SLAVERY ALREADY EXISTED IN AFRICA BEFORE THE EUROPEAN ATLANTIC TRADE Europeans began to dominate the African trade from the 16th century onwards.A series of trading forts were built along the African coast to protect European traders interests.THE ARAB TRADE Slaves had been transported across the Sarahan region to the Middle East since Ancient times.Slave market in Yemen showing African slaves, 13 century AD.Slaves were brought to the coastal areas where they were sold to European slave traders
19History of African Slavery Slavery has existed since antiquityIt became common in Africa after the Bantu migrations spread agriculture to all parts of the continent
20The Slave Trade in Africa Ancient and universal phenomenaAfrican kingdoms and Islamic nations conduct brisk commerceNot race basedArab merchants and West African kings imported white slaves from EuropeWest African slave trade dealt mainly in women and children who would serve as concubines and servantsEuropean demand for agricultural laborers changed slave trading patterns
21Slave TradeAtlantic Slave Trade: buying and selling of Africans into slavery.Between 1500 and 1600, nearly 300,000 Africans were transported to the Americas.Most slaves were sold by Spain.They worked throughout South/North America working on plantations and in mines.Aim: How did the Atlantic slave trade effect Africa?Do Now: What is the legacy of Columbus?
23How Does The Slave Trade Begin? Early 1400’s – Europeans sent explorers to West Africa to map it and look for goldThey traded iron, copper, fish, sugar, ivory, gold, and pepper.Europeans wanted to convert Africans to Christianity
24How Does The Slave Trade Begin? Europeans required a large labor force to make their American colonies profitable1st used Native AmericansThen looked to Africans because of their numbers and their lack of modernizationcnnstudentnews.cnn.com/.../map.slave.trade.jpg
25The Origins of the Atlantic Slave Trade In 15th century, slaves used as domestic servants on Iberian PeninsulaOther European countries had large work forces and little need for slavesPurchased from African tradersPortugal and Spain dominated slave trade in 16th centuryDutch dominated 17th centuryEnglish dominated 18th century
26European Slave TradeBy the time Europeans arrived in Sub-Saharan Africa in the 15th and 16th Centuries, the slave trade was a well-established feature in African societyA detailed system for capturing, selling, and distributing slaves had been in place for over 500 yearsWith the arrival of the Europeans and the demand for slaves in the Americas, the slave trade expanded dramatically
27How was slavery justified? Early civilizations - accident or bad luck.Aristotle - notion of the “natural slave”Christian world - ‘Curse of Ham”18th Century European - pseudo-scientific racism.
28Estimated Annual Exports of Slaves from Western Africa to the Americas, 1500–1700 Figure 2–1. Estimated Annual Exports of Slaves from Western Africa to the Americas, 1500–1700.Source: John Thornton, Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400–1680 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992), 118.
29Estimated Slave Imports by Destination, 1451–1870
31Why was Africa vulnerable to the Slave Trade? Political FragmentationSailing RoutesAvailability of People (high birth rate)Civilizations and Skills (metalworking, farming, herding)No diplomatic repercussions.
32Why not others? Disease Knowledge of terrain Different Agricultural SkillsSupply deficitNation American women worked - not men!
33Why did European powers eventually turn to African labor? Labor supply was insufficient.Epidemics reduced the native population by 50% - 90%.Evidence of deeply help racist sentiment. Racism was a consequence of racial slavery as well as a cause.In English colonies the supply of servants decreased.
34Why was there a slave trade? Demand for GoodsDemand for Slaves
37Portugal: Prince Henry the Navigator paid for voyages along the West Coast of Africa in search of fishing banks.1441, Antam Gonclaves captured 10 Africans near Cape Bojador. In 1481, Portugal built the 1st European fort called Fort Elmina.Prince Henry the Navigator
39Portuguese Slave Traders Portuguese began capturing slaves in Africa in the 15th Century, but quickly learned it was easier to buy themIn Europe, slaves usually worked as miners, porters, or domestic servants since free peasants and serfs cultivated the landEuropeans and Africans Meet to Trade
40Portuguese Slave Trade When the Portuguese discovered the Azores, Madeiras, Cape Verde Islands, and Sao Tome in the 15th Century they were all uninhabitedThe Portuguese population was too small to provide a large number of colonistsThe sugar plantations required a large labor forceSlaves filled this demandSao TomeCape Verde
41Slave Trade and SugarBy the 1520s some 2,000 slaves per year were shipped to Sao TomeSome thereafter, Portuguese entrepreneurs extended the use of slave labor to South AmericaEventually Brazil would become the wealthiest of the sugar-producing lands in the western hemisphere
43SpainThey needed slaves to work on their plantations in South America & in the Caribbean. In the 16th century, Charles I issued the 1st Asiento, a license to import slaves into Spanish Colonies. This gave Spain a monoploy on the slave trade.King Charles I
44Slavery ExpandsAs disease reduced the native populations in Spanish conquered territories, the Spanish began relying on imported slaves from AfricaIn 1518, the first shipment of slaves went directly from west Africa to the Caribbean where the slaves worked on sugar plantationsBy the 1520s, the Spanish had introduced slaves to Mexico, Peru, and Central America where they worked as cultivators and minersBy the early 17th Century, the British had introduced slaves to North America
46EnglandIn 1662, Sir John Hawkins took 3 ships to Sierra Leone & captured 300 slaves.
47EnglandHawkins later convinced Queen Elizabeth I to participate in the slave trade.
48EnglandThey began to bring slaves to the Caribbean. They formed the Royal African Company in This allowed English colonies in America to easily buy slaves from English traders.
49England At the beginning only a few slaves came to English colonies. But when the big tobacco, cotton and rice plantations grew in the colonies in the south the slave trade increased.At the conclusion of the War of Spanish Succession, the Treaty of Utrecht gave to Great Britain a thirty-year asiento, or contract, to supply an unlimited number of slaves to the Spanish colonies, and 500 tons of goods per year.This gave England the monopoly on the slave trade.
51Geography of SlaveryEnslaved Africans mostly came from the area stretching from the Senegal River in Africa to Angola.Europeans divided the area into five regions:Upper Guinea CoastIvory CoastLower Guinea CoastGabonAngola
53Stage OneShips left Europe loaded with goods, such as guns, tools, textiles & rum.Crews with guns went ashore to capture slaves.Slaves were obtained by:1. Kidnapping2. Trading3. People were given by chiefs as tributes (gifts)4. Chiefs would send people who were in debt5. Chiefs would send criminals through judicialprocess6. Prisoners of tribal wars were also sent.
55Who became slaves? Sale of Slaves by Tribal chiefs Tegbesu is shown here entertaining some European slave traders.King Tegbesu of Dahomy, made around HK$3,000,000 from selling Africans in about 1750.Sale of Slaves by Tribal chiefsPrisoners of Tribal Wars.Potential plotters against the Tribal chiefKidnappingsCriminalsRoyal Wives
56Capture The original capture of slaves was almost always violent As European demand grew, African chieftains organized raiding parties to seize individuals from neighboring societiesOthers launched wars specifically for the purpose of capturing slaves
57Goree, or Slave-StickA French naval officer, in the Angola region in the late eighteenth century, describes how slave traders used "a forked branch which opens exactly to the size of a neck so the head can't pass through it. The forked branch is pierced with two holes so that an iron pin comes across the neck of the slave . . ., so that the smallest movement is sufficient to stop him and even to strangle him”
60Forced ParticipationAfrican Chiefs did resist in the beginning; however, they needed weapons for defence.The Europeans were too powerful; therefore, any effort to resistance was unsuccessfulIf chiefs did supply slaves, they were threatened to be taken as slaves.
61History of African Slavery Most slaves in Africa were war captivesOnce enslaved, an individual had no personal or civil rightsOwners could order slaves to do any kind of work, punish them, and sell them as chattelMost slaves worked as cultivators
63TREK TO THE SLAVE COASTCaptured slaves often had to trek hundreds of miles from the interior to the slave coast, where the European slave ships awaited them. They were linked together in ‘coffles’, iron, or shown here, wooden collars and clinking chains.
67Arrival at the Slave Coast PHYSICAL CHECKSA dealer checks the condition of newly arrived slaves for bad teeth or grey hair.BRANDINGOnce bought the slave was then branded with the owner’s initials or mark.Most brands were of silver because wounds healed faster than those made with iron.
68Slaves were held in prisons along the west coast of Africa. They were waiting to put on slaves ships.Those that journeyed from the interior and were not fit for the ship were left on the shores to die
73Stage Two: The Middle Passage Ships sailed across the Atlantic Ocean to the AmericasThe journey took 8-10 weeksSome Africans tried to jump ship, refused to eat and rebelled.Loss of a slave’s life was a loss of $ for the sailors.
77Stage Two“Loose packing” meant that the captains would take on board fewer slaves in hope to reduce sickness and death.“Tight packing” meant that the captains would carry as many slaves as their ship could hold, as they believed that many blacks would die on the voyage anyway
78Middle PassageThis is the voyage that brought captured Africans to the West Indies and later to North/South America.Cruelty characterized this journey. The Africans were packed into ships with beatings.They suffered horrible disease and abuse.Many committed suicide by throwing themselves overboard.Aim: How did the Atlantic slave trade effect Africa?Do Now: What is the legacy of Columbus?
82Middle PassageMost ships provided slaves with enough room to sit upright, but not enough to standOthers forced slaves to lie in chains with barely 20 inches space between them
83Middle PassageTight packing - belly to back, chained in twos, wrist to ankle (660+), naked.Loose packing - shoulder to shoulder chained wrist to wrist or ankle to ankle.Men and woman separated (men placed towards bow, women toward stern).Fed once of twice a day and brought on deck for limited times.
85Middle Passage Journey lasted 6-8 weeks. Due to high mortality rate, cargo was insured (reimbursed for drowning accidents but not for deaths from disease of sickness)Common to dump your cargo for sickness or food shortages.Slave mutinies on board ships were common (1 out of every 10 voyages across the Atlantic experience a revolt).Covert resistance (attempted suicide, jumped overboard, refusal to eat).
87Middle PassageCrews attempted to keep as many slaves alive as possible to maximize profits, but treatment was extremely cruelSome slaves refused to eat and crew members used tools to pry open their mouths and force-feed themSick slaves were cast overboard to prevent infection from spreadingDuring the early days of the slave trade, mortality rates were as high as 50%As the volume of trade increased and conditions improved (bigger ships, more water, better nourishment and facilities), mortality eventually declined to about 5%
88Middle PassageThe time a ship took to make the Middle Passage depended upon several factors including its point of origin in Africa, the destination in the Americas, and conditions at sea such as winds, currents, and storms.With good conditions and few delays, a 17th Century Portuguese slave ship typically took 30 to 50 days to sail from Angola to Brazil.British, French, and Dutch ships transporting slaves between Guinea and their Caribbean island possessions took 60 to 90 days.As larger merchant ships were introduced, these times reduced somewhat
89Middle Passage Crowded, unsanitary conditions Slaves rode on planks 66” x 15”only 20”– 25” of headroomMales chained together in pairsKept apart from women and childrenHigh mortality ratesOne-third perish between capture and embarkation
90Provisions for the Middle Passage Slaves fed twice per dayPoor and insufficient dietVegetable pulps, stews, and fruitsDenied meat or fishTen people eating from one bucketUnwashed hands spread diseaseMalnutrition, weakness, depression, death
91Sanitation, Disease, and Death Astronomically high before 1750Poor sanitationNo germ theory prior to early 20th centuryMalaria, yellow fever, smallpox, dysenteryAfter 1750Faster shipsHygiene and diet better understoodEarly forms of smallpox vaccinations
92African Women on Slave Ships Less protection against unwanted sexual attention from European menAfrican women worth half the price of African men in the Caribbean marketsSeparation from male slaves made them easier targetsHistorian Barbara BushMiddle passage horrors depressed sex drives
93Middle Passage Statistics 10-16 million Africans forcibly transported across the Atlantic from2 million died during the Middle Passage (10-15%)Another 15-30% dies during the march to the coast.For every 100 slaves that reached the New World, another 40 died in Africa or during the Middle Passage.
100African Captives Thrown Overboard Sharks followed the slave ships across the Atlantic!
101Destination of Captives Caribbean 40%Brazil 40%Latin America 10%British North America 10%
102Stage Three: Arrival in New World, Auctions, and Plantation Life
103Stage Three Africans would be sold at auctions in the Americas The ships’ captains would use the $ from their sale to buy a 3rd cargo of raw materials: sugar, spices or tobacco.They sold this for a further large profit in Europe.In Europe, they would convert the raw materials into finished product.
104ArrivalWhen the slave ship docked, the slaves would be taken off the ship and placed in a penThere they would be washed and their skin covered with grease, or sometimes tar, to make them look healthy (and therefore more valuable)They would also be branded with a hot iron to identify them as slaves
105Landing and Sale in the West Indies Pre-saleBathed and exercisedOiled bodies to conceal blemishes and bruisesHemp plugs
106Nineteenth-Century Engraving This nineteenth-century engraving suggests the humiliation Africans endured as they were subjected to physical inspections before being sold.
107Seasoning Modify behavior and attitude Preparation for North American planters
108Seasoning (cont.) Creoles Old Africans New Africans slaves born in the Americasworth three times price of unseasoned AfricansOld AfricansLived in the Americas for some timeNew AfricansHad just survived the middle passageCreoles and Old Africans instruct New Africans
109Negros for Sale? What is the first thought you had when you read this? How would a wealthy colonial American have looked at this?What would an African think when they saw this?
110Auctions Slaves were sold at auctions Buyers physically inspected the slaves, to include their teeth as an indication of the slave’s ageAuctioneers had slaves perform various acts to demonstrate their physical abilities
113Auctions“We were not many days in the merchant’s custody, before we were sold after their usual manner... On a signal given, (as the beat of a drum), buyers rush at once into the yard where the slaves are confined, and make a choice of that parcel they like best. The noise and clamor with which this is attended, and the eagerness visible in the countenances of the buyers, serve not a little to increase the apprehension of terrified Africans... In this manner, without scruple, are relations and friends separated, most of them never to see each other again. I remember in the vessel in which I was brought over... there were several brothers who, in the sale, were sold in different lots; and it was very moving on this occasion, to see and hear their cries in parting.”Olaudah Equiano, The Interesting Narrative of Olaudah Equiano
117Auctions There were 3 ways slaves were auctioned off: Public Auctions: - They put tar on the slaves to hide any sores and cuts- Slaves were inspected- An auction to took place and the higher bidder would get to purchase the slave.- Bids were taken as long as an inch of a candle burned.- Slaves were branded- Families were separated- They were given a European name.
125Auctions American born slaves who had skills were the most expensive African born slaves were less $, as they had to be “broken in”Age, sex and skills determined the costSlaves with a lot of scars were considered too rebellious
130The End of the Journey Survival One-third died Adapted to new foods Men died at a greater rate than womenAdapted to new foodsLearned a new languageCreole dialect well enough to obey commandsPsychological ~ no longer suicidalAfricans retained culture despite the hardships and cruel treatmentCreated bonds with shipmates that replaced blood kinship
132Volume of the Slave Trade Late 15th and 16th Century… 2,000 Africans exported each year17th Century… 20,000 per year18th Century… 55,000 per year1780s… 88,000 per yearAll told, some 12 million Africans were transported to the western hemisphere via the Atlantic Slave TradeAnother 4 million died resisting capture or during captivity before arriving at their destination
133Growth of African American Population 18201.77 million13% free18302.33 million14% free18402.87 million18503.69 million12% free18604.44 million11% free
136Forms of Resistance Work slowly Sabotage Runaway Revolt “Maroons” gathered together and built self-governing communitiesRevoltSlaves outnumbered the owners and supervisors so revolt was always a threatWhile causing much destruction, revolts were usually able to be suppressed because the owners had access to arms, horses, and military forces
137Slave Resistance: Passive and Active Resistance Breaking toolsFaking illnessStaging slowdownsCommitting acts of arson and sabotageRunning AwayUnderground Railroad
138Saint-DominiqueThe only revolt to successfully abolish slavery as an institution occurred on the French sugar colony of Saint Dominique in 1793The slaves declared independence from France, renamed the country Haiti, and established a self-governing republic in 1804Francois-Dominique Toussaint was one of the military leaders of the Saint-Dominique revolt
139Slave Revolts Denmark Vesey The Amistad Nat Turner Late 18th Century slave revolts erupted in Guadeloupe, Grenada, Jamaica, Surinam, Haiti, Venezuela, Winward IslandsWithin the United States slave revolts were common as well. Richmond, Virginia, Louisiana, Charleston, South Carolina.Denmark VeseyThe AmistadNat Turner
140Abolition Movement: Ending Slave Trade and Institution of Slavery
141Ending the Slave Trade1700’s – European thinkers begin to oppose slaveryAbolition Movement – movement to end slavery1807 – Britain outlawed trading1834 – Britain outlawed slaveryIt continued in USA until 1865
142The Ending of the Atlantic Slave Trade Cruelties help end Atlantic slave tradeEnglish abolitionistsThomas Clarkson, William Wilberforce, and Granville SharpMoral crusade and economy less dependent on slave tradeGreat Britain bans Atlantic slave trade in 1807Patrols African coast to enforceUnited States Congress outlaws slave trade in 1808Guinea and western central African kingdoms oppose banning slave trade
144Abolitionists Former Slaves Politicians Religious Leaders Olaudah EquianoPoliticiansWilliam WilberforceReligious LeadersJohn WesleyRevolutionariesSimon Bolivar
145Olaudah Equiano ( )1789 wrote and published, The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa the African.
146Former Slaves: Olaudah Equiano Equiano was originally from Benin and was captured by slave raiders when he was 10Spent 21 years as a slave and was able to save up enough money to buy his freedomIn 1789 he published The Interesting Narrative of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa, the African, Written by HimselfSold the book throughout Britain, undertaking lecture tours and actively campaigning to abolish the slave trade
147Politicians: William Wilberforce English philanthropist elected to Parliament in 1780Delivered a stirring abolitionist speech to the House of Commons in 1789 and repeatedly introduced the Abolition Bill until it passed in 1807
148Slavery Abolished in the Britain Empire 1807 = The slave trade was abolished in the British Empire, which meant that no slaves would be carried from Africa in British ships.1834 = Emancipation Act stated that slaves under 6 years old were freed; field hands over 6 had to work for their owners for 6 more years; house slaves had to work for 10 more years.Britain gave 20 million pounds in compensation to former slave owners and slaves received nothing.1838 all slaves were given complete freedomSlavery in the USA was not abolished until 1865
149Religious Leaders: John Wesley Founder of the Methodist ChurchPublished Thoughts Upon Slavery in 1774On his deathbed he was reading Equiano’s Narrative
150Revolutionaries: Simon Bolivar Inspired by George Washington and Enlightenment ideas, Bolivar took up arms against Spanish rule in 1811Freed slaves who joined his forcesProvided constitutional guarantees of free status for all residents of Gran Columbia (Venezuela, Columbia, and Ecuador)
151Timeline for Abolition of the Slave Trade 1803: Denmark abolishes slave trade.1807: Britain abolishes slave trade.1807: U.S. passes legislation banning slave trade, to take effect 1808.1810: British negotiate an agreement with Portugal calling for gradual abolition of slave trade in the South Atlantic.1815: At the Congress of Vienna, the British pressure Spain, Portugal, France and the Netherlands to agree to abolish the slave trade (though Spain and Portugal are permitted a few years of continued slaving to replenish labor supplies).1817: Great Britain and Spain sign a treaty prohibiting the slave trade: Spain agrees to end the slave trade north of the equator immediately, and south of the equator in British naval vessels are given right to search suspected slavers. Still, loopholes in the treaty undercut its goals and the slave trade continues strongly until 1830.
152Slavery Continues Abolishing the slave trade did not end slavery British ships patrolled the west coast of Africa to halt illegal tradeThe last documented ship that carried slaves across the Atlantic arrived in Cuba in 1867
153Timeline for Abolition of Slavery 1813: Gradual emancipation adopted in Argentina.1814: Gradual emancipation begins in Colombia.1823: Slavery abolished in Chile.1824: Slavery abolished in Central America.1829: Slavery abolished in Mexico.1831: Slavery abolished in Bolivia.1833: Abolition of Slavery Act passed in Britain which results in complete emancipation by 1838.1842: Slavery abolished in Uruguay.1848: Slavery abolished in all French and Danish colonies.1851: Slavery abolished in Ecuador.
154Timeline for Abolition of Slavery 1854: Slavery abolished in Peru and Venezuela.1863: Emancipation Proclamation issued in the U.S.1863: Slavery abolished in all Dutch colonies.1865: Slavery abolished in the U.S. as a result of the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution and the end of the Civil War.1871: Gradual emancipation initiated in Brazil.1873: Slavery abolished in Puerto Rico.1886: Slavery abolished in Cuba.1888: Slavery abolished in Brazil.1960s: Slavery abolished in Saudi Arabia and Angola
155Emancipation Proclamation Issued by President Lincoln after the Federal victory at Antietam“That on the first day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, all persons held as slaves within any State or designated part of a State, the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United States, shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free…”
156Impact of Emancipation Proclamation on Confederate Diplomatic Efforts “… the feeling against slavery in England is so strong that no public man there dares extend a hand to help us… There is no government in Europe that dares help us in a struggle which can be suspected of having for its result, directly or indirectly, the fortification or perpetuation of slavery. Of that I am certain”William Yancey, Confederate politician
157Why did the slave trade end? IndustrializationLess Need for Slaves
158Slave Exports and Profits Early 18th Century - 36,000 per yearDuring 1780’s - 80,000 per yearBetween ,000 captives/year on average.17th Century - slave sold in the Americas for about $150\Slave trade illegal in Britain in 1807, US 1808, France 1831, Spain 1834.Once declared illegal prices went much higher s prime field hand $ $1500 (about $18,00 in 1997 dollars).
160Legacy of Slavery Agriculture Rice Sweet Potatoes Herding Basketry Working Style (cooperative labor)Planting (heel to toe)FoodSpices (red pepper, sesame, cajun)Okra, black eyed peasDishesGumbo, jambalayaAsh and hot cakesSweet potato pieMusicBanjoDrumBlues/JazzCall and responseSpiritualsReligionCall and response patternsEmotional servicesMultiple spirits and soulsVoodooTales and WordsTrickster takes (Anansi the Spider, Brer Rabbit, Bugs Bunny)Words like bogus, bug, phony, yam, tote, gumbo, tater, jamboree, jazz.Creole Language
161Impact of Slave Trade in Africa MixedSome states like Rwanda largely escaped the slave trade through resistance and geographySome like Senegal in west Africa were hit very hardOther societies benefited economically from selling slaves, trading, or operating portsAs abolition took root in the 19th Century some African merchants even complained about the lose of their livelihoodOn the whole, however, the slave trade devastated Africa“Door of No Return” on Goree Island off the coast of Senegal
162Impact of Slave Trade in Africa The Atlantic Slave Trade deprived Africa of about 16 million people and the continuing Islamic slave trade consumed another several millionOverall the African population rose thanks partly to the introduction of more nutritious food from the AmericasPeanuts were one of several crops introduced to Africa from the Americas
163Impact of Slave Trade in Africa The slave trade distorted African sex ratiosApproximately 2/3 of all exported slaves were maleSlavers preferred young men between the ages of 14 and 35 to maximize investment potential and be suitable for hard laborThe sexual imbalance in some parts of Africa such as Angola encouraged polygamy and caused women to take on duties that had previously been the responsibility of men
164Impact of Slave Trade in Africa The slave trade brought firearms to such African societies as Asante, Dahomey, and Oyo and this increased violenceIn the 18th Century, Dahomey expanded rapidly, absorbed neighboring societies, and fielded an army that was largely a slave-raiding force
165African DiasporaThe slave trade sent millions of Africans overseas this created a scattering of individualsSurvivors struggled to hold on to their cultureAfrican people and their culture of food, music, dance, and tradition was spread across a wide area.
166African DiasporaObviously, the main contribution slaves brought to the western hemisphere was an incredible amount of labor, without which the prosperous new societies could not have developedHowever they brought other contributions as well:Slaves built hybrid cultural traditions made up of African, European, and American elementsInfluenced language by creating tongues that drew on several African and European languages
167GullahFor several reasons, Africans, both as slaves and free, enjoyed a relative amount of self-sufficiency in the Sea Islands off of South CarolinaTheir culture maintained much of its original characteristics as it encountered American cultureFor example, most of the Gullah vocabulary is of English origin, but the grammar and major elements of pronunciation come from a number of West African languages
168Gullah beat on ayun: “mechanic”; literally, “beat-on-iron” troot ma-wt: “a truthful person”; literally, “truth mouth”hush ma-wt: “hush mouth”; literally, “hush mouth”sho ded: “cemetery”; literally, “sure dead”tebl tappa: “preacher”; literally, “table-tapper”ty oonuh ma-wt: “Hush, stop talking”; literally, “Tie your mouth”krak teet: “to speak”; literally, “crack teeth”i han shaht pay-shun: “He steals”; literally, “His hand is short of patience”
169African DiasporaImpacted on cuisine by introducing African foods to Caribbean and American societiesFor example, combined African okra with European-style sautéed vegetables and American shellfish to make gumboIntroduced rice cultivation to tropical and subtropical regionsFashioned distinctive crafts such as pottery and basketsSea Island basket
170African DiasporaMany slaves were either Christians when they left Africa or converted to Christianity after their arrival in the western hemisphereTheir Christianity was not exactly like European Christianity and made considerable room for African traditionsAssociated African deities with Christian saintsRelied heavily on African rituals such as drumming, dancing, and sacrificing animalsPreserved their belief in spirits and supernatural powers and made use of magic, sorcery, witchcraft, and spirit possession