Presentation on theme: "The Old South and Slavery"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Old South and Slavery 1830- 1860 Chapter 12The Old South and Slavery
2 Essential QuestionsHow did northerners’ image of the Old South differ from the way in which southerners saw themselves?What major social divisions segmented the white South?How did slavery affect social relations in the white South?What conditions in the Old South made it possible for a distinctive culture to develop among the slaves, and what were the predominant features of that culture?
3 King Cotton 1790 South’s economy stagnant- tobacco not prosperous By 1850 South was the “Cotton Kingdom” from South Carolina to Texas“No power on earth dares to make war upon it. Cotton is king.”- Senator James Henry HammondSouth Carolina
4 A History of Slavery 1619 1790s 1640s-1650s 1800s Age of Jackson 1660s First blacks arrive at Jamestown, NOT slaves1640s-1650sView of using black “free” workers instead of indentured servants seen as an advantagetobacco1660sWord “Slave” appears1676VA, MD, NC, SC legalize slaveryNew “black codes”1739Stono Rebellion in SC= harsh new slave lawsBlacks participate in revolutionNot included in Declaration or Constitution3/5th compromise1790sHaitian RevoltToussaint L’Ouverture60,000 dead, republic of free slaves1800sNature of slavery changesAge of JacksonRise of AbolitionismWilliam Lloyd GarrisonQuakersSarah and Angelica GrimkeSojourner TruthFrederick Douglas1900
5 Lure of Cotton South had Advantages Slavery Warm climate, wet springs/summers, dry autumnsAdvantagesDidn’t require expensive irrigation or costly machinery (unlike sugar)Profitable on any scaleCompatible with production of cornSlaveryGave an advantageDoubled
7 Diverges North South Upper South Lower South United urbanizing Rural Banks existed only to finance plantationsLack of industriesSouthern factories smallSlaveryLimited investment in IndustrySouth profitable, no reason to changeRejection of compulsory educationHigh illiteracyMiddle class had “no need”Upper SouthTobacco, vegetable, hemp, wheatLower SouthSugar, Cotton cash cropsUnitedMany settlers of lower south from upper southAll white southerners benefitted from 3/5ths clauseAll stung by abolitionist criticism of slaveryEconomic ties
9 Social Groups 4 main groups Planters Yeoman Pine barrens + 20 slavesPlantation society“little nation itself”Plantation mistressesHigh degree of division of laborMost wealth in slavesPsychological strainsSlave mistressesMulatto childrenSlaveholders (small)-5 slavesNot all farmersConflicting loyalties + ambitionsYounger than plantersYeomanFamily farmers, livestockNon-slaveholdersLargest group of white southern malesSubsistence farmersReason for lack of industry in southPiedmont region“poor white trash”Pine barrensSquatted on landSelf-reliant, independentchoice
13 Conflict Slavery Planters Yeomen Pro-Slavery Unity Decreasing slave-holding population“Impending Crisis of the South” 1857Civil War:Wanted to own slavesRacismNo one knew where slaves would goPro-SlaveryCompared to Athenian slavery“wage slavery” in NorthBible- St. PaulNatural submissionChurch supported slaveryracismPlantersWhigsNeeded creditUrban commercial alliesYeomenDemocratsEconomically self-sufficientEconomically dependentUnityWhites didn’t work for whitesLived in different geographic areas
15 Violence in Old South Dirty fighting Code of Honor/dueling Eye gougingEar bitingMurder rate 10X that in NorthCode of Honor/duelingConception of “good society” diverged more from northern egalitarian and individualistic ideaSouthern prideEspecially in front of slavesSensitivity to reputationHow gentlemen dealt without resultsLaw was cowardly, shamefulOnly “gentlemen” dueledSouthern Evangelicals and White valuesBaptists, Methodists, PresbyteriansAgainst duelingReached out to women, slaves, poorSoon absorbed gentry values and vice versaEx. Stonewall Jackson
16 The “Peculiar Institution” An institution unique to southern societyNorth depended on it tooCotton helped finance industrial development, internal improvementsCotton carried to New York, EuropeNorthern bankers financed plantations, insured slave propertyNorthern factories manufactured cotton into clothSlavery concentrated in areas with most fertile soil and easiest access to national and international markets2nd middle passage1808 international slave trade abolishedInternal trade developed“White Gold”Manufactured in Mass, Great Britain, France, RussiaMost important US export by 1803Eve of civil war represented over HALF of total value of US exports1860: economic investment in slaves exceeded value of nation’s factories, railroads, and banks COMBINED
17 Life under Slavery Oppressive institution Appropriated the life and labor of one race for the material benefit of anotherPlantation SystemSignificant changes between 1780 and 1830Paternalist ethosAverage Slave:1700: male, 20s, African, no real family life1830: male or female, spoke English, born in US, family lifeWork and Discipline of Plantation SlavesTypical to work on large farm, plantationRoutineSlave drivers, overseersSocial hierarchy of slavesHouse vs field slavesSlave FamilyPlanters encouraged weddings for procreationBuying/selling disrupted familyTight-family bonds, kinship
20 Life under Slavery Longevity, Diet, Health Slaves off Plantations Lived longer and reproduced faster in USWhy?Gender ratio equalizedPlenty of foodGreat immunitiesSlaves off PlantationsGreatest opportunitiesLaborers, extractive industriesShortage of labor in nonagricultural sectorsLumbering, stevedores, black engineers, iron workersTolerable working conditionsFree BlacksMore likely to live in cities1/3 in Upper South½ in Lower SouthWhy?Specialized economiesCarpenters, coopers, barbers, tradersFraternal orderschurchesRate of free blacks slowed after 1810Nat Turner Rebellion 1831ExceptionsNew Orleans, NatchezContradictionsMixed blacks
22 Life under Slavery Slave Resistance Amistad Lots of talk, little actionNat Turner 1831Only main significant rebellionWhy lack of rebellion?Formidable white presence in southFeared risking family tiesEscape to NorthFugitive slavesUnderground railroadRealityEscape not reality“Non-violent resistance”PoisoningLeaving tools outNot working hardAmistad183953 slaves that took control of a slave shipForced navigator to steer it to AfricaOppositionPresident Van Buren wants to return it to AfricaAbolitionists want Supreme CourtDecisionJohn Quincy Adams defenseCaptives released to AfricaConsequencesCreole 1841British gave refuge
30 QuestionsGiven that by 1860 the economic investment represented by the slave population exceeded the value of the nation’s factories, railroads, and banks combined, explain how important slavery was to the national economy and the emergence of the United States as a great power.Why did many white southerners support slavery even when they did not actually own any slaves?What forms of slave resistance were practiced in the American South?
31 Slavery Jigsaw Activity 1st questions:What was the most interesting thing you discovered about this subject's life?What was their overall experience like?Did they discuss daily life or family life?Does their narrative reinforce or challenge your conceptions of slavery?
32 Jigsaw Activity 2nd Questions What aspects of slavery were shared in common by these men and women?What was working life like for them?What major differences do you see?Is there an overall commonality to these narratives in the description of their experiences?
33 PlantersSmall SlaveholdersYeomenPine BarrensIndustrializationPolitical PartiesslaveryEducationHonor CodeSlave Family