2You Need to Know Antebellum Northwest Ordinance 3/5th Compromise 20 year moratorium on slave tradeFugitive Slave clause (Constitu)Missouri Compromise (1820)AbolitionismWilliam Lloyd Garrison/The LiberatorFredrick Douglas/ North StarUnderground RailroadWilmot ProvisoThe 1850's: Decade of CrisisCompromise of 1850Fugitive Slave ActUncle Tom's CabinKansas-Nebraska ActDemise of the Whig PartyEmergence of the Republican PartyDred Scott decision and Lecompton crisisLincoln-Douglas debates, 1858John Brown's raidThe election of 1860Abraham LincolnThe secession crisisDuring and After the Civil WarEmancipation ProclamationBlack Soldiers- 54th Massachusetts
3Civil War DBQ:To what extent was the secession of the Southern states the result of the breakdown in the legacy of compromise that began with the constitutional convention?
4DBQ OutlineIntroduction- History of Slavery in the United States has been a history of compromiseThe conflict between the pro-slavery and anti-slavery groups in America resulted in the decision of the Southern states to secede.I- Constitution and Compromises Before 1950
6Missouri Compromise:1818 settlers in Missouri territory requested admission to the UnionThe question rose, should it be a slave state or a free state?Henry Clay- leader in Congress from Kentucky –Conflict emerged between Southern and Northern groups.He created a compromise- to allow equal number of slave and free statesMaine enters as a free state and Missouri enters as a slave state.Provided for the entrance of new states in the Louisiana Purchase, Slavery is not allowed above 36º 30’
7“Cotton is King”Cotton made up half the value of all American exports after 1840.The South produced more than half of the entire world’s supply of cotton.75% of the Cotton used in England’s Industry was from the South.
8The “Peculiar Institution” Million Slaves (due to natural reproduction)Chattel1808 slave importing slaves was outlawed (Smuggling was prevalent)See “Amistad” film$2 Billion in capital 1860Florida, Mississippi, Alabama, and Louisiana had majority or near majority of blacks
9AbolitionismExtremist movement in the North to end Slavery (Christian based)Saw slavery as a moral issue clearly wrong/evilReligious foundationsMassachusetts- key- locationAgitated for end of slaveryWanted to stop the spread of slavery in the Expansion of the country
10Abolitionist Movement: Quakers were early abolitionistsThe movement to end slavery and free African Americans100 plus societies in the NorthSome suggested that Former slaves be resettled in AfricaThe American Colonization Society 1817 (Liberia 1822)Some said former slaves remain in US as free people.
111830s Abolitionist Movement is seen as an extremist group and Fringe But begins to gradually increase in popularitySecond Great Awakening fuels this movementUsed Pamphlets and newspapers to persuade people of the Evil of slaverySent Abolitionist materials in US Mail into the SouthEarly Religious Northern Abolitionist Leaders:Theodore Weld- preacher ofLyman Beecher (Father of Harriet Beecher Stowe)Reverend Elijah P. Lovejoy
12William Lloyd Garrison Leading Abolitionist,published a newspaper The LiberatorHis paper advocated and called for immediate emancipation“I will be harsh as truth and as uncompromising as justice… I am in earnest- I will not equivocate- I will not excuse- I will not retreat a single inche- and I WILL BE HEARD!”Formed the American Anti-Slavery Society
13Fredrick Douglass Greatest Black abolitionist Escaped slave in 1838 (age 21)Lectured for the causea former slave, well educated and advocated the end of Slavery at any means possible. Published the North Star
15Women in the Abolitionist Movement The seeds of the Women’s Suffrage and Rights Movement will also be found in the Abolition movement.Harriet Tubman- African American woman, slave, smuggler in the Underground RailroadHarriet Beecher Stowe –Author, Uncle Tom’s Cabin, Anti-Slavery novel, spurs abolitionismMary LyonAngelina and Sarah Grimké- abolitionist from South Carolina, with her sister Angelina, the Grimke SistersElizabeth Cady Stanton- advocate for abolition and Women’s suffrageLucreita Mott- abolitionist, believed in both the rights of women and the rights of blacks.Sojourner Truth- African American feminist abolitionist, former slave-
16Southern Response to Abolitionism Southerners are increasingly sensitive to Abolitionist movementThey end emancipationIncrease limits on freed blacksBecome more fearful of slave rebellions-Gabriel Prosser VirginiaDenamrk VesseyNat Turner- 1831
17Freed Blacks 1860, South about 250,000 Black Codes- laws in the South limiting SlavesLimited in occupationsApartheid- laws based on raceCould not voteCould not testify against whites in courtWere limited in educational opportunityRacism in the North was also- very prevalentExample- Fredrick Douglass was attacked many times in the North
19Underground Railroad: Secret group of abolitionists who helped runaway slaves travel to CanadaHarriet Tubman- former slave helped people escape North
20Wilmot Proviso 1846Amendment- to the settlement of Mexican American WarSaid no slavery allowed in land obtained from Mexico-California, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico…(It did not pass the Senate)Crittenden Compromise (is similar)
21Yours, very respectfully, Ostend ManifestoAix la Chapelle, Oct 28, 1854.We arrived at the conclusion, and are thoroughly convinced, that an immediate and earnest effort ought to be made buy the government of the United States to purchase Cuba from Spain at any price for which it can be obtained…Yours, very respectfully,James BuchananJ.Y. MasonPierre SouleTo: Hon. William L. Marcy, Secretary of State.
22Uncle Tom’s Cabin 1852 Abolitionist propaganda Harriet Beecher Stowe Novel designed to create anger among populationNovel inflamed tensions and anger over Slavery by both North and South
23map California Popular Sovereignty- in Former Mexican land Fugitive Slave LawWilmot Proviso failsNo Slave Trade in Washington DC
24Compromise of 1850: Clay and Webster States entering the Union, CaliforniaCompromise between Northern and Southern powers in CongressCalifornia enters the Union as a free stateSouth gets a new Fugitive Slave Law said escaped slaves could be recaptured in the North and that people helping slaves could be prosecuted- $1000 fine and 6 months in jail.Slavery and Popular Sovereignty Territories that are ready for statehood could decide if they wanted slaverySlave Trade in Washington DC is banned
25Fugitive Slave Law:Slaves that escape, were to be arrested and returned to their ownersAnyone convicted of helping a fugitive slave was liable for a fine of $1000. and imprisonment for up to six months
27Kansas-Nebraska Act Kansas Nebraska Act 1854: Very important Sponsored by Senator Steven Douglas of IllinoisWanted to pass a railroad bill- had to appease Southern interestsRepealed the Missouri Compromise- now slavery would be allowed in Louisiana Purchase- if requirements were metSaid that territories of Kansas and Nebraska could decide through a vote of the people if they wanted slavery or not (Popular Sovereignty)
28Kansas-Nebraska Act and Bleeding Kansas Consequences:Destroys and divides the Whig partyDivides Northern Democrats- those that don’t want the expansion of slavery leave party create an new and different Republican PartyCauses fighting in Kansas- Pro-slavery factions (from Missouri) vs Anti-Slavery Factions from North East (John Brown begins there)Two territorial governments are formed- one slave one free, this is a mini civil war known as “Bleeding Kansas”
29Emergence of Republican Party 1854 As people began to be more intolerant and sensitive to slavery a new political party developed.Opposed Kansas-Nebraska Act and spread of slavery in the territoriesThe party becomes an “umbrella group” United a number of anti-slavery groups- abolitionists, Free Soilers, Whigs, Democrats, Know Nothings
31How did the South react to the Dredd Scott Case? Why does John Brown scare the hell out of the Southerners?
32Why did the Dredd Scott Case cause so much anger in the North?
33Dred Scott Case 1857Dred Scott was a slave who lived in MissouriHis owner took him to Illinois and Wisconsin and back to MissouriScott brought a law suit for his freedom, it went to the Supreme CourtHe argued that he had lived in a free state and therefore he should be free.The Taney Chief Justice court ruled against Scott “Scott lacked legal standing to sue in Federal Court because he was not, nor ever could be a citizen.”“Being in free territory did not make a slave free.”The court cited the 5th amendment that protects property, including slaves.
34Dredd Scott 1857 Taney Court Ruled Constitutional Justifications: US Constitution Article 4 section 2- “No person held to service or labor in one state… escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any law or regulation therein, be discharged from such service or labor…”US Constitution, Article 4, section 3- “the Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful rules and regulations respecting the Territory or other property belonging to the United States…” (Dissenting argument)Key point: The Dred Scott Case strengthened and expanded Slave owners’ rights-Caused the rejection of all the slavery related compromises- now slavery could take place in free states.Taney Court Ruled
35Lincoln’s Response to Dredd Scott Case Lincoln believed that Taney’s ruling was;“Exceptional, plainly founded on error, at variance with all precedents and not at all settled.” (History Now Journal article)“We know that the court that made it, has often over-ruled its own decisions, and we shall do what we can to have it to over-rule this.”Each public functionary must support the Constitution, as he understands it.”Lincoln is very Sneaky interpreting the significance of court cases!“I will tell you here that General Jackson once said each man was bound to support the Constitution as ‘he understood it.’ Now, Judge Douglas understands the Constitution according to the Dred Scott decision, and he is bound to support it as he understands it. I understand it another way, and therefore I am bound to support it in the way in which I understand it.” (Lincoln Douglas Debate)
37Why does John Brown scare the hell out of the Southerners?
38John Brown’s Raid 1859John Brown was a radical abolitionistHe wanted slaves to rise up and take their freedom1856 he and some followers fought pro-slavery men in Kansas.Pottawatomie- he killed pro-slavery innocent menHe and 21 other, both white and black attacked the Federal Arsenal at Harpers Ferry and was defeated, tried and executedCaused reaction both in the North and South, some Northerners celebrated Brown’s actionsThe South became outraged and convinced that they could not live safely with the North- they became convinced that the North wanted slave rebellion.
40Lincoln Lincoln’s Election (page 163-64) Lincoln, a Congressman from Illinois, first ran for Senate against Douglas- lost-Lincoln believed Slavery was ImmoralSlavery in the territories should be disallowedBelieved slavery should be abolished with a constitutional amendment
41Lincoln Douglas Debates 1858 He gained notoriety from the Senatorial election in Illinois (Lincoln Douglas debates)He and Stephan Douglas held a series of (6) debates.Douglas was in favor of popular sovereignty“Freeport Doctrine”- the people will decide the issue, not the supreme court.In those debates he put forth the idea that the concept of Equality voiced in the Declaration of Independence was meant for all human beings and that the government of the US should support this interpretation…
42Lincoln’s View Philosophy EQUALITY THROUGH CONSTITUTIONAL MEANS- meant protecting the established order but working for change in a clear, law abiding framework.Mostly an anti-expansion of slavery moderate Republican
43Lincoln on Race 1858“I as well as Judge Douglas, am in favor of the race to which I belong, having the superior position. I have never said anything to the contrary, but I hold that notwithstanding all this, there is no reason in the world why the negro is not entitled to have all the natural rights enumerated in the Declaration of Independence, the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. I hold that he is as much entitled to those rights as the white man.I agree with Judge Douglas he is not my equal in many respects- certainly not in color, perhaps not in moral or intellectual endowment.But in the right to eat the bread, without leave of anybody else, which his own hands earns, he is my equal and the equal of Judge Douglas, and the equal of every living man.”
44Lincoln ViewAll humans deserve freedom. “All me are born equally free. The natural right to human liberty applied to all people. Where no law established slavery, freedom prevailed.”(Territories)
45Lincoln 1860 Republicans nominated Lincoln for president He tried to reassure the South by stating, A Republican administration would not “Interfere with their slaves, or with them about their slaves.”
46Election of 1860 Democrats split into Two Republican Umbrella Group: North- Stephen Douglas- pro-compromiseSouth- Breckenridge- the Southern candidateRepublican Umbrella Group:Northern Anti-Slavery DemocratsAnti-Immigration “Know Nothings”Former WhigsAbolitionists extremists
47What factors persuaded the North to elect Republicans? Victories by Slave Holding StatesDread Scott DecisionFighting in Kansas over SlaveryKansas-Nebraska ActCompromise of 1850Enforcement of Fugitive Slave ActLincoln was not allowed on the ballot of 10 Southern states
49Why does the Election results of 1860 cause the Southern states to secede?
50Election of 1860 The 37th Congress was elected in 1860 Republicans House = 105; Senate = 31Democrats House = 43; Senate = 10The 38th Congress in 1862Republicans House = 102; Senate = 36DemocratsHouse = 75; Senate = 9
51Secession CrisisSouthern states fearing the end of slavery and the limitations of their rights as states, decide to leave the Union and created their own governmentFirst to go:South Carolina Dec. 1860MississippiFloridaAlabamaGeorgiaLouisianaTexas…
52Buchanan, 15th PresidentBuchanan was weak, an apologist for the South “The south was in no real danger because Lincoln would be restrained by Congress. The president would have to follow the dictates of the federal courts, which sustained slavery in the territories and the fugitive slave law.”If the South did secede, the president lacked the constitutional power to stop it.Perhaps a constitutional convention to pass an amendment protecting slavery in any state that now had or should later want it would calm things… would help.
53Northern Democrats said: “If a state secedes, it is revolution and the seceders are traitors. Those who are charged with the executive branch of government are recreant to their oaths if they fail to use all lawful means to put down such rebellion”Some senators looked back to Andrew Jackson, regarding the South Carolina nullification issue, “By the eternal, I will hang them.”“Oh for one hour of Jackson!”
54Lincoln Before Inauguration: privately wrote Not interfere with slavery where it existedWould favor the end of opposition to the fugitive slave lawHad no intention of using the power over interstate commerce to touch slaveryHe desperately wanted to avert a conflict;He said, “Each and all of the states will be left in as complete control of their own affairs respectively and at as perfect liberty to choose, employ, their own means of preserving and protecting property, and preserving peace and order…”He and others both North and South Democrats wanted one more compromise.Moderate Republicans helped negotiate with moderate Southern and Northern Democrats
55Crittenden Compromise: Slavery within the states to be protected from national government interferenceThe revival of the Missouri Compromise line 3630’- extended to the PacificNo interference with interstate slave tradeSlaveholders who lost runaways to Northern states to be compensatedAttempt was made to reassure the south and protect slaveryRepublicans don’t allow it. Compromise was dead.
56Last Word From LincolnHowever, Lincoln would not compromise on the issues of Expansion of Slavery and he clearly made a concerted commitment to the concept of equality and associate this with African Americans!:“ Let there be no compromise on the question of extending slavery.”“There is no possible compromise upon it… hold firm as with a chain of steel.”“ I will be inflexible on the territorial question, I am for fighting again- that is all.”Southerners were correct that he intended to reverse slavery in the territories.
57Lincoln Agreed With Jackson Regarding Secession The Constitution of the United States, then, forms a government, not a league; and whether it be formed by compact between the states or in any other manner, its character is the same. It is a government in which all the people are represented, which operates directly on the people individually, not upon the states; they retained all the power they did not grant. But each state, having expressly parted with so many powers as to constitute, jointly with the other states, a single nation, cannot, from that period, possess any right to secede, because such secession does not break a league, but destroys the unity of a nation; and any injury to that unity is not only a breach which would result from the contravention of a compact, but it is an offense against the whole Union. To say that any state may at pleasure secede from the Union is to say that the United States are not a nation, because it would be a solecism to contend that any part of a nation might dissolve its connection with the other parts, to their injury or ruin, without committing any offense“. . . The laws of the United States must be executed. I have no discretionary power on the subject; my duty is emphatically pronounced in the Constitution. Those who told you that you might peaceably prevent their execution deceived you; they could not have been deceived themselves But be not deceived by names. Disunion by armed force is treason. Are you really ready to incur its guilt? If you are, on the heads of the instigators of the act be the dreadful consequences; on their heads be the dishonor, but on yours may fall the punishment. On your unhappy state will inevitably fall all the evils of the conflict you force upon the government of your country The consequence must be fearful for you, distressing to your fellow citizens here and to the friends of good government throughout the world.” Andrew Jackson, Speech on Nullification, 1832.
58End of Compromise“All hope of relief in the union, through the agency of committees, Congressional legislation or constitutional amendments is extinguished.”
59“The Mountain People” In the South along the Appalachian range Not Slave holdersWest Virginia to Northern Georgia and AlabamaResented the Rich whites in the south who owned slavesWill support the union in the WAR.