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Slavery and The War Between the States

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1 Slavery and The War Between the States

2 You Need to Know Antebellum Northwest Ordinance 3/5th Compromise
20 year moratorium on slave trade Fugitive Slave clause (Constitu) Missouri Compromise (1820) Abolitionism William Lloyd Garrison/The Liberator Fredrick Douglas/ North Star Underground Railroad Wilmot Proviso The 1850's: Decade of Crisis Compromise of 1850 Fugitive Slave Act Uncle Tom's Cabin Kansas-Nebraska Act Demise of the Whig Party Emergence of the Republican Party Dred Scott decision and Lecompton crisis Lincoln-Douglas debates, 1858 John Brown's raid The election of 1860 Abraham Lincoln The secession crisis During and After the Civil War Emancipation Proclamation Black Soldiers- 54th Massachusetts

3 Civil War DBQ: To what extent was the secession of the Southern states the result of the breakdown in the legacy of compromise that began with the constitutional convention?

4 DBQ Outline Introduction- History of Slavery in the United States has been a history of compromise The conflict between the pro-slavery and anti-slavery groups in America resulted in the decision of the Southern states to secede. I- Constitution and Compromises Before 1950

5 Missouri Compromise 1820

6 Missouri Compromise: 1818 settlers in Missouri territory requested admission to the Union The question rose, should it be a slave state or a free state? Henry Clay- leader in Congress from Kentucky – Conflict emerged between Southern and Northern groups. He created a compromise- to allow equal number of slave and free states Maine enters as a free state and Missouri enters as a slave state. Provided for the entrance of new states in the Louisiana Purchase, Slavery is not allowed above 36º 30’

7 “Cotton is King” Cotton made up half the value of all American exports after 1840. The South produced more than half of the entire world’s supply of cotton. 75% of the Cotton used in England’s Industry was from the South.

8 The “Peculiar Institution”
Million Slaves (due to natural reproduction) Chattel 1808 slave importing slaves was outlawed (Smuggling was prevalent) See “Amistad” film $2 Billion in capital 1860 Florida, Mississippi, Alabama, and Louisiana had majority or near majority of blacks

9 Abolitionism Extremist movement in the North to end Slavery (Christian based) Saw slavery as a moral issue clearly wrong/evil Religious foundations Massachusetts- key- location Agitated for end of slavery Wanted to stop the spread of slavery in the Expansion of the country

10 Abolitionist Movement:
Quakers were early abolitionists The movement to end slavery and free African Americans 100 plus societies in the North Some suggested that Former slaves be resettled in Africa The American Colonization Society 1817 (Liberia 1822) Some said former slaves remain in US as free people.

11 1830s Abolitionist Movement is seen as an extremist group and Fringe
But begins to gradually increase in popularity Second Great Awakening fuels this movement Used Pamphlets and newspapers to persuade people of the Evil of slavery Sent Abolitionist materials in US Mail into the South Early Religious Northern Abolitionist Leaders: Theodore Weld- preacher of Lyman Beecher (Father of Harriet Beecher Stowe) Reverend Elijah P. Lovejoy

12 William Lloyd Garrison
Leading Abolitionist, published a newspaper The Liberator His paper advocated and called for immediate emancipation “I will be harsh as truth and as uncompromising as justice… I am in earnest- I will not equivocate- I will not excuse- I will not retreat a single inche- and I WILL BE HEARD!” Formed the American Anti-Slavery Society

13 Fredrick Douglass Greatest Black abolitionist
Escaped slave in 1838 (age 21) Lectured for the cause a former slave, well educated and advocated the end of Slavery at any means possible. Published the North Star

14 Abolitionists Douglass Garrison

15 Women in the Abolitionist Movement
The seeds of the Women’s Suffrage and Rights Movement will also be found in the Abolition movement. Harriet Tubman- African American woman, slave, smuggler in the Underground Railroad Harriet Beecher Stowe –Author, Uncle Tom’s Cabin, Anti-Slavery novel, spurs abolitionism Mary Lyon Angelina and Sarah Grimké- abolitionist from South Carolina, with her sister Angelina, the Grimke Sisters Elizabeth Cady Stanton- advocate for abolition and Women’s suffrage Lucreita Mott- abolitionist, believed in both the rights of women and the rights of blacks. Sojourner Truth- African American feminist abolitionist, former slave-

16 Southern Response to Abolitionism
Southerners are increasingly sensitive to Abolitionist movement They end emancipation Increase limits on freed blacks Become more fearful of slave rebellions- Gabriel Prosser Virginia Denamrk Vessey Nat Turner- 1831

17 Freed Blacks 1860, South about 250,000
Black Codes- laws in the South limiting Slaves Limited in occupations Apartheid- laws based on race Could not vote Could not testify against whites in court Were limited in educational opportunity Racism in the North was also- very prevalent Example- Fredrick Douglass was attacked many times in the North

18 Nat Turner-Rebellion 1832 Slave Rebellion In Virginia Killed

19 Underground Railroad:
Secret group of abolitionists who helped runaway slaves travel to Canada Harriet Tubman- former slave helped people escape North

20 Wilmot Proviso 1846 Amendment- to the settlement of Mexican American War Said no slavery allowed in land obtained from Mexico- California, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico… (It did not pass the Senate) Crittenden Compromise (is similar)

21 Yours, very respectfully,
Ostend Manifesto Aix la Chapelle, Oct 28, 1854. We arrived at the conclusion, and are thoroughly convinced, that an immediate and earnest effort ought to be made buy the government of the United States to purchase Cuba from Spain at any price for which it can be obtained… Yours, very respectfully, James Buchanan J.Y. Mason Pierre Soule To: Hon. William L. Marcy, Secretary of State.

22 Uncle Tom’s Cabin 1852 Abolitionist propaganda Harriet Beecher Stowe
Novel designed to create anger among population Novel inflamed tensions and anger over Slavery by both North and South

23 map California Popular Sovereignty- in Former Mexican land
Fugitive Slave Law Wilmot Proviso fails No Slave Trade in Washington DC

24 Compromise of 1850: Clay and Webster
States entering the Union, California Compromise between Northern and Southern powers in Congress California enters the Union as a free state South gets a new Fugitive Slave Law said escaped slaves could be recaptured in the North and that people helping slaves could be prosecuted- $1000 fine and 6 months in jail. Slavery and Popular Sovereignty Territories that are ready for statehood could decide if they wanted slavery Slave Trade in Washington DC is banned

25 Fugitive Slave Law: Slaves that escape, were to be arrested and returned to their owners Anyone convicted of helping a fugitive slave was liable for a fine of $1000. and imprisonment for up to six months


27 Kansas-Nebraska Act Kansas Nebraska Act 1854: Very important
Sponsored by Senator Steven Douglas of Illinois Wanted to pass a railroad bill- had to appease Southern interests Repealed the Missouri Compromise- now slavery would be allowed in Louisiana Purchase- if requirements were met Said that territories of Kansas and Nebraska could decide through a vote of the people if they wanted slavery or not (Popular Sovereignty)

28 Kansas-Nebraska Act and Bleeding Kansas
Consequences: Destroys and divides the Whig party Divides Northern Democrats- those that don’t want the expansion of slavery leave party create an new and different Republican Party Causes fighting in Kansas- Pro-slavery factions (from Missouri) vs Anti-Slavery Factions from North East (John Brown begins there) Two territorial governments are formed- one slave one free, this is a mini civil war known as “Bleeding Kansas”

29 Emergence of Republican Party 1854
As people began to be more intolerant and sensitive to slavery a new political party developed. Opposed Kansas-Nebraska Act and spread of slavery in the territories The party becomes an “umbrella group” United a number of anti-slavery groups- abolitionists, Free Soilers, Whigs, Democrats, Know Nothings

30 Sumner-Brooks Affair 1856

31 How did the South react to the Dredd Scott Case?
Why does John Brown scare the hell out of the Southerners?

32 Why did the Dredd Scott Case cause so much anger in the North?

33 Dred Scott Case 1857 Dred Scott was a slave who lived in Missouri His owner took him to Illinois and Wisconsin and back to Missouri Scott brought a law suit for his freedom, it went to the Supreme Court He argued that he had lived in a free state and therefore he should be free. The Taney Chief Justice court ruled against Scott “Scott lacked legal standing to sue in Federal Court because he was not, nor ever could be a citizen.” “Being in free territory did not make a slave free.” The court cited the 5th amendment that protects property, including slaves.

34 Dredd Scott 1857 Taney Court Ruled Constitutional Justifications:
US Constitution Article 4 section 2- “No person held to service or labor in one state… escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any law or regulation therein, be discharged from such service or labor…” US Constitution, Article 4, section 3- “the Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful rules and regulations respecting the Territory or other property belonging to the United States…” (Dissenting argument) Key point: The Dred Scott Case strengthened and expanded Slave owners’ rights- Caused the rejection of all the slavery related compromises- now slavery could take place in free states. Taney Court Ruled

35 Lincoln’s Response to Dredd Scott Case
Lincoln believed that Taney’s ruling was; “Exceptional, plainly founded on error, at variance with all precedents and not at all settled.” (History Now Journal article) “We know that the court that made it, has often over-ruled its own decisions, and we shall do what we can to have it to over-rule this.” Each public functionary must support the Constitution, as he understands it.” Lincoln is very Sneaky interpreting the significance of court cases! “I will tell you here that General Jackson once said each man was bound to support the Constitution as ‘he understood it.’ Now, Judge Douglas understands the Constitution according to the Dred Scott decision, and he is bound to support it as he understands it. I understand it another way, and therefore I am bound to support it in the way in which I understand it.” (Lincoln Douglas Debate)

36 This is handsome?

37 Why does John Brown scare the hell out of the Southerners?

38 John Brown’s Raid 1859 John Brown was a radical abolitionist He wanted slaves to rise up and take their freedom 1856 he and some followers fought pro-slavery men in Kansas. Pottawatomie- he killed pro-slavery innocent men He and 21 other, both white and black attacked the Federal Arsenal at Harpers Ferry and was defeated, tried and executed Caused reaction both in the North and South, some Northerners celebrated Brown’s actions The South became outraged and convinced that they could not live safely with the North- they became convinced that the North wanted slave rebellion.

39 “Northern Friends of Constitutional Government”

40 Lincoln Lincoln’s Election (page 163-64)
Lincoln, a Congressman from Illinois, first ran for Senate against Douglas- lost- Lincoln believed Slavery was Immoral Slavery in the territories should be disallowed Believed slavery should be abolished with a constitutional amendment

41 Lincoln Douglas Debates 1858
He gained notoriety from the Senatorial election in Illinois (Lincoln Douglas debates) He and Stephan Douglas held a series of (6) debates. Douglas was in favor of popular sovereignty “Freeport Doctrine”- the people will decide the issue, not the supreme court. In those debates he put forth the idea that the concept of Equality voiced in the Declaration of Independence was meant for all human beings and that the government of the US should support this interpretation…

42 Lincoln’s View Philosophy
EQUALITY THROUGH CONSTITUTIONAL MEANS- meant protecting the established order but working for change in a clear, law abiding framework. Mostly an anti-expansion of slavery moderate Republican

43 Lincoln on Race 1858 “I as well as Judge Douglas, am in favor of the race to which I belong, having the superior position. I have never said anything to the contrary, but I hold that notwithstanding all this, there is no reason in the world why the negro is not entitled to have all the natural rights enumerated in the Declaration of Independence, the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. I hold that he is as much entitled to those rights as the white man. I agree with Judge Douglas he is not my equal in many respects- certainly not in color, perhaps not in moral or intellectual endowment. But in the right to eat the bread, without leave of anybody else, which his own hands earns, he is my equal and the equal of Judge Douglas, and the equal of every living man.”

44 Lincoln View All humans deserve freedom. “All me are born equally free. The natural right to human liberty applied to all people. Where no law established slavery, freedom prevailed.” (Territories)

45 Lincoln 1860 Republicans nominated Lincoln for president
He tried to reassure the South by stating, A Republican administration would not “Interfere with their slaves, or with them about their slaves.”

46 Election of 1860 Democrats split into Two Republican Umbrella Group:
North- Stephen Douglas- pro-compromise South- Breckenridge- the Southern candidate Republican Umbrella Group: Northern Anti-Slavery Democrats Anti-Immigration “Know Nothings” Former Whigs Abolitionists extremists

47 What factors persuaded the North to elect Republicans?
Victories by Slave Holding States Dread Scott Decision Fighting in Kansas over Slavery Kansas-Nebraska Act Compromise of 1850 Enforcement of Fugitive Slave Act Lincoln was not allowed on the ballot of 10 Southern states


49 Why does the Election results of 1860 cause the Southern states to secede?

50 Election of 1860 The 37th Congress was elected in 1860 Republicans
House = 105; Senate = 31 Democrats House = 43; Senate = 10 The 38th Congress in 1862 Republicans House = 102; Senate = 36 Democrats House = 75; Senate = 9

51 Secession Crisis Southern states fearing the end of slavery and the limitations of their rights as states, decide to leave the Union and created their own government First to go: South Carolina Dec. 1860 Mississippi Florida Alabama Georgia Louisiana Texas…

52 Buchanan, 15th President Buchanan was weak, an apologist for the South  “The south was in no real danger because Lincoln would be restrained by Congress.  The president would have to follow the dictates of the federal courts, which sustained slavery in the territories and the fugitive slave law.” If the South did secede, the president lacked the constitutional power to stop it. Perhaps a constitutional convention to pass an amendment protecting slavery in any state that now had or should later want it would calm things… would help.

53 Northern Democrats said:
“If a state secedes, it is revolution and the seceders are traitors. Those who are charged with the executive branch of government are recreant to their oaths if they fail to use all lawful means to put down such rebellion” Some senators looked back to Andrew Jackson, regarding the South Carolina nullification issue, “By the eternal, I will hang them.” “Oh for one hour of Jackson!”

54 Lincoln Before Inauguration: privately wrote
Not interfere with slavery where it existed Would favor the end of opposition to the fugitive slave law Had no intention of using the power over interstate commerce to touch slavery He desperately wanted to avert a conflict; He said, “Each and all of the states will be left in as complete control of their own affairs respectively and at as perfect liberty to choose, employ, their own means of preserving and protecting property, and preserving peace and order…” He and others both North and South Democrats wanted one more compromise. Moderate Republicans helped negotiate with moderate Southern and Northern Democrats

55 Crittenden Compromise:
Slavery within the states to be protected from national government interference The revival of the Missouri Compromise line 3630’- extended to the Pacific No interference with interstate slave trade Slaveholders who lost runaways to Northern states to be compensated Attempt was made to reassure the south and protect slavery Republicans don’t allow it. Compromise was dead.

56 Last Word From Lincoln However, Lincoln would not compromise on the issues of Expansion of Slavery and he clearly made a concerted commitment to the concept of equality and associate this with African Americans!: “ Let there be no compromise on the question of extending slavery.” “There is no possible compromise upon it… hold firm as with a chain of steel.” “ I will be inflexible on the territorial question, I am for fighting again- that is all.” Southerners were correct that he intended to reverse slavery in the territories.

57 Lincoln Agreed With Jackson Regarding Secession
The Constitution of the United States, then, forms a government, not a league; and whether it be formed by compact between the states or in any other manner, its character is the same. It is a government in which all the people are represented, which operates directly on the people individually, not upon the states; they retained all the power they did not grant. But each state, having expressly parted with so many powers as to constitute, jointly with the other states, a single nation, cannot, from that period, possess any right to secede, because such secession does not break a league, but destroys the unity of a nation; and any injury to that unity is not only a breach which would result from the contravention of a compact, but it is an offense against the whole Union. To say that any state may at pleasure secede from the Union is to say that the United States are not a nation, because it would be a solecism to contend that any part of a nation might dissolve its connection with the other parts, to their injury or ruin, without committing any offense “. . . The laws of the United States must be executed. I have no discretionary power on the subject; my duty is emphatically pronounced in the Constitution. Those who told you that you might peaceably prevent their execution deceived you; they could not have been deceived themselves But be not deceived by names. Disunion by armed force is treason. Are you really ready to incur its guilt? If you are, on the heads of the instigators of the act be the dreadful consequences; on their heads be the dishonor, but on yours may fall the punishment. On your unhappy state will inevitably fall all the evils of the conflict you force upon the government of your country The consequence must be fearful for you, distressing to your fellow citizens here and to the friends of good government throughout the world.” Andrew Jackson, Speech on Nullification, 1832.

58 End of Compromise “All hope of relief in the union, through the agency of committees, Congressional legislation or constitutional amendments is extinguished.”

59 “The Mountain People” In the South along the Appalachian range
Not Slave holders West Virginia to Northern Georgia and Alabama Resented the Rich whites in the south who owned slaves Will support the union in the WAR.

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