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Chapter 7 The Making of African Americans in a White America.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 7 The Making of African Americans in a White America."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 7 The Making of African Americans in a White America

2 Slavery The U.S. has the eighth largest Black population in the world Slavery began in 1619 with 20 Africans in Jamestown as indentured servants © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

3 Slavery 1660’s British colonies passed laws –Blacks became slaves for life –Interracial marriage was forbidden –Children of slaves bore the status of the mother regardless of father’s race © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

4 Slave Codes Legal & protected by the US Constitution as interpreted by the US Supreme Court Slavery in US rested on 5 central conditions: –Slavery was for life –Status was inherited –Slaves were considered mere property © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

5 Slave Codes –Slaves were denied rights –Coercion was used to maintain the system 1 Could not marry or meet with a free Black 2. Marriage between slaves not legally recognized © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

6 Slave Codes 3.Slave could not legally buy or sell anything except by special arrangement 4. Slave could not possess weapons or liquor 5. Slave could not quarrel with or use abusive language toward Whites © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

7 Slave Codes 6. Slave could not possess property, except as allowed by his or her owner 7. Slave could make no will, nor could he or she inherit anything 8. Slave could not make a contract or hire him or herself out © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

8 Slave Codes 9. Slave couldn’t leave plantation without a pass of his/her destination/time of return 10. No one, including Whites, was to teach a slave to read or write –Or to give a slave a book, including the Bible 11. Slave could not gamble 12. Slave had to obey established curfews © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

9 Slave Codes 13. Slave could not testify in court except against another slave Rules varied by state and were not always enforced Violations dealt with in a variety of ways –Mutilation and branding –Imprisonment was rare; most were whipped © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

10 Slave Codes Owner immune from prosecution for physical abuse Slavery and its justifying ideology emerged out of Western Colonialism Ideology of slavery & slave codes were invented primarily to: –Maintain the subjugation of Africans © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

11 Slave Codes Most slaves were from Northwestern African societies and were diverse in: –language –kinship systems –economic systems –political systems © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

12 African Americans and Africa Survival of African culture documented in: –Folklore –Religion –Language –Music Afrocentric perspective © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

13 Attack on Slavery Slavery as an institution was vulnerable to outside opinion Abolitionists –Whites and free Blacks who opposed slavery Did not believe in racial equality; i.e., Abraham Lincoln © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

14 Attack on Slavery –Spoke out against slavery and the harm to the nation Slaves revolted –Between 40,000 and 100,000 escaped from South –Fugitive slave acts provided for return, even those who reached free states © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

15 Attack on Slavery Not all attempted to escape because failure meant death –Resisted through passive resistance Feigned clumsiness or illness Pretended not to understand, see, or hear Ridiculed Whites with mocking subtle humor that owners did not comprehend © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

16 Slavery’s Aftermath The period of reconstruction –Military Governors –Black participation in the political process –Fifteenth Amendment ratified 1870 The emergence of segregation laws (Jim Crow) © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

17 Slavery’s Aftermath Supreme court decisions and segregation –Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) –Williams v. Mississippi (1898) White primary elections © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

18 Reparations For Slavery Slavery Reparation –Refers to the act of making amends for the injustice of slavery What form should reparation take? –Corporations that benefit from slavery and financial compensation –An official apology © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

19 Reparations For Slavery –Financial compensation Congressman John Conyers (Detroit) –Commission to study appropriate remedies Absence of an official apology angers many African Americans Attitudes divided along racial lines on government cash payments © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

20 Reparations For Slavery Private companies that still exist benefited from slavery –Railroads; Insurance Companies Most African Americans and some citizens disappointed by: –Unwillingness to debate issue in Washington, D.C. © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

21 The Challenge of Black Leadership Booker T. Washington –Tuskegee Institute in Tuskegee, Alabama –Politics of Accommodation Approach to White supremacy Forgo social equality until Whites saw Blacks were deserving Essential theme was compromise © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

22 The Challenge of Black Leadership –Self help and economic self determination –Congratulated by President Grover Cleveland –Organization became the Urban League W.E.B. DuBois –Born to a free family in Massachusetts –First African-American to receive a Doctorate from Harvard © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

23 The Challenge of Black Leadership –Racism as the problem of Whites –Advocated the policy of the talented tenth –Most outspoken critic of Booker T. Washington –Organization became the NAACP The Politics of Accommodation © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

24 Niagara Movement DuBois criticized Washington’s influence in Washington, D.C. –Washington’s power being used to stifle African Americans Who spoke out against the politics of accommodation © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

25 Niagara Movement –Washington caused the transfer of funds from academic programs to vocational education –Washington’s statements encouraged Whites to place the burden of the Black’s problems On the Blacks themselves DuBois advocated theory of the talented tenth as alternative © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

26 Niagara Movement –Privileged Blacks, 1/10th must serve the other 9/10th of the Black population African American education should be academic to improve their positions Invited 29 Blacks for strategy session near Niagara Falls © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

27 Niagara Movement National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) 1909 –Consisted of Blacks and Whites –Founded by the leaders of the Niagara Movement –Marked the merging of White liberalism and Black militancy © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

28 Reemergence of Black Protest World War II signaled improved economic conditions for Whites and Blacks Efforts by Blacks to contribute to the war effort at home hampered by discrimination Philip Randolph –Threatened march on Washington in 1941 Roosevelt responded by issuing executive order © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

29 Reemergence of Black Protest The Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) –Founded to fight discrimination with nonviolent direct action Restrictive Covenant –Declared unconstitutional in 1948 Military desegregated by President Truman in 1948 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

30 The Civil Rights Movement Desegregation of public schools De jure segregation –NAACP - Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka Kansas, US Supreme Court decision Marked the beginning of the Civil Rights Movement –James Meredith (1962) University of Mississippi © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

31 Civil Disobedience Belief that people have the right to disobey the law under certain circumstances Widely used by Martin Luther King, Jr. –Active non violent resistance to evil –Win friendship and understanding of opponents © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

32 Civil Disobedience –Attack forces of evil rather than people doing evil –Accept suffering without retaliation –Refusing to hate the opponent –Acting with the conviction that the universe is on the side of justice © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

33 Urban Violence and Oppression Explaining Violence –Riff-Raff/Rotten Apple Theory Riot participants were mostly unemployed youth with criminal records Discredited the rioters and left the barrel of apples, White society, untouched © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

34 Urban Violence and Oppression –Relative Deprivation Conscious feeling of negative discrepancy –Between legitimate expectations & present actualities –Rising Expectations Refers to the increasing sense of frustration that legitimate needs are being blocked © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

35 Black Power Born not of Black but of White violence Phrase frightened Whites and offended Blacks Stokely Carmichael Black Panther Party –Founded by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale in Oakland, California in October 1966 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

36 The Religious Force Black leaders emerged from the pulpits Religion always a source of political change and spiritual strength –From slavery to the present Most African Americans are overwhelmingly Protestant © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

37 The New Immigration New immigration trends from Africa and the Caribbean Diverse group of young immigrants as students, to join relatives and as refugees Experience the same problems of transitioning into a new society –Experienced by other-immigrants © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.


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