Presentation on theme: "Slavery. Slavery in Africa Who: Black Africans who lived south of the Sahara Desert. What: When: Where: Sold as slaves to white Arabic traders from northern."— Presentation transcript:
Slavery in Africa Who: Black Africans who lived south of the Sahara Desert. What: When: Where: Sold as slaves to white Arabic traders from northern Africa by their own tribal leaders or more powerful enemies. As early as 1619. Slave trade continued until 1808. Raw materials from North America were sent to Europe & made into manufactured goods which were then traded to Africa for slaves. The slaves were shipped to North America for more raw materials creating the cycle of triangular trade. 5th Grade: Standard 3.1 & 3.2
Triangular Trade North America Europe Africa Why: Everyone involved was making money, but slavery directly benefited the southern colonial economy. answer 5th Grade: Standard 3.2
The Middle Passage The crossing of the Atlantic Ocean generally to the West Indies, Charleston, & Boston. Many ships only had 18 inches between the decks so that slaves could not lie on their sides. They were chained by the necks & legs. Bodily functions took place where they lay. Those on the bottom decks were covered with vomit & urine. Sometimes those who died were left chained to the living. Witnesses describe the odor as being so bad even livestock would not enter the ships once they had been used as slavers. 5th Grade: Standard 3.1
562 slaves on the Feloz ship captured by the English navy. 55 slaves had been thrown overboard in 17 days. The space was so low they sat between each other legs and so close to each other they could not lie down. Slaves were branded and chained together. The space between the decks held two compartments (3'3" high) (16 ft x 18 ft) (288 sq. ft.) and it held 226 slaves. The heat & odor was so offensive that it made it impossible to enter even if there had been room.
Which continent was not involved in colonial triangular trade for slavery? A. North America B. Australia C. Europe D. Africa
What materials did the new world colonies trade for slaves? A. peanuts B. molasses/sugar cane C. manufactured goods D. livestock
The leg of a slave's journey across the Atlantic from the west coast of Africa to the colonies was called... A. The Northwest Passage B. The Passage to Freedom C. The Pacific Passage D. The Middle Passage
Slaves on a plantation performed many jobs. JOBS 5th Grade: Standard 3.2 8th Grade: Standard 2.2, 6.3, 6.4, 10.1 & 10.2
Men's JobsWomen's Jobs Similarities overseer carpenter plow plant corn planter house servant wagoner fill gullies weaving cooking strip tobacco make fences pack fish washing clean out stable burn trash 5th Grade: Standard 3.2 8th Grade: Standard 2.2, 6.3, 6.4, 10.1 & 10.2
Living Conditions Lived in cramped houses and straw beds/furniture. Made their own pots & pans. (i.e. A hollowed out pumpkin to cook food in called a calabash.) Received one pair of shoes & three pairs of underwear. Many slaves were branded so they could be easily identified. Ate a diet of fatty meat and cornbread 5th Grade: Standard 3.2 8th Grade: Standard 2.2, 6.3, 6.4, 10.1 & 10.2
Worked from sunrise to sunset with one day a month off. Seldom received medical care unless danger of losing the slave. Most not allowed to learn to read or write. Some could go to church. Punishment consisted of beatings, hobbling & maiming. Living Conditions Cont'd. Free time spent mending huts & making pots & pans. 5th Grade: Standard 3.2 8th Grade: Standard 2.2, 6.3, 6.4, 10.1 & 10.2
Write a paragraph describing the living conditions of the slaves.
Abolitionists An abolitionist was a person who wanted to do away with slavery. In the 1830's abolitionists began to speak out in public. The earliest group to speak out in North America against slavery was the Society of Friends, known as Quakers. The Quakers were involved in the underground railroad. 5th Grade: Standard 6.5 8th Grade: Standard 2.2, 8.2, 8.6, & 10.4 High School: Standard 2.3
One of the earliest Quakers to assist were hiding and transporting slaves was Levi & Catharine Coffin. Their home was called the "Grand Central Station of the Underground Railroad". The Coffins along with other "stations" on the underground railroad hid slaves in their homes. The picture on the left depicts a hiding room that could be covered by the bed. The wagon to the right shows the false bottom where slaves could hide.
Slaves, such as Harriet Tubman, were assisted in running away by Quakers. Many free ex-slaves took part in the Underground Railroad. Harriet Tubman was the most famous "conductor" and guided more than 300 slaves along the Underground Railroad. Runaway slaves followed the North star to Canada. Known as "The Moses" of the underground railroad. 5th Grade: Standard 6.5 8th Grade: Standard 2.2, 8.2, 8.6, & 10.4
John Brown By the time he was 50, John Brown was entranced by visions of slave uprisings, during which racists paid horribly for their sins. He came to regard himself as commissioned by God to make that vision a reality. He went to Kansas in 1855 where he organized a militia that attacked pro- slavery settlements, which is referred to as "Bleeding Kansas." In 1859 he organized a raid on the arsenal at Harpers Ferry in Virginia. They were captured in the process by Col. Robert E. Lee. After a sensational trial, they were found guilty and Brown was hanged, making him a martyr in the north. 5th Grade: Standard 6.5 8th Grade: Standard 2.2, 8.2, 8.6, & 10.4
William Lloyd Garrison & Frederick Douglass In 1831, Garrison, a radical abolitionist, started his own newspaper, the Liberator. Its purpose was to educate people about the cruelty of slavery and recruit new members to the abolition movement. Garrison also helped establish the American Anti-Slavery Society. Frederick Baily was born a slave in 1818 in Maryland. After years of hard labor, abuse, and resentment, Frederick, about 20, was determined to escape to freedom. With a borrowed document that certified that the person named on it was a free seaman and dressed in a sailor's red shirt and black cravat, Frederick boarded the train to Delaware; then he took a steamboat to Philadelphia. On September 4, 1838, Frederick arrived in New York City. He became an important speaker in the abolition movement. He published a news magazine called the North Star. 5th Grade: Standard 6.5 8th Grade: Standard 2.2, 8.2, 8.6, & 10.4 High School: Standard 2.3
Harriet Beecher Stowe Author of Uncle Tom's Cabin. When Abraham Lincoln met Harriet Beecher Stowe he said "So this is the little lady who made this big war." The writing of Uncle Tom's Cabin called attention to the horrors of slavery and stirred the passions of northerners, even those who weren't previous abolitionists. http://www.womenwriters.net/domesticgoddess/stowe1.htm 5th Grade: Standard 6.5 8th Grade: Standard 2.2, 8.2, 8.6, & 10.4
Sojourner Truth, Elizabeth Cady Stanton & Susan B. Anthony Sojourner Truth/Isabella Baumfree was born a slave in 1797. She escaped from slavery and wandered to the home of the man that then bought her freedom for $20. She became very religious and inspired to preach. She spoke about anti-slavery and women's rights. In 1854 she gave her famous speech "Ain't I a Woman?" in Ohio. She joined the Quakers & worked for the good of the freedmen after the Civil War. Elizabeth Cady Stanton's father said on her birth "Oh my daughter, I wish you were a boy!" She was an abolitionist with a passion for women's rights. Susan B. Anthony was a Quaker, teacher, temperance (anti-alcohol) & abolition organizer, outstanding women's rights leader with sharp political instincts. She and Elizabeth Cady Stanton organized the National American Woman Suffrage Association. 5th Grade: Standard 6.5 8th Grade: Standard 2.2, 8.2, 8.6, & 10.4 High School: Standard 4.3
John Brown Susan B. Anthony Levi Coffin Sojourner Truth Harriet Tubman Frederick Douglass William Lloyd Garrison Harriet Beecher Stowe Elizabeth Cady Stanton Name the abolitionists. Wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin. Home was the Grand Central Station of the underground railroad. "Oh my daughter I wish you were a boy." Isabella Baumfree Led raid on Harpers Ferry. Referred to as "Moses." Leader of women's suffrage movement Publisher of Liberator. Former slave. Publisher of North Star.
Sectional Differences Agriculture - Plantations grew tobacco, rice, cotton & indigo that they sold elsewhere. Large slave workforce. The majority of southern farms were small with few slaves. New England colonies - farming & fishing, self sustaining, grew their own food & crops (i.e. corn & wheat) that were sold elsewhere. Middle colonies - mixture of agriculture & industry (iron, paper & textiles) Life & activities were centered around the town. The church played a strong role in setting up the government of each community. Societal relationships depended upon the colony. New England colonies were very Puritanic while middle colonies were less religious. Little or no town life. Villages were few and insignificant. The planter was at the head of society and the plantation was at the center of social life. Small farmers of the South, more numerous were thrifty and industrial. There was an almost impassable barrier between them and the servants & slaves. The Puritan religion dominated the culture of New England. Very strict rules & consequences. People sat in order of social rank in the church. The middle colonies' culture was more accepting of religious differences. Their society was more city oriented. Port cities, like New York, were more international. Church services were on the plantation/farm. The planters enjoyed every luxury and their sons were educated and raised to participate in government. On small farms children were trained to be farmers and to manage the home. 8th Grade: Standard 10.1 High School: Standard 2.1 Economic Social Cultural DifferencesNorth South
Eli Whitney & the Cotton Gin By 1790 slavery was declining. Cotton could be grown in only a few places so the south had no money crop to export. Whitney invented a machine which could work like fingers by pulling the lint out of the cotton flower. The seeds were held back by a sieve. This invention changed the south's ability to produce cotton and created a greater need for slaves. The slaves were needed to plant, hoe and harvest the cotton. In the south, Cotton became "King" and northern and European demand for cotton by the textile industry revived the institution of slavery as well as many southern plantations. 8th Grade: Standard 10.2 High School: Standard 2.1
Sectionalism of Daniel Webster & John C. Calhoun John C. Calhoun was a congressman from South Carolina and later a vice president of the United States under John Quincy Adams & Andrew Jackson. He was a strong supporter of states' rights and, in a disagreement, resigned from the vice presidency in 1843. Calhoun believed that states had the right to overrule any federal law with which they disagreed. Daniel Webster was a champion of American nationalism. His fame as an northern orator grew with his experience as a lawyer. His words "liberty and union, now and forever, one and inseparable!" won wide acclaim. In 1841 he became Secretary of State but resigned after the death of William Henry Harrison. Webster opposed expansion because he feared the issue of the expansion of slavery would lead to the dissolution of the Union. 8th Grade: Standard 10.3 High School: Standard 2.1
Events leading to the Civil War Compromise of 1850: To settle the disagreement as to whether slavery would be spread into the country's new territories. North of 36°30' there would be no slavery. Kansas & Nebraska Act: Established the Kansas & Nebraska territories and stated that popular sovereignty would determine whether or not there would be slavery in those territories. Dred Scott v. Sanford: Dred Scott, slave who had lived in free territory, sued for his freedom. The supreme court concluded that the "...enslaved African race were not included, and form no part of the people who framed and adopted this declaration..." of independence. Therefore, Scott was ordinary article of merchandise which did not have a person's right to sue. Uncle Tom's Cabin: Stowe's book brought attention to the evils of slavery. Harper's Ferry: Brown's raid on the arsanal stirred southern fears of slave uprisings and northern passions against slavery. 8th Grade: Standard 10.4 High School: Standard 2.2
Causes of the Civil War States vs. federal rights Economic and social differences between the north and the south The fight between slave and non-slave state proponents Growth of the abolition movement The election of Abraham Lincoln 8th Grade: Standard 10 (all objectives)
Life after the Civil War Although the 13th Amendment officially ended slavery, de facto slavery continued as standard practice in the treatment of black Americans. Black codes: The black codes of 1865 served as a way to inhibit the freedom of ex-slaves. They controlled all aspects of life such as marriage, speech, movement, occupation choice, rights to hold and sell property, education and voting. Ku Klux Klan: Established in Tennessee in 1866. Tortured and killed black Americans and sympathetic whites and later immigrants. The first objective was to stop black people from voting. Plessy v. Ferguson: Supreme court decision in 1896 allowing for separate but equal accommodations for blacks and whites on railroads. This decision provided the legal foundation for other government actions to separate blacks and whites. It was Overturned in 1954 by Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka. Jim Crow Codes: After reconstruction gains were stripped away, these codes beginning in the 1890's restricted black access and participation in many public areas and facilities. For example: white nurses were not allowed to care for black patients. There were separate waiting rooms, bathrooms and drinking fountains in public facilities.