2 Southern Antislavery Emancipation in early Republic North uses gradual emancipationSouth sees some support for emancipationSoutherners on slavery and abolitionSouth fears moral consequencesSouth sees blacks as inferiorSouth fears large black populationSouth sees themselves as protectors
3 Southern Antislavery (cont.’d) American Colonization SocietyEncourages owners to free slavesEncourages emigration to LiberiaUnrealistic due to numbersLittle support among African AmericansThe last debate, December 1831Virginia considers gradual abolitionSeriously debates issuesLoses by fairly close marginLast rational southern debate on issue
4 Threats to Southern Order Fear of rebellionHaiti revolt, 1798Gabriel plans revolt, 1800Denmark Vesey plans revolt, 1822Nat Turner’s RebellionTurner: literate, religious fanatic, slaveTurner’s visions inspire revoltRebels kill 60 whites; revolt endsSouth becomes terrified of revolts
5 The South Closes Ranks South protects “peculiar institution” South insulated from outside ideasSouth depicts slavery as a positive goodSouth reforms slave codesSuppressionDistribution of abolitionist literature forbiddenPassage of “gag rule” in House of RepresentativesSlavery as a “positive good”Thomas Roderick Dew: superior labor systemJohn C. Calhoun: “a positive good”George Fitzhugh, sociologistA Sociology for the SouthSlaves have better life than northern laborersSlaves cared for all of their lives
6 The South Closes Ranks (cont.’d) The Bible, the Ancients and CultureStated Bible approved slaveryPointed to great Greek and Roman societies having slavesMore southerners college educatedBelieved descendents of aristocracyRace as Trump CardFitzhugh again said slavery protected blacksJosiah Nott measured skull size to try and justifySlave managementNew emphasis on providing basic necessities to slavesHealthy slaves provide better workersBetter treatment also response to abolitionists
7 The South Closes Ranks (cont.’d) Slave controlHarder to set slaves freeIllegal to teach slaves to readSlave patrols keep slaves on plantationMasters control religious teachings
8 “What was slavery like?” Conflicting images of slaveryRomantic view of warmth between master and slaveAbolitionist view of horrible inhumane actsMinstrel “blackface” performersProvide light entertainmentPerform songs in dialectProject racist stereotypesDepict slaves as carefreeStephen FosterComposer, romanticizes slavery in songDepicts warm relationshipsCreates nostalgia for Old South
9 What was Slavery like? (cont.’d) Slave tradersSlaves chattel propertySlave trade very uglySlave auctions very crudeTrade flows from upper to lower South
10 Life in the Quarters Life in the quarters Slaves have no civil rights Cannot own property, marry, learn to readCannot leave plantation, congregate, etc.Rights only to life and minimum subsistence
11 Life in the Quarters Humans Without Rights Diverse Institution Master cannot legally kill slaveSlave dying during punishment not murderWhipping most common punishmentSlaves too expensive to mistreat to point of deathDiverse InstitutionMany owners maintain higher standards of treatmentSmall owners often develop “partnership” with slavesRations tend to be better on large plantationsSome masters permit slaves more rights
12 Protest Slaves found ways to protest Runaways constant problem Malingering normalThieving commonRunaways constant problemClear indication of slave discontentSuccess hard outside of border statesUnderground railwayHarriet Tubman
13 Protest (cont.’d) Most slaves Protestant Christians Typically Baptist or MethodistIdentify with ancient HebrewsExpress discontent in sermons, spiritualsProtest through folk talesBr’er Rabbit stories (Uncle Remus)Roots in West African folkloreWeak outwit the strong
14 Protest (cont.’d) The slave community Slaves present different face to whitesSlave family vital forceTwo-parent families typicalSlave population grew through reproduction
16 Discussion QuestionsDescribe and explain how southerners justified slavery.Examine slave rebellions in American history. Why were Southerners so afraid of slave rebellion? Were any of these rebellions successful?What was the gag rule? How and why were southern politicians so willing to curtail all discussion of slavery?What steps were slave-owners willing to go to control slaves? How effective were these methods?
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