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By: Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY Additions by M. Lynde Currituck County High School Barco, NC.

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Presentation on theme: "By: Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY Additions by M. Lynde Currituck County High School Barco, NC."— Presentation transcript:

1 By: Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY Additions by M. Lynde Currituck County High School Barco, NC

2 Overview Slavery as a “peculiar institution” rooted in both racism and economic exploitationSlavery as a “peculiar institution” rooted in both racism and economic exploitation American slave population is only enslaved population that grew by means of own biological reproductionAmerican slave population is only enslaved population that grew by means of own biological reproduction Distinctive African American culture flourishedDistinctive African American culture flourished It was a “cancer” in heart of American democracy - it mocked the model of social and political enlightenment that America claimed to beIt was a “cancer” in heart of American democracy - it mocked the model of social and political enlightenment that America claimed to be

3 Overview Early on Thomas Jefferson - truly contradictory himselfEarly on Thomas Jefferson - truly contradictory himself Early Republic banned slavery in Northwest in 1787Early Republic banned slavery in Northwest in 1787 Prohibited further importation of slaves as of 1808Prohibited further importation of slaves as of 1808 Missouri Compromise of 1820Missouri Compromise of 1820 Eli Whitney’s Cotton Gin 1790 meant southern planter class increasingly dependent on slave labor and cotton cultivation moved westwardEli Whitney’s Cotton Gin 1790 meant southern planter class increasingly dependent on slave labor and cotton cultivation moved westward War with Mexico 1840sWar with Mexico 1840s Compromise 1850Compromise 1850 “Bleeding” Kansas Nebraska Act 1854“Bleeding” Kansas Nebraska Act 1854 Dred Scott 1857Dred Scott 1857

4 American Slavery 1. Most slaves were satisfied with their lot. They laughed a lot, appeared happy-go-lucky, and sang spirituals while they worked. 2. Most slaves led passive, tranquil lives. 3. There were few runaways. 4. Most Southerners owned slaves. 5. Most Northerners were avid abolitionists. 6. There were many slave suicides, and infanticides were fairly common. 7. Masters killed their old slaves when they could no longer work. 8. Slaves had no concept of a loving, caring family. 9. Most masters were benevolent. Many showed affection to their slaves, worked alongside them, and were buried in the same graveyards. 10. Most male slaves lusted after white women and were a threat to their safety. 11. Slaves were better off than Northern factory workers (Yankee wage slaves). 12. Slavery was a cheap, efficient labor system. 13. Most slave owners owned hundreds of slaves.

5 Overview Civil War about slavery and economy but also about viability of the Union as well.Civil War about slavery and economy but also about viability of the Union as well. IC = “Could a democratic gov’t built on the principle of popular consent, rightfully deny some of its citizens the same right to independence that he American revolutionaries had exercised in seceding from the British empire in 1776?”IC = “Could a democratic gov’t built on the principle of popular consent, rightfully deny some of its citizens the same right to independence that he American revolutionaries had exercised in seceding from the British empire in 1776?” Reconstruction: combination of weak northern will and residual southern power frustrated the goal of making emancipated blacks full-fledged American citizens. IC = “The Civil War in the end brought nothing but freedom- but over time, freedom proved a powerful tool indeed”IC = “The Civil War in the end brought nothing but freedom- but over time, freedom proved a powerful tool indeed”

6 Early Emancipation in the North

7 Missouri Compromise, 1820

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9 Cotton Kingdom develops to huge agricultural factory Northern shippers reaped a large part of the profits from the cotton trade IC - to a large degree, the prosperity of the both the North and the South rested on the bent backs of slaves South produced more than half the world’s cotton supply- A fact that held foreign nations in economic bondage to the South. -Britain was the world economic superpower and 1/5 of its population drew its wealth from cotton cloth - 75% of that cotton came from the South - South knew it

10 Slaves Picking Cotton on a Mississippi Plantation

11 Slaves Using the Cotton Gin

12 Changes in Cotton Production

13 Value of Cotton Exports As % of All US Exports

14 “Hauling the Whole Week’s Pickings” William Henry Brown, 1842

15 Slaves Working in a Sugar-Boiling House, 1823

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17 Southern Society as an Oligarchy rather than a Democracy Planter aristocrats had the majority of the wealth Planter aristocrats had the majority of the wealth –Educated their children in private schools –These young became experts at statecraft: John C. Calhoun; Jefferson Davis - felt a keen sense to serve the public –But widened gap b/w rich and poor –No reason to favor tax-supported public education

18 Southern Population

19 Slaves posing in front of their cabin on a Southern plantation.

20 Tara – Plantation Reality or Myth? Hollywood’s Version?

21 A Real Georgia Plantation

22 Scarlet and Mammie (Hollywood Again!)

23 A Real Mammie & Her Charge Note how your text deliberately (?) uses the word “bondswoman”

24 The Southern “Belle”

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26 IC The “Wasteful” Plantation System 1.Economic system becomes monopolistic Small farmers must sell their landholdings and move north or westSmall farmers must sell their landholdings and move north or west 2.Financial instability of the system –Led to over speculation in land and slaves –(supporting evidence) slaves fed for.10 cents a day but could cost $1,200 each; they could be injured; they could run away; they could be wiped out by disease 3.Agribusiness - King Cotton meant one crop economy. No diversification or industry 4.Southern planters resent watching North grow fat at their expense –(supporting cultural division) Southerners resent being wrapped in Northern cloth, coffins with Yankee nails 5.Cotton Kingdom repelled large scale European immigration –No diversity of people –Irish immigration competes with slave labor

27 Southern Agriculture

28 Graniteville Textile Co. Founded in 1845, it was the South’s first attempt at industrialization in Richmond, VA

29 Characteristics of the Antebellum South 1.Primarily agrarian. 2.Economic power shifted from the “upper South” to the “lower South.” 3.“Cotton Is King!” * 1860  5 mil. bales a yr. (57% of total US exports). 4.Very slow development of industrialization. 5.Rudimentary financial system. 6.Inadequate transportation system.

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31 1/4 of white southerners owned slaves1/4 of white southerners owned slaves –Smaller slave owners did not own a majority of the slaves but they made up the majority of the masters –Typically modest farmhouses, working with and eating with the slaves Beneath them: 3/4 white southerners owned no slavesBeneath them: 3/4 white southerners owned no slaves – Redneck farmers living on thinner soils of backcountry and mountains. –Subsistence farmers - corn and hogs. Isolated lives Below them - “poor white trash”Below them - “poor white trash” IC -all these whites without slaves had no direct stake in preservation of slavery yet they were among the stoutest defenders. Why?IC -all these whites without slaves had no direct stake in preservation of slavery yet they were among the stoutest defenders. Why?

32 Southern Society (1850) “Slavocracy” [plantation owners] The “Plain Folk” [white yeoman farmers] 6,000,000 Black Freemen Black Slaves 3,200, ,000 Total US Population  23,000,000 [9,250,000 in the South = 40%]

33 Slave-Owning Families (1850)

34 Slave-Owning Population (1850)

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36 IC -all these whites without slaves had no direct stake in preservation of slavery yet they were among the stoutest defenders. Why? –Hope of American dream - one day they might own slaves –Fierce in need to proclaim racial superiority (Jerry Springer theory…?) –Always want to outrank someone else “Thus did the logic of economics join with the illogic of racism in buttressing (supporting) the slave system”

37 NC Mountain Boys (Appalachian) Little in common with whites of flatlandsLittle in common with whites of flatlands Isolated- Elizabethan EnglishIsolated- Elizabethan English “ rich man’s war but poor man’s fight”“ rich man’s war but poor man’s fight” IC - when war came this group formed a vital Union peninsula jutting down into secessionist territory

38 Narratives # “slavery control” “hiring out” “lying out” “dissident slaves” “black entrepreneur slaves” “Apprenticeship system” What are the commonalities? what is the source? Is there a possibility of bias in slave narratives? Motivation?

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48 Narratives # “slavery control” “hiring out” “lying out” “dissident slaves” “black entrepreneur slaves” “Apprenticeship system” What are the commonalities? what is the source? Is there a possibility of bias in slave narratives? Motivation?

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50 Free blacks purchased freedom purchased freedom often illegal to marry within the state of residenceoften illegal to marry within the state of residence Owned propertyOwned property Owned other slavesOwned other slaves Couldn’t testify in courtCouldn’t testify in court Vulnerable to being kidnapped and sold into slaveryVulnerable to being kidnapped and sold into slavery Freed blacks unpopular in NorthFreed blacks unpopular in North –Compete with immigrant labor –Frederick Douglas

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52 Slave Auction Notice, 1823

53 Slave Auction: Charleston, SC-1856

54 Slave Master Brands Slave Accoutrements Slave muzzle

55 Anti-Slave Pamphlet

56 Slave tag, SC Slave Accoutrements Slave leg irons Slave shoes

57 A Slave Family

58 The Ledger of John White J Matilda Selby, 9, $ sold to Mr. Covington, St. Louis, $ J Brooks Selby, 19, $ Left at Home – Crazy J Fred McAfee, 22, $ Sold to Pepidal, Donaldsonville, $ J Howard Barnett, 25, $ Ranaway. Sold out of jail, $ J Harriett Barnett, 17, $ Sold to Davenport and Jones, Lafourche, $900.00

59 US Laws Regarding Slavery 1.U. S. Constitution: * 3/5s compromise [I.2] * fugitive slave clause [IV.2]  Fugitive Slave Act  stronger Fugitive Slave Act.

60 Southern Slavery--> An Aberration? J 1780s: 1 st antislavery society created in Phila. J By 1804: slavery eliminated from last northern state. J 1807: the legal termination of the slave trade, enforced by the Royal Navy. J 1820s: newly indep. Republics of Central & So. America declared their slaves free. J 1833: slavery abolished throughout the British Empire. J 1844: slavery abolished in the Fr. colonies. J 1861: the serfs of Russia were emancipated.

61 Slavery Was Less Efficient in the U. S. than Elsewhere J High cost of keeping slaves from escaping. J GOAL  raise the “exit cost.” u Slave patrols. u Southern Black Codes. u Cut off a toe or a foot.

62 African American Culture Deep South - relatively staple culture so more distinctive cultureDeep South - relatively staple culture so more distinctive culture Dance, religion (Israelites in Egypt - “let my people go”), “sister” and “brother”Dance, religion (Israelites in Egypt - “let my people go”), “sister” and “brother”

63 The Culture of Slavery 1.Black Christianity [Baptists or Methodists]: * more emotional worship services. * negro spirituals. 2.“Pidgin” or Gullah languages. 3.Nuclear family with extended kin links, where possible. 4.Importance of music in their lives. [esp. spirituals].

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65 Slave Resistance 1.“SAMBO” pattern of behavior used as a charade in front of whites [the innocent, laughing black man caricature – bulging eyes, thick lips, big smile, etc.].

66 Slave Resistance 2.Refusal to work hard. 3.Isolated acts of sabotage. 4.Escape via the Underground Railroad.

67 Runaway Slave Ads

68 Quilt Patterns as Secret Messages The Monkey Wrench pattern, on the left, alerted escapees to gather up tools and prepare to flee; the Drunkard Path design, on the right, warned escapees not to follow a straight route.

69 Slave Rebellions Throughout the Americas

70 Slave Rebellions in the Antebellum South 1822 Gabriel Prosser 1800 Henrico, VA Charleston, S.C. On August 30, 2007, Virginia Governor Tim Kaine informally pardoned Gabriel and his co-conspirators

71 Slave Rebellions in the Antebellum South: Nat Turner, 1831

72 Abolitionist Movement 1816  American Colonization Society created (gradual, voluntary emancipation. British Colonization Society symbol

73 Abolitionist Movement eCreate a free slave state in Liberia, West Africa. eNo real anti-slavery sentiment in the North in the 1820s & 1830s. GradualistsImmediatists

74 Reformers of the Era Theodore Dwight Weld - spiritually inspired. Rebels at Lane Theological Seminary in Cincinnati, Ohio = “Lane Rebels”Theodore Dwight Weld - spiritually inspired. Rebels at Lane Theological Seminary in Cincinnati, Ohio = “Lane Rebels”

75 Anti-Slavery Alphabet

76 William Lloyd Garrison ( ) eSlavery & Masonry undermined republican values. eImmediate emancipation with NO compensation. eSlavery was a moral, not an economic issue. R2-4

77 The Liberator Premiere issue  January 1, 1831 R2-5

78 Other White Abolitionists Lewis Tappan Arthur Tappan James Birney eLiberty Party. eRan for President in 1840 & 1844.

79 Black Abolitionists David Walker ( ) 1829  Appeal to the Coloured Citizens of the World Fight for freedom rather than wait to be set free by whites.

80 Frederick Douglass ( ) 1845  The Narrative of the Life Of Frederick Douglass 1847  “The North Star” R2-12

81 1852 Speech of Frederick Douglass in honor of signing of Declaration of Independence, “This Fourth of July is yours, not mine. You may rejoice, I must mourn…. Above your national, tumultuous joy, I hear the mournful wail of millions”

82 Sojourner Truth ( ) or Isabella Baumfree 1850  The Narrative of Sojourner Truth R2-10

83 Harriet Tubman ( ) eHelped over 300 slaves to freedom. e$40,000 bounty on her head. eServed as a Union spy during the Civil War. “Moses”

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85 Slave Rebellions in the Antebellum South: Nat Turner, 1831

86 Turning Point: Virginia Legislature Debate emancipation proposals emancipation proposals defeated defeated result: tightened slave codes result: tightened slave codes result: no emancipation whatsoever - voluntary or compensated! It is illegal! result: no emancipation whatsoever - voluntary or compensated! It is illegal!

87 Va Legislature Debate Thomas Wright If you wish to speak of economic advantages, I have some facts for you to consider regarding the efficiency of free labor and slave labor. The best estimates are that it takes six slaves to do the work of three free laborers. The slave receives the same support and food whether he works much or little. The slave has every inducement to spare himself as much work as possible without drawing punishment. Free laborers work hard for short periods. This gives them free time to be idle. When idle, the free laborer does not have to be paid. Therefore, free labor is cheaper than slave labor. In 1800, field hands were selling for $400 and cotton was 36 cents per pound. Today slaves sell for $800 to $1000 and cotton is 11½ cents per pound. One half of the slave owners have fewer than twenty slaves. The economic loss of slaves as property will be more than offset by decreased labor cost and greater productivity. Emancipation can result in a greater supply of cheap labor that will mean profitable industrial operation. Of course, safeguards must be taken to see that laborers are not exploited or abused.

88 Va Legislature Debate Amos Lovejoy Slaves should be freed but not all at once. As a step toward complete freedom, several practices should change. The power of punishing slaves could be taken from the master and given to a magistrate. The sale of all women could be stopped at once. All slaves could be provided wages rather than using punishment as an incentive. A second step could involve the complete release of slaves born on certain days periodically. Over a period of years, all slaves could be set free. Such a system has already worked in Mexico, Chile, and Argentina. In no case has there been insurrection and bloodshed as is feared here. Taking steps toward freeing slaves will lessen the possibility of violence and insurrection.

89 Va Legislature Debate James Hammond In the state of Virginia, there are 470,000 slaves. The aggregate value of the slave population in Virginia in 1830 was $94,000,000. All of the land and homes were valued at $206,000,000. Slaves represent one-third of the property. Therefore, slaves should not be freed without just compensation to their owners. I propose that those slaves normally sold outside this state be sold to the State and colonized elsewhere at the expense of the State. This proposal will mean that 6,000 slaves would be given their freedom annually and colonized at the expense of the State. This would cost $2,400,000 annually. This is a modest investment to preserve the economy of the state. If the State cannot afford it, perhaps the federal government could be called upon to compensate owners for their slaves.

90 Va Legislature Debate Samuel Holt The idea of emancipation and relocation as proposed by some sounds good. However, further examination exposes some flaws in this plan. To ask State or Congress to purchase two million slaves at $400,000,000 is out of the question. This will place far too great a burden upon those taxpayers who have never owned to plan to own slaves. When the government begins to buy slaves, it will cause the price of slaves to go up considerably. This will cause slave owners to encourage their slaves to marry and produce more children, thus compounding the problem. I ask those who say colonize the slaves: Where? Liberia now has a population of 2,500. At the most, Liberia could handle 500 new residents a year. If only 500 slaves were freed and located annually, in a 25-year period 41,000 more slaves would be born than relocated.

91 Va Legislature Debate Thornton Ruffin I am opposed to emancipation of the slaves until some way can be found to sustain the trade and commerce generated by the cultivation of cotton and tobacco. Two-thirds of the cotton produced in this country is exported. This greatly helps our balance of trade with Europe. Only one-forty-sixth of the remaining agricultural production is exported. At the present time, one- sixth of the blacks in the country are free. They shun the cottonfields. I will favor emancipation of slaves only when we can assure that blacks will remain in the cotton and tobacco labor market. If this cannot be assured, to give the slaves their freedom would ruin the economy of the South and seriously injure the economy of the North and England.

92 Va Legislature Debate Stringfellow Holmes The impact of emancipation upon employment of free laborers and artisans will be devastating. The rate of pay in the North is now much lower than in the South. Sample Wages: Average Farmhands Earn Per Month North Carolina$10.37 North Carolina$10.37 Alabama Alabama Mississippi Mississippi Indiana Indiana Average US Daily Wages: Bricklaying Carpentry Labor Nashville$ $ $ Nashville$ $ $ Lowell$ $ $.75 – 1.00 Lowell$ $ $.75 – 1.00 If slaves are freed, the impact on the labor market will be devastating. Wages will go down and many will be unemployed. The cost for room and board will probably go up tremendously. Average room and board per week is now: $2.70 in Louisiana 1.30 in Tennessee 1.30 in Tennessee 1.70 in Pennsylvania 1.70 in Pennsylvania 1.75 in South Carolina 1.75 in South Carolina 1.49 in Illinois 1.49 in Illinois 2.12 in Massachusetts 2.12 in Massachusetts Presently, there is no begging, starvation, and unemployment in our state and the South. This will change if slaves are suddenly freed.

93 Southern Fears Nat TurnerNat Turner William Lloyd Garrison’s The LiberatorWilliam Lloyd Garrison’s The Liberator Nullification Crisis 1832Nullification Crisis 1832

94 Southern Pro-Slavery Propaganda

95 Southern Defense of Slavery Supported by authority of the BibleSupported by authority of the Bible Wisdom of AristotleWisdom of Aristotle “happy lot of servants” vs. factory life of immigrant workers“happy lot of servants” vs. factory life of immigrant workers Post war - Freedom was bigger burden for African Americans?- no health care, no literacy, no knowledge of law, no knowledge of contract law (sharecropping)Post war - Freedom was bigger burden for African Americans?- no health care, no literacy, no knowledge of law, no knowledge of contract law (sharecropping)

96 Congress 1836 Gag rule1836 Gag rule 1835 Postal system can not deliver abolistionist literature1835 Postal system can not deliver abolistionist literature

97 Abolition in the North 1.Extreme abolitionists (Garrison) unpopular in the North IC - popularity of men like Daniel Webster stressing the UnionIC - popularity of men like Daniel Webster stressing the Union IC - Constitution is sacred and the clauses on slavery are lasting clausesIC - Constitution is sacred and the clauses on slavery are lasting clauses 2.North had heavy economic stake in the South 3.Mobocracy due to abolitionism –Lewis Tappan’s New York house –Garrison and the Broadcloth mob –Elijah P Lovejoy –Even Lincoln avoided extreme abolitionism IC - growing number Northerners didn’t want to abolish slavery in the South but increasingly wanted to stop its spread to Western territories


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