Presentation on theme: "Slavery in America 1609-1865. Origins Slavery has existed since the beginning of human history. People were enslaved for a number of reasons some of which."— Presentation transcript:
Origins Slavery has existed since the beginning of human history. People were enslaved for a number of reasons some of which include; being captured in battle, owing a debt or being born to slave parents. The word “slave” comes from the Slavic people of eastern Europe who were conquered so often that the their name became synonymous with servitude. Most cultures around the world have practiced slavery in one form or another.
Middle Passage The leg of the Atlantic slave trade that transported African people from Africa to slave markets in the Americas. It was called the Middle Passage because it was the second of the three part triangle trade route. Slaves were packed tightly on ships, shackled and fed very little for the 3-5 month journey. About 18 million Africans were transported between 1600 and 1800, with about 3 million dying on the way.
Middle Passage 1 1 2 3 El Mino Slave Castle Ghana Doorway of no return
Arrival in America Native Americans were originally enslaved by the Europeans, but after many died from diseases, they began importing African slaves who were resistant to European diseases. The first African slaves arrived in America on a Portuguese ship at Jamestown, VA in 1609. Prior to arrival in America slaves were usually fed better in order to make them look healthy. Slaves were auctioned off to plantation owners and businessmen from the city and performed a variety of tasks. Slave Auction
Slave Codes Slave codes were laws meant to control slaves. These codes forbid slaves from learning to read, owning firearms, or marrying a white person. The penalty a slave faced for learning to read was having a thumb cut off! These laws also made the children born to slaves automatically slaves for life (generational slavery). The ends of a whip were tipped with iron barbs This slave collar was equipped with bells. A slave yolk was used to bind two slaves together. Captured African slave Slave tags, similar to dog tags were worn by slaves.
Slaves Resisted!! Slaves didn’t just sit back and accept a life of servitude Slaves resisted in a number of ways including; escaping, slowing down on the job, intentionally doing a job wrong or participating in violent rebellion. One of the most famous slave revolts occurred in Virginia. A slave named Nat Turner led 70 other slaves in the killing of 55 white men, women and children. Turner and his men were later captured and hung. Slaves also resisted by singing spirituals, or religious folk songs that often contained coded messages. Slave spirituals led to the creation of both jazz and the blues. Southern account of Turner’s rebellion. Nat Turner Reward Poster
The Underground Railroad The Underground Railroad was a large network of people who helped fugitive slaves escape to the North and to Canada. It is estimated that up to 100,000 slaves escaped the South with the help of “conductors”, or guides. The most famous of these guides was Harriet Tubman. Slaves escaping North would use a series of “stations”, or safe houses to rest in along the route. The paths that slaves traveled towards the North were known as “tracks”. While slavery was outlawed in the North, escaping slaves were not truly free until they reached Canada. This quilt shows the track pattern which told escaped slaves that this was a “station”, or safe place. Lawn Jockeys were used to mark stations on the underground railroad. Harriet Tubman
Bethel AME Church Greenwich Township Holden House Jersey City Peter Mott House Lawnside Croft Farm Cherry Hill Wheatley’s Burlington * In 1745 there were about 4,000 slaves in New Jersey, mostly in the southern part of the state.
The Abolition of Slavery From 1861-1865 Americans in the North and South fought the Civil War over the issue of slavery. A total of more than 600,000 people on both sides died. In January of 1863, President Lincoln made clear that he sought to end the institution of slavery when he signed the Emancipation Proclamation. After the war, the thirteenth amendment to the Constitution was added ending slavery in the U.S. Slavery had been abolished in New Jersey since 1804. Emancipation Proclamation Lee surrendering to Grant