Presentation on theme: "Origins Conflicts and competition not resolved by WW I Imperialism Rampant nationalism WW I and the Treaty of Versailles – the new problems and."— Presentation transcript:
Origins Conflicts and competition not resolved by WW I Imperialism Rampant nationalism WW I and the Treaty of Versailles – the new problems and resentment created Especially political instability and new “isms” The Great Depression
The Great Depression Caused hardship all over the world Failure of trade and businesses, unemployment, hunger, and inflation Produced social and political unrest and conflicts People wanted something or someone to blame New “isms” emerged
Communism & the Soviet Union After the 1917 Revolution, the Bolsheviks managed to seize power – survived a civil war. Created a “communist” government. Lenin initially governed moderately, accommodating many traditional elements of Russian society – small business and peasant landowners When Lenin died in 1924, Josef Stalin pushed and plotted his way to power.
By the early 1930s, Stalin had established a brutal totalitarian government. State ownership of all property State directed industry State directed agriculture Seized all land and other property – including farms
Josef Stalin Forced creation of collective farms Millions killed to sent to prison camps in Siberia for resisting Millions died in a famine that followed the failure of Soviet agriculture Stalin diverted food to foreign sales to finance industrialization Rapid industrialization – heavy industry Purged the Communist Party and the military Killing millions more Relied on his Secret Police to keep control
Fascism in Italy Unemployment and social unrest followed the end of World War I Labor strikes, political conflicts with Communists, Socialists, anarchists, etc. Benito Mussolini took advantage – using organized gangs of unemployed, former soldiers to create conflict and intimidate political rivals and all of Italian society Blackshirts When Mussolini and his followers threaten to march on Rome, Mussolini is invited by the king to form a government to deal with Italy’s economic and political problems
Fascism & Italy Employs an extreme nationalism to secure political support Opposed to both communism and democracy No respect for the concept of individual liberty Promoted militarism and the use of violence to gain objectives. State directed economy – with some success industrializing and creating public works program.
National Socialism and Germany The economic problems that followed from the Great Depression gave Hitler and the National Socialists (Nazis) an opening to gain political control. Feuding among the other political parties of Germany left the parliament unable to govern or manage the economy. Hitler blamed Jews for Germany’s problems Promised to restore German economy and power 1932 the National Socialists gained a plurality of seats in the parliament (Reichstag) Hitler invited to form a government and become Prime Minister – or Chancellor
Hitler & Germany Once Hitler became Chancellor, he dissolved the democratic government and imposed a totalitarian government. Manipulated society and the political life with gangs of a party militia (Brownshirts) and a secret police Manipulated society with sophisticated propaganda Purged his own party of potential rivals with his personal bodyguard, the SS
National Socialism / Nazism Extreme nationalism Racism – concept of “Aryan” racial superiority Right to dominate inferior peoples & nations Stripped “inferiors” of property and sent them to concentration camps Jews, gypsies, handicapped, homosexuals, Slavs Single party government / centralized government Opposed to communism and democracy Control by violence and secret police – eliminate political opposition Civil liberties abolished
National Socialism / Nazism Re-Militarized Germany Territorial expansion for Germans – to create living room for the “Aryan” race Organized and controlled every element of society Strong economic development with state directed public works Autobahn system became the envy of many nations Purged Jews from every area of public and private life – Nuremburg Laws Concentration camps for Jews and other “undesirables”
Japan & Militarism The effects of the Great Depression weakened the influence of the civilian government Japanese dissatisfied with treatment at the end of World War I – not recognized as a “Great Power” Military officers tried to overturn the civilian government in early 1930s Military and passionate nationalists emerged as the dominant political power
Japanese Emperor and Military Leaders Emperor Hirohito (1926-1989) 124 th Emperor General Hideki Tojo Prime Minister (Oct 1941- July 1944)
Imperial Japan Military control of government Military-industrial cooperation Culture emphasized obedience to the Emperor and the state Extreme nationalism – tinged with racial or ethnic superiority claims Claimed the right to expansion for living room - to supply raw materials for the Empire Anti-European
Military Aggression – and a weak response In 1931, Japan seizes a part of China. In 1932, Japan invades and occupies Manchuria The League of Nations demands that Japan withdraw from Manchuria Japan refuses – and withdraws from the League 1937, Japan creates a pretext for a full scale war with China Japan ignores objections from the League, the US and from European nations
Germany Rearms In 1933 Germany withdrew from the League of Nations 1935, the League of Nations protests Germany’s creation of an air force, expansion of the Army, and new units of tanks Germany ignores the League –
Avoid War! At any cost? In 1935, Italy invades Ethiopia. Ethiopia appealed to the League of Nations – which did nothing. Fascism was growing in Spain – with a civil war between Republicans and Nationalists Republicans protest German and Italian military support for the fascist Nationalists led by Franco The League of Nations did nothing
German Expansion – and European “Appeasement” 1936 the German Army reoccupies the Rhineland The League objects, but does nothing France is paralyzed by internal political conflicts – and does nothing 1938: Austria chooses a fascist government and, then, unifies with Germany – the “Anschluss” 1938: Hitler creates a myth of German persecution in the Sudetenland of Czechoslovakia – demands association with Germany
The Munich Pact & Appeasement Great Britain and France meet with Hitler in Munich in September 1938 Desperate to avoid war, Great Britain and France accept Hitler’s demands – wanting to believe this land grab will be his last PM Chamberlain reports that the Munich Pact has achieved “Peace in our time” Hitler takes the Sudetenland in 1938 Grabs the rest of Czechoslovakia in early 1939
Drawing a line – too late After the destruction of Czechoslovakia, France and Great Britain tell Hitler “No More” Too late! 1939: Creating another myth of German persecution – this time in a formerly German area of Poland – Hitler demands the return of formerly German territory France and Great Britain warn of war if Germany invades Poland
Double Click to Animate a Map of German Expansion
The Price of Appeasement September 1, 1939: Germany invades Poland France and Great Britain declare war – but cannot help Poland A “sitting war” or “phony war” follows – France and Britain mobilize, but there is no fighting April 1940: German forces quickly overrun Denmark and Norway May 1940: Germany attacked Holland, Belgium, and France Holland, Belgium and France are quickly defeated – France surrendering on June 22, 1940
US Neutrality 1935, Congress passes the Neutrality Act US refused to cooperate with the League to stop the Italian invasion of Ethiopia – it would not stop selling oil to Italy 1936 & 1937: Congress passes additional acts of neutrality Strongly supported by US public – eager to avoid another European war Germany wants to keep the US neutral and Britain isolated To deter the US, Germany entered into a treaty with Japan – both nations pledging to go to war against any new belligerent. The treaty is a direct threat to the US: if it aids Britain against Germany, the US will have to fight a war on two fronts – in Europe and in the Pacific.
US inches away from Neutrality in Europe After Germany attacked Poland in 1939 and France, Belgium and Holland in 1940, Americans started leaning way from strict neutrality 1939: Congress repealed provisions of the Neutrality Act prohibiting sale of weapons, etc Permits Britain to purchase war supplies “cash and carry” March 1940: Congress created a “lend-lease” program to make it easier to supply Great Britain December 1940: Roosevelt pledges the US will be the “arsenal for democracy” June 1941: Congress extended the lend-lease program to the Soviet Union
US inches away from neutrality in the Pacific 1940: US extended the lend-lease program to supply China in its fight against Japan 1940: US freezes all Japanese assets in US banks 1940: in response to Japan’s seizure of Dutch and French colonies (after France and Holland are defeated by Germany) the US stops all deliveries of airplane parts and aviation gas to Japan July 1941: US stopped all sale of oil to Japan
US Prepares for War In 1939, the United States had only a skeleton, poorly equipped military: 174,000 in the Army; 126,400 in the Navy; 26,000 in the Army Air Corps; 19,700 in the Marine Corps; Mostly second-class, out-of-date airplanes Somewhat better equipped Navy Congress created the first peace-time draft in September, 1940.
The Plunge to War Sunday morning, December 7 1941: Japan launches a surprise attack on the US naval base at Pearl Harbor in the Hawaiian Islands. Destroys or cripples nearly all of the US fleet in the Pacific Sinks or damages 18 major ships and destroys 300+ aircraft Misses the main target, the US aircraft carriers that are out of harbor on a practice exercise Germany declares war on the US
Europe First Double Click to Animate a Map of the War in Europe
Pushing Japan Back Double Click to Animate a Map of the Campaign of the Pacific to Iwo Jima
Penultimate Battle - Okinawa Japanese “homeland” Brutal, costly battle Considered by many, an indicator of what the Allies would face in an invasion of Japan
Okinawa About 460 square miles – an area 20 by 23 miles Defended by 117,000 Japanese Troops Largest invasion fleet in history 183,000 American troops
Harsh Realities Battle of 83 days Japanese unyielding defense Suicidal 95,000 Japanese soldiers killed 145,000 Okinawa civilians US causalities 12,000 killed (immediate) 60,000 wounded
Japan Bombed into Shambles B 29s bombed nearly every target of significance in Japan Reduced most cities to rubble – including Tokyo
The Administration Changes April 12, 1945 – 3 months into his 4 th term of office, FDR dies Harry S. Truman becomes the 33 rd American President VP only 3 months
Hiroshima and Nagasaki Truman’s Tough Decision – Justified?
Post-War Division of Europe Creating a frame for the Cold War, the Allies divide Germany – and Berlin - into zones of occupation and control. Double Click to animate a map of the partition of Germany