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Origins  Conflicts and competition not resolved by WW I  Imperialism  Rampant nationalism  WW I and the Treaty of Versailles – the new problems and.

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Presentation on theme: "Origins  Conflicts and competition not resolved by WW I  Imperialism  Rampant nationalism  WW I and the Treaty of Versailles – the new problems and."— Presentation transcript:


2 Origins  Conflicts and competition not resolved by WW I  Imperialism  Rampant nationalism  WW I and the Treaty of Versailles – the new problems and resentment created  Especially political instability and new “isms”  The Great Depression

3 The Great Depression  Caused hardship all over the world  Failure of trade and businesses, unemployment, hunger, and inflation  Produced social and political unrest and conflicts  People wanted something or someone to blame  New “isms” emerged

4 Communism & the Soviet Union  After the 1917 Revolution, the Bolsheviks managed to seize power – survived a civil war.  Created a “communist” government.  Lenin initially governed moderately, accommodating many traditional elements of Russian society – small business and peasant landowners  When Lenin died in 1924, Josef Stalin pushed and plotted his way to power.

5 Josef Stalin

6  By the early 1930s, Stalin had established a brutal totalitarian government.  State ownership of all property  State directed industry  State directed agriculture  Seized all land and other property – including farms

7 Josef Stalin  Forced creation of collective farms  Millions killed to sent to prison camps in Siberia for resisting  Millions died in a famine that followed the failure of Soviet agriculture  Stalin diverted food to foreign sales to finance industrialization  Rapid industrialization – heavy industry  Purged the Communist Party and the military  Killing millions more  Relied on his Secret Police to keep control

8 Fascism in Italy  Unemployment and social unrest followed the end of World War I  Labor strikes, political conflicts with Communists, Socialists, anarchists, etc.  Benito Mussolini took advantage – using organized gangs of unemployed, former soldiers to create conflict and intimidate political rivals and all of Italian society  Blackshirts  When Mussolini and his followers threaten to march on Rome, Mussolini is invited by the king to form a government to deal with Italy’s economic and political problems

9 Benito Mussolini Il Duce

10 Fascism & Italy  Employs an extreme nationalism to secure political support  Opposed to both communism and democracy  No respect for the concept of individual liberty  Promoted militarism and the use of violence to gain objectives.  State directed economy – with some success industrializing and creating public works program.

11 National Socialism and Germany  The economic problems that followed from the Great Depression gave Hitler and the National Socialists (Nazis) an opening to gain political control.  Feuding among the other political parties of Germany left the parliament unable to govern or manage the economy.  Hitler blamed Jews for Germany’s problems  Promised to restore German economy and power  1932 the National Socialists gained a plurality of seats in the parliament (Reichstag)  Hitler invited to form a government and become Prime Minister – or Chancellor

12 Adolf Hitler der Fuhrer

13 Hitler & Germany  Once Hitler became Chancellor, he dissolved the democratic government and imposed a totalitarian government.  Manipulated society and the political life with gangs of a party militia (Brownshirts) and a secret police  Manipulated society with sophisticated propaganda  Purged his own party of potential rivals with his personal bodyguard, the SS

14 National Socialism / Nazism  Extreme nationalism  Racism – concept of “Aryan” racial superiority  Right to dominate inferior peoples & nations  Stripped “inferiors” of property and sent them to concentration camps  Jews, gypsies, handicapped, homosexuals, Slavs  Single party government / centralized government  Opposed to communism and democracy  Control by violence and secret police – eliminate political opposition  Civil liberties abolished

15 National Socialism / Nazism  Re-Militarized Germany  Territorial expansion for Germans – to create living room for the “Aryan” race  Organized and controlled every element of society  Strong economic development with state directed public works  Autobahn system became the envy of many nations  Purged Jews from every area of public and private life – Nuremburg Laws  Concentration camps for Jews and other “undesirables”

16 Japan & Militarism  The effects of the Great Depression weakened the influence of the civilian government  Japanese dissatisfied with treatment at the end of World War I – not recognized as a “Great Power”  Military officers tried to overturn the civilian government in early 1930s  Military and passionate nationalists emerged as the dominant political power

17 Japanese Emperor and Military Leaders Emperor Hirohito (1926-1989) 124 th Emperor General Hideki Tojo Prime Minister (Oct 1941- July 1944)

18 Imperial Japan  Military control of government  Military-industrial cooperation  Culture emphasized obedience to the Emperor and the state  Extreme nationalism – tinged with racial or ethnic superiority claims  Claimed the right to expansion for living room - to supply raw materials for the Empire  Anti-European

19 Military Aggression – and a weak response  In 1931, Japan seizes a part of China.  In 1932, Japan invades and occupies Manchuria  The League of Nations demands that Japan withdraw from Manchuria  Japan refuses – and withdraws from the League  1937, Japan creates a pretext for a full scale war with China  Japan ignores objections from the League, the US and from European nations


21 Germany Rearms  In 1933 Germany withdrew from the League of Nations  1935, the League of Nations protests Germany’s creation of an air force, expansion of the Army, and new units of tanks  Germany ignores the League –

22 Avoid War! At any cost?  In 1935, Italy invades Ethiopia.  Ethiopia appealed to the League of Nations – which did nothing.  Fascism was growing in Spain – with a civil war between Republicans and Nationalists  Republicans protest German and Italian military support for the fascist Nationalists led by Franco  The League of Nations did nothing

23 German Expansion – and European “Appeasement”  1936 the German Army reoccupies the Rhineland  The League objects, but does nothing  France is paralyzed by internal political conflicts – and does nothing  1938: Austria chooses a fascist government and, then, unifies with Germany – the “Anschluss”  1938: Hitler creates a myth of German persecution in the Sudetenland of Czechoslovakia – demands association with Germany

24 The Munich Pact & Appeasement  Great Britain and France meet with Hitler in Munich in September 1938  Desperate to avoid war, Great Britain and France accept Hitler’s demands – wanting to believe this land grab will be his last  PM Chamberlain reports that the Munich Pact has achieved “Peace in our time”  Hitler takes the Sudetenland in 1938  Grabs the rest of Czechoslovakia in early 1939

25 Drawing a line – too late  After the destruction of Czechoslovakia, France and Great Britain tell Hitler “No More”  Too late!  1939: Creating another myth of German persecution – this time in a formerly German area of Poland – Hitler demands the return of formerly German territory  France and Great Britain warn of war if Germany invades Poland

26 Double Click to Animate a Map of German Expansion

27 The Price of Appeasement  September 1, 1939: Germany invades Poland  France and Great Britain declare war – but cannot help Poland  A “sitting war” or “phony war” follows – France and Britain mobilize, but there is no fighting  April 1940: German forces quickly overrun Denmark and Norway  May 1940: Germany attacked Holland, Belgium, and France  Holland, Belgium and France are quickly defeated – France surrendering on June 22, 1940

28 The Battle of Britain – the London Blitz

29 “Never Have So Many Owed So Much to So Few”

30 Great Britain stood alone to face Germany

31 US Neutrality  1935, Congress passes the Neutrality Act  US refused to cooperate with the League to stop the Italian invasion of Ethiopia – it would not stop selling oil to Italy  1936 & 1937: Congress passes additional acts of neutrality  Strongly supported by US public – eager to avoid another European war  Germany wants to keep the US neutral and Britain isolated  To deter the US, Germany entered into a treaty with Japan – both nations pledging to go to war against any new belligerent.  The treaty is a direct threat to the US: if it aids Britain against Germany, the US will have to fight a war on two fronts – in Europe and in the Pacific.

32 US inches away from Neutrality in Europe  After Germany attacked Poland in 1939 and France, Belgium and Holland in 1940, Americans started leaning way from strict neutrality  1939: Congress repealed provisions of the Neutrality Act prohibiting sale of weapons, etc  Permits Britain to purchase war supplies “cash and carry”  March 1940: Congress created a “lend-lease” program to make it easier to supply Great Britain  December 1940: Roosevelt pledges the US will be the “arsenal for democracy”  June 1941: Congress extended the lend-lease program to the Soviet Union

33 US inches away from neutrality in the Pacific  1940: US extended the lend-lease program to supply China in its fight against Japan  1940: US freezes all Japanese assets in US banks  1940: in response to Japan’s seizure of Dutch and French colonies (after France and Holland are defeated by Germany) the US stops all deliveries of airplane parts and aviation gas to Japan  July 1941: US stopped all sale of oil to Japan

34 US Prepares for War  In 1939, the United States had only a skeleton, poorly equipped military:  174,000 in the Army;  126,400 in the Navy;  26,000 in the Army Air Corps;  19,700 in the Marine Corps;  Mostly second-class, out-of-date airplanes  Somewhat better equipped Navy  Congress created the first peace-time draft in September, 1940.

35 The Plunge to War  Sunday morning, December 7 1941: Japan launches a surprise attack on the US naval base at Pearl Harbor in the Hawaiian Islands.  Destroys or cripples nearly all of the US fleet in the Pacific  Sinks or damages 18 major ships and destroys 300+ aircraft  Misses the main target, the US aircraft carriers that are out of harbor on a practice exercise  Germany declares war on the US

36 Hawaiian Islands

37 Pearl Harbor



40 A Declaration of War

41 Europe First Double Click to Animate a Map of the War in Europe

42 Pushing Japan Back Double Click to Animate a Map of the Campaign of the Pacific to Iwo Jima

43 Penultimate Battle - Okinawa  Japanese “homeland”  Brutal, costly battle  Considered by many, an indicator of what the Allies would face in an invasion of Japan

44 Okinawa  About 460 square miles – an area 20 by 23 miles  Defended by 117,000 Japanese Troops  Largest invasion fleet in history  183,000 American troops

45 Harsh Realities  Battle of 83 days  Japanese unyielding defense  Suicidal  95,000 Japanese soldiers killed  145,000 Okinawa civilians  US causalities  12,000 killed (immediate)  60,000 wounded

46 Japan Bombed into Shambles  B 29s bombed nearly every target of significance in Japan  Reduced most cities to rubble – including Tokyo

47 The Administration Changes  April 12, 1945 – 3 months into his 4 th term of office, FDR dies  Harry S. Truman becomes the 33 rd American President  VP only 3 months

48 Hiroshima and Nagasaki Truman’s Tough Decision – Justified?

49 Post-War Division of Europe  Creating a frame for the Cold War, the Allies divide Germany – and Berlin - into zones of occupation and control. Double Click to animate a map of the partition of Germany

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